Chapter 21 world war 1 notes (revised December 2013)


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  • Chapter 21 world war 1 notes (revised December 2013)

    1. 1. Chapter 21 World War 1
    2. 2. The MAIN Causes of World War 1    Woodrow Wilson fully intended to keep America out of foreign affairs. Wants to build America from the inside-out, not go poking our nose in other people’s business. Other forces were working against him though…
    3. 3. The MAIN Causes of World War 1: Militarism   German Army grows from 400,000 to 700,000 soldiers from 1870 to 1910 Germany and Great Britain start producing the Dreadnought
    4. 4. The MAIN Causes of World War 1: Alliances    After a great deal of fighting and mistrust in the 1800’s The Triple Alliance was formed with Germany, Italy, and Austro-Hungary all having each other’s back. Scares the countries around them because alliances could lead to more imperialism. So right…
    5. 5. The MAIN Causes of World War 1: Alliances  Three other countries in Europe will also form an alliance called the Triple Entente, formed between Great Britain, Russia, and France. • This is supposed to be a solely defensive alliance – If one country gets attacked, the others will back them up!   Not quite as concrete as the Triple Alliance, but same concept. See how alliances are playing a part?
    6. 6. The Triple Entente
    7. 7. The MAIN Causes of World War 1: Nationalism     Nationalism or excessive pride for one’s country is going to play a major influence in World War 1. This is most evident in the Balkan Region, where Serbia wanted to continue it’s growth as a nation. Austro-Hungary says: “Bad Idea” Russia says: “Go Ahead!”
    8. 8. The Spark that starts WW1    The Black Hand, Serbian Nationalists will attempt to send Austro-Hungary a message. They will send BANG! Gavrilo Prinzip, to assassinate the Archduke of Austro-Hungary. They succeed and kill Franz Ferdinand the future King of the Austro-Hungary
    9. 9. The Spark that starts WW1       Serbia’s actions and handling of the assassination is going to get basically everyone in Europe upset somehow. Austro-Hungary vs. Serbia Russia vs. Austro-Hungary Germany vs. Russia Germany vs. France Great Britain vs. Germany • Think that’s confusing…throw in about 26 other countries
    10. 10. Alliances Change    The Triple Entente will become The Allied Powers as Italy switches sides and joins Great Britain, Russia, and France Because they are upset at Germany, Italy will switch. The Triple Alliance becomes the Central Powers as Germany, Austro-Hungary, The Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria join together
    11. 11. Approximate Glimpse of Alliances
    12. 12. America’s Role   America is going to maintain a stance of Neutrality, meaning that they aren’t going to support one side of the war effort or another Wilson asks everyone to stay neutral, but doesn’t enforce businesses to stay out…big mistake.
    13. 13. The British Blockade   They will use Propaganda or extremely influential media designed to sway one’s opinion. This will do a good job of pushing America towards the war.
    14. 14. The British Blockade   The British decide that the best way to beat the Germans is to starve them. They will set up a Blockade in the North Sea, preventing ships from delivering supplies to Germany.
    15. 15. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare   Germans begin to grow desperate and hungry. They then send out U-Boats or German Submarines, intended to attack British Dreadnoughts and other British vessels
    16. 16. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare   Germany will declare unrestricted submarine warfare…KILL ANYTHING!!! The U.S. says this isn’t fair to passenger ships.
    17. 17. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare    The Germans will then sink the Lusitania a British ocean liner, killing 1,200 passengers – 128 Americans. Americans get very upset, but Wilson keeps us out, and Germany apologizes. The Germans will sink another ship The Sussex, this time injuring Americans
    18. 18. The Lusitania Coin
    19. 19. Lusitania Coin pt. 2
    20. 20. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare   German and American diplomats will meet to sign the Sussex Pledge declaring that if Germany sank another ship without fair warning the United States would enter the war against them. This is essentially just another stall attempt for Germany, and actually gets Wilson re-elected because he keeps America out of war.
    21. 21. America Gets into the War  The final blow occurs in January 1917, as America intercepts the Zimmerman Telegram promising to help Mexico regain territory if they will attack America.
    22. 22. America Gets into the War   Germans didn’t think we could mobilize fast enough, and they could do what they wanted. They sink 6 American ships in February and March 1917…The War is On
    23. 23. The Home Front Chapter 21 Section 2
    24. 24. The Draft   The U.S. navy was well-built, but the Army was still in shambles. To correct this problem the government looked to Conscription or drafting citizens from civilian life to build a country’s military.
    25. 25.  The Draft To be fair they would create the Selective Service System in which all men fill out a registration, and were randomly selected for service in either the navy or army.
    26. 26. The Draft    24 Million Americans will be registered; 4 Million will be used Many Americans will join the war in hopes of high adventure, and great stories. People volunteered without realizing…THIS IS A WAR.
    27. 27. How does this image appeal to citizens?
    28. 28. African-American and Women’s Roles  380,000 of African Americans would volunteer, or be conscripted into service, and serve brilliantly in the war. • To many African American activists they saw this as a way to prove themselves to whites and earn civil rights  Women will also do their part and volunteer, mainly in the Army Nursing Corps.
    29. 29. Many Would Join the Red Cross
    30. 30. Building Necessary Goods  The War Industries Board will be responsible for switching major industries and their factories over from consumer production to production of materials for war.
    31. 31. Soldiers Need Food  President Wilson will approve taking food from the citizenry and providing it to the military. • Problem?  Herbert Hoover Head of the Food Administration, will ask Americans to give up certain products on select days.
    32. 32. Conservation Plays a Big Role
    33. 33. Help By Doing Your Part
    34. 34. Making Do  Americans will be asked to plant Victory Gardens, where families plant fruit and veggies to feed themselves instead of buying these items at the store • This will help save the food farmers are growing for use by the soldiers.
    35. 35. Turn Back the Clocks!  This is also where we begin Daylight Savings Time in an attempt to cut back on the number of hours nonessential factories are open • This would help save coal and other resources needed to give factories heat and electricity
    36. 36. Getting To Work  The National War Labor Board would be established to make sure unions don’t go on strike during the war.
    37. 37. Filling the Shoes   Women are often going to take jobs in industries that were maledominated, they are not guaranteed to have these after war Minorities, including African Americans and Mexican Americans begin to migrate North, to better opportunities in factory jobs.
    38. 38. Easy Money  In an attempt at making money for the war the government would begin selling Liberty or Victory Bonds, in essence People would give the money to the government, and later the government would pay them back money with interest. • For instance: I give the government $25 now, they fight the war, and in 10 years my $25 becomes $50 when the government pays me back.
    39. 39. Buy War Bonds!!!
    40. 40. Do Your Part To Get Them Back!
    41. 41. Selling the War   The Committee on Public Information will be assigned the task of getting people to support the war. Some ways this is achieved is through speeches, motion pictures, songs, etc. • Does it Work?
    42. 42. Lady Liberty!!!
    43. 43. Seriously…How cool does that look?
    44. 44. What is a Hun? What does this make him look like?
    45. 45. 1917 vs. 1776…coincidence?
    46. 46. Silencing the Haters    The Sedition Act will make it illegal for people to speak out against the war. To go further phones will be tapped as well. We will also begin eating Liberty Cabbage, Salisbury Steak, etc. • See a pattern?
    47. 47. What does America think?
    48. 48. A Bloody Conflict
    49. 49. The Western Front   The Germans had developed the Schlieffen Plan, an aggressive strategy that tried to destroy France on the Western Front first, then change directions and fight Russia on the Eastern Front. It fails… • • • Developed in 1870 and wrong changes were made French have strong counter attack Russia mobilizes faster than expected
    50. 50. The Western Front     British and French forces march to stop the Germany advancement To avoid losing ground in France, the Germans begin to dig trenches. Unable to pass through the trenches, the British and French dig their own trenches. As a result, the Western Front is created.
    51. 51. Trench Warfare    The trenches are dirty, rat-infested, cold, and dangerous. World War 1 Brutality = New Technology + Antiquated Tactics Trenches will be separated by a No Man’s Land or the area directly between trenches, most casualties will occur in this area.
    52. 52. The Eastern Front   Combatants: Russia vs. Germany and Austria-Hungary Advancements • Russia mobilizes troops to attack Germany after Germany attacks France • Germany responds with a counter offensive • This confrontation creates the Eastern Front
    53. 53. The Russian Revolution  Russian focus on the war will decrease quickly in 1917 when the March Revolution breaks out! • February 1917  Czar Nicholas II loses power; abdicates • Ineffective provisional government loses control • October 1917  Communists take over power
    54. 54. The Russian Revolution  The October Revolution: Ahh, Bolshevik! • The Bolsheviks will be a Communist political party vying for power over the Russian government. • Vladimir Lenin will be the leader of this party, and the man responsible for setting up a communist themed government.
    55. 55. The Russian Revolution  After the Bolsheviks take power, they will quickly look to end the war by signing the Treaty of BrestLitovsk giving up a great deal of Russian land and recalling all Russian forces, giving the Eastern Front to Germany.
    56. 56. The Western Front    Germany can now focus all of their attention on the Western Front Their goal is to launch a massive offensive, take Paris, and then turn their attention to England and the Americans. What’s the problem with this plan?
    57. 57. Americans in the War  We will send goods and troops over in a Convoy System designed to offer protection to merchant ships by providing a naval escort.
    58. 58. Americans in the War The Battle of the Argonne Forest   French and American stop the Germans, and begin a counteroffensive Starts in late September, 1918, and through October, they begin to win the war, as the Germans fell.
    59. 59. Americans in the War Battle of Belleau Battle of Belleau Wood •June 1918 •First Major action for American troops, mainly Marines •Germans had over 200 Machine Guns pointed directly at Allies •The Marines would be asked to ‘sweep the trenches’ •Every time they cleared the trenches, more Germans showed up! •Took 6 tries before retreat
    60. 60. Americans in the War Battle of Saint-Mihiel •1st Major American battle offensive causes the Germans to retreat •Germans end up retreating •We can’t follow because the Allies are too thin •We capture a ton of Germans, and both sides suffer about 7000 casualties •General Foch asks us to join in the MeuseArgonne Offensive SaintMihie l *
    61. 61. Americans in the War Meuse-Argonne Offensive •Largest American involved offensive •Involves 3 Waves •1st – Successful Attack on German Lines •2nd – Fresh Troops, another surge •Lost Battallion •Alvin York •3rd – Capture of objectives…Germans Surrender!!! •Allied Casualties 180,000 •C.P. Casualties ~100,000 •Allies end up winning by overwhelming Germans with fresh troops and more supplies!
    62. 62. The End   All across Europe, support for the war will start dwindling; AustriaHungary will fall apart, the Turks give up, and Germany will ask the emperor to back down. The Armistice or agreement to stop the fighting will be signed at 11:00 a.m. on November 11, 1918
    63. 63. Around the World: The Italian Front  Italy broke its alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary • Originially supposed to be a Defensive alliance • The Allies promise them more land if they join up!  Italy wanted to move quickly and surprise Austria- Hungary • Take several strategic cities right away.  Similar to the Western Front, trench warfare bogged down the Italians’ movement.
    64. 64. Around the World: The Italian Front  Italy is only ever able to advance a small amount
    65. 65. Around the World: Turkey  The Gallipoli Peninsula is located in the south part of Turkey connected to Europe.
    66. 66. Around the World: Turkey     In 1915, the allied commanders decided to try to attack Germany by attacking her ally, Turkey. Allied soldiers, mainly from Australia and New Zealand, were sent to fight British ships tried to force a way through the Dardanelles. The entire mission was a failure.
    67. 67. But Mr. Williams, we only talked about Europe…Indian Involvement! African Campaigns! The Middle East Campaign Areas of Conflict G.B. and the Arabs vs. Outside of Europe The Ottoman’s World Territories Before the War!
    68. 68. Shaping a (Lasting?) Peace Section 4
    69. 69. The 14 Point Plan   Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Point Plan will be designed to bring a quick end to the war, and set up a lasting peace afterwards The League of Nations will be created with the 14th and most important point, creating a governing body to preserve peace in Europe
    70. 70. The Treaty of Versailles   The Big Four: Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando will meet to discuss the treaty. The Treaty of Versailles will be signed using Wilson’s blue print but offering much harsher repercussions for Germany.
    71. 71. The Treaty of Versailles  The Treaty will strip Germany almost completely of all military power, production power, land, and demand that they pay Reparations, or money for war damages back to the Allies. • Included in their losses are overseas territories, parts of Poland, and for a number of reasons the Alsace-Lorraine area…explain Williams, explain.
    72. 72. The Treaty of Versailles   All the Empires will be broken up and barred for negotiating politically. The Balkans will be given their wishes of national distinction. • Means each ethnic region will be given it’s own country based on population…except Czechoslovokia and Yugoslavia.  Major focus on division of nations after WW1 is on ETHNICITY!!! (Keep people of the same culture together!
    73. 73. DISASTER!!!   Despite Wilson’s involvement, the U.S. Congress will not be impressed with the treaty. The United States will not join the League of Nations • Wilson’s biggest disappointment!
    74. 74. World War 1 Casualties Country Mobilized K.I.A. Tot. Cas. Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 9,150,000 Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 7,142,558 British 8,904,467 908,371 3,190,235 French 8,410,000 1,357,800 6,160,800 AustriaHungary Italy 7,800,000 1,200,000 7,020,000 5,615,000 650,000 2,197,000 U.S. 4,355,000 126,000 364,800 Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 975,000 Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 266,919 •Total Military deaths from war: 10 million •Total Civilian deaths from war: 9 million
    75. 75. Don’t forget about the effects on the land and cities!!!
    76. 76. Other World Events during WW1  Adding to all the frustrations is the Spanish Flu! • Strain starts at Army base in Kansas • In many cases, death came in days! • In just over a year of infections, the death toll from this strain is over 50 million worldwide!!! • Compare that with the death toll from the war • How would countries respond?
    77. 77. Infirmary at Fort Riley, KS
    78. 78. Dealing With the Flu
    79. 79. Other World Events during WW1    After the war ends, society slowly begins to return back to normal. People no longer have to save for the war effort, and can buy what they want. Inflation will occur where businesses will raise the prices on goods in high demand.
    80. 80. Other World Events during WW1   This rise in inflation means people have a higher Cost of Living, or the amount of money it takes to buy the basics in our lives. This is going to lead to problems, in that unions will again start striking to get back their higher pays, so they can stay afloat in the economy.
    81. 81. Other World Events during WW1   A General Strike occurs when workers from different industries in a particular location all decide to strike at once. In the case of Seattle it crippled the city, and began to worry business owners in cities all across America… European radicals also used this technique.
    82. 82. Other World Events during WW1    Will set a precedent for public safety work. 75% of police force goes on strike, riots and chaos break out. Governor Calvin Coolidge refuses to let the city re-hire those strikers… they will instead hire a whole new police force.
    83. 83.  Other World Events during WW1 350,000 Steelworkers strike across the 350,000 Steelworkers strike across the country. • Higher wages • 8 hour work day • Union Recognition   Elbert H. Gary the head of the U.S. Steel Corporation will back these strikes down by refusing to negotiate. This strike will be ineffective, and unions will lose a great deal of their power, as they are portrayed as political radicals.
    84. 84. Big Steel Strike Announcement
    85. 85. Other World Events during WW1    The most glaring example comes in Chicago when riots break out…all from a couple of people throwing stones at each other. Young boy drowns, both sides erupt. Aren’t happy until many are dead.
    86. 86. Other World Events during WW1   One of the goals of Marx and Engels was to create a world-wide Communist utopia; This scares a lot of people. Soviets will set up the Communist International which works to organize all Communist parties and individuals world wide.
    87. 87. Other World Events during WW1   The onset of Communism will lead to The Red Scare, or widespread panic over the possibility of a Communist overthrow. Many people believed that the Communists would stop at nothing to spread their message, even going as far as to send bomb packages in the mail to destroy democracy.
    88. 88. Other World Events during WW1  A. Mitchell Palmer was the U.S. Attorney General, his home was the recipient of one of these mail bombs, he will dedicate the rest of his career to destroying the Communists.
    89. 89. A New Normalcy.   America had seen enough progress after the war, and now wanted to go back to being just plain old America. For this reason, voters will select politicians that will strive to create an environment which will focus on America in the here and now, and continued prosperity.