2. The MAIN Causes
of World War 1
Woodrow Wilson fully intended to
keep America out of foreign affairs.
Wants to build America from the
inside-out, not go poking our nose in
other people’s business.
Other forces were working against
3. The MAIN Causes
of World War 1:
German Army grows
from 400,000 to
from 1870 to 1910
Germany and Great
4. The MAIN Causes
of World War 1: Alliances
After a great deal of fighting and
mistrust in the 1800’s The Triple
Alliance was formed with Germany,
Italy, and Austro-Hungary all having
each other’s back.
Scares the countries
could lead to
5. The MAIN Causes
of World War 1: Alliances
Three other countries in Europe will
also form an alliance called the
Triple Entente, formed between
Great Britain, Russia, and France.
• This is supposed to be a solely defensive
alliance – If one country gets attacked,
the others will back them up!
Not quite as concrete as the Triple
Alliance, but same concept.
See how alliances are playing a part?
6. The Triple Entente
7. The MAIN Causes
of World War 1: Nationalism
Nationalism or excessive pride for
one’s country is going to play a
major influence in World War 1.
This is most evident in the Balkan
Region, where Serbia wanted to
continue it’s growth as a nation.
Austro-Hungary says: “Bad Idea”
Russia says: “Go Ahead!”
8. The Spark that starts WW1
The Black Hand, Serbian Nationalists
will attempt to send
Austro-Hungary a message.
They will send
to assassinate the
They succeed and kill Franz
Ferdinand the future King
of the Austro-Hungary
9. The Spark that starts WW1
Serbia’s actions and handling of the
assassination is going to get basically
everyone in Europe upset somehow.
Austro-Hungary vs. Serbia
Russia vs. Austro-Hungary
Germany vs. Russia
Germany vs. France
Great Britain vs. Germany
• Think that’s confusing…throw in about
26 other countries
10. Alliances Change
The Triple Entente will become The
Allied Powers as Italy switches
sides and joins Great Britain, Russia,
Because they are upset at Germany,
Italy will switch.
The Triple Alliance becomes the
Central Powers as Germany,
Austro-Hungary, The Ottoman
Empire, and Bulgaria join together
11. Approximate Glimpse of Alliances
12. America’s Role
America is going to maintain a
stance of Neutrality, meaning that
they aren’t going to support one side
of the war effort or another
Wilson asks everyone to stay
neutral, but doesn’t enforce
businesses to stay out…big mistake.
13. The British Blockade
They will use Propaganda or
extremely influential media designed
to sway one’s opinion.
This will do a good
job of pushing America
towards the war.
14. The British Blockade
The British decide that the best way
to beat the Germans is to starve
They will set up a Blockade in the
North Sea, preventing ships from
delivering supplies to Germany.
15. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germans begin to grow
desperate and hungry.
They then send out
U-Boats or German
intended to attack
and other British vessels
16. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany will declare unrestricted
The U.S. says this isn’t fair to
17. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The Germans will then sink the
Lusitania a British ocean liner,
killing 1,200 passengers – 128
Americans get very upset, but Wilson
keeps us out, and Germany
The Germans will sink another ship
The Sussex, this time injuring
18. The Lusitania Coin
19. Lusitania Coin pt. 2
20. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
German and American diplomats will
meet to sign the Sussex Pledge
declaring that if Germany sank
another ship without fair warning the
United States would enter the war
This is essentially just another stall
attempt for Germany, and actually
gets Wilson re-elected because he
keeps America out of war.
21. America Gets into the War
The final blow
occurs in January
1917, as America
promising to help
territory if they
22. America Gets into the War
Germans didn’t think we could
mobilize fast enough, and they could
do what they wanted.
They sink 6 American ships in
February and March 1917…The War
23. The Home Front
Chapter 21 Section 2
24. The Draft
The U.S. navy was well-built, but the
Army was still in shambles.
To correct this problem the
government looked to Conscription
or drafting citizens from civilian life
to build a country’s military.
To be fair they would create the
Selective Service System in which
all men fill out
and were randomly
selected for service
in either the navy
26. The Draft
24 Million Americans will be
registered; 4 Million will be used
Many Americans will join the war in
hopes of high adventure, and great
People volunteered without
realizing…THIS IS A WAR.
27. How does this image
appeal to citizens?
28. African-American and Women’s
380,000 of African Americans would
volunteer, or be conscripted into
service, and serve brilliantly in the
• To many African American activists they
saw this as a way to prove themselves
to whites and earn civil rights
Women will also do their part and
volunteer, mainly in the Army
29. Many Would Join the Red Cross
30. Building Necessary Goods
The War Industries Board will be
responsible for switching major
industries and their factories over
from consumer production to
production of materials for war.
31. Soldiers Need Food
taking food from
the citizenry and
providing it to the
Head of the Food
Americans to give
products on select
32. Conservation Plays a Big Role
33. Help By Doing Your Part
34. Making Do
Americans will be asked to plant Victory
Gardens, where families plant fruit and
veggies to feed themselves instead of
buying these items at the store
• This will help save the food farmers are
growing for use by the soldiers.
35. Turn Back the Clocks!
This is also where we begin Daylight
Savings Time in an attempt to cut
back on the number of hours nonessential factories are open
• This would help save coal
and other resources needed
to give factories heat and
36. Getting To Work
The National War
Labor Board would
be established to
make sure unions
don’t go on strike
during the war.
37. Filling the Shoes
Women are often going to take jobs
in industries that were maledominated, they are not guaranteed
to have these after war
Minorities, including African
Americans and Mexican Americans
begin to migrate North, to better
opportunities in factory jobs.
38. Easy Money
In an attempt at making money for
the war the government would begin
selling Liberty or Victory Bonds, in
essence People would give the
money to the government, and later
the government would pay them
back money with interest.
• For instance: I give the government
$25 now, they fight the war, and in 10
years my $25 becomes $50 when the
government pays me back.
39. Buy War Bonds!!!
40. Do Your Part To Get Them Back!
41. Selling the War
The Committee on Public
Information will be assigned the
task of getting people to support the
Some ways this is achieved is
through speeches, motion pictures,
• Does it Work?
42. Lady Liberty!!!
cool does that
44. What is a Hun?
What does this
make him look
45. 1917 vs. 1776…coincidence?
46. Silencing the Haters
The Sedition Act will make it illegal
for people to speak out against the
To go further phones will be tapped
We will also begin eating Liberty
Cabbage, Salisbury Steak, etc.
• See a pattern?
47. What does America think?
48. A Bloody Conflict
49. The Western Front
The Germans had developed the
Schlieffen Plan, an aggressive
strategy that tried to destroy France
on the Western Front first, then
change directions and fight Russia on
the Eastern Front.
Developed in 1870 and wrong changes were made
French have strong counter attack
Russia mobilizes faster than expected
50. The Western Front
British and French forces march to stop
the Germany advancement
To avoid losing ground in France, the
Germans begin to dig trenches.
Unable to pass through the trenches, the
British and French dig their own trenches.
As a result, the Western Front is created.
51. Trench Warfare
The trenches are dirty, rat-infested,
cold, and dangerous.
World War 1 Brutality = New
Technology + Antiquated Tactics
Trenches will be separated by a No
Man’s Land or the area directly
between trenches, most casualties
will occur in this area.
52. The Eastern Front
Combatants: Russia vs. Germany
• Russia mobilizes troops to attack
Germany after Germany attacks France
• Germany responds with a counter
• This confrontation creates the Eastern
Russian focus on
the war will decrease
quickly in 1917 when the
March Revolution breaks out!
• February 1917
Czar Nicholas II loses power; abdicates
• Ineffective provisional government loses
• October 1917
Communists take over power
54. The Russian Revolution
The October Revolution:
• The Bolsheviks will be a
Communist political party
vying for power over the
• Vladimir Lenin will be the
leader of this party, and the
man responsible for setting up
a communist themed
55. The Russian Revolution
After the Bolsheviks take power,
they will quickly look to end the war
by signing the Treaty of BrestLitovsk giving up a great deal of
Russian land and recalling all Russian
forces, giving the Eastern Front to
56. The Western Front
Germany can now focus all of their
attention on the Western Front
Their goal is to launch a massive
offensive, take Paris, and then turn
their attention to England and the
57. Americans in the War
We will send goods and troops over
in a Convoy System designed to
offer protection to merchant ships by
providing a naval escort.
58. Americans in the War
The Battle of
and begin a
Starts in late September, 1918, and
through October, they begin to win the
war, as the Germans fell.
in the War
Battle of Belleau
Battle of Belleau
•First Major action for
American troops, mainly
•Germans had over 200
Machine Guns pointed
directly at Allies
•The Marines would be
asked to ‘sweep the
•Every time they
cleared the trenches,
more Germans showed
•Took 6 tries before
in the War
Battle of Saint-Mihiel
•1st Major American
battle offensive causes
the Germans to retreat
•Germans end up
•We can’t follow
because the Allies are
•We capture a ton of
Germans, and both
sides suffer about 7000
•General Foch asks us
to join in the MeuseArgonne Offensive
in the War
•Involves 3 Waves
•1st – Successful Attack
on German Lines
•2nd – Fresh Troops,
•3rd – Capture of
•Allied Casualties 180,000
•C.P. Casualties ~100,000
•Allies end up winning by overwhelming
Germans with fresh troops and more supplies!
62. The End
All across Europe, support for the
war will start dwindling; AustriaHungary will fall apart, the Turks
give up, and Germany will ask the
emperor to back down.
The Armistice or agreement to stop
the fighting will be signed at 11:00
a.m. on November 11, 1918
63. Around the World: The Italian Front
Italy broke its alliance with Germany and
• Originially supposed to be a Defensive alliance
• The Allies promise them more land if they join up!
Italy wanted to move quickly and surprise
• Take several strategic cities right away.
Similar to the Western Front, trench
warfare bogged down the Italians’
64. Around the World: The Italian Front
Italy is only ever able to advance a small
65. Around the World: Turkey
The Gallipoli Peninsula is located in the
south part of Turkey connected to Europe.
66. Around the World: Turkey
In 1915, the allied commanders decided to try to attack
Germany by attacking her ally, Turkey.
Allied soldiers, mainly from
Australia and New Zealand,
were sent to fight
British ships tried to
force a way through the
The entire mission was a
67. But Mr. Williams, we only talked
The Middle East
Areas of Conflict
G.B. and the Arabs
Outside of Europe
Before the War!
68. Shaping a (Lasting?)
69. The 14 Point Plan
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Point Plan
will be designed to bring a quick end
to the war, and set up a lasting
The League of Nations will be
created with the 14th and most
important point, creating a governing
body to preserve peace in Europe
70. The Treaty of Versailles
The Big Four: Wilson, Georges
Clemenceau, David Lloyd George,
and Vittorio Orlando will meet to
discuss the treaty.
The Treaty of Versailles will be
signed using Wilson’s blue print but
offering much harsher repercussions
71. The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty will strip Germany
almost completely of all military
power, production power, land, and
demand that they pay
Reparations, or money for war
damages back to the Allies.
• Included in their losses are overseas
territories, parts of Poland, and for a
number of reasons the Alsace-Lorraine
area…explain Williams, explain.
72. The Treaty of Versailles
All the Empires will be broken up and
barred for negotiating politically.
The Balkans will be given their wishes of
• Means each ethnic region will be given it’s own
country based on population…except
Czechoslovokia and Yugoslavia.
Major focus on division of nations after
WW1 is on ETHNICITY!!! (Keep people of
the same culture together!
Despite Wilson’s involvement, the
U.S. Congress will not be impressed
with the treaty.
The United States will not join the
League of Nations
• Wilson’s biggest disappointment!
74. World War 1 Casualties
•Total Military deaths from war: 10 million
•Total Civilian deaths from war: 9 million
75. Don’t forget about the effects on
the land and cities!!!
76. Other World Events
Adding to all the frustrations is the
• Strain starts at Army base in Kansas
• In many cases, death came in days!
• In just over a year of infections, the
death toll from this strain is over 50
• Compare that with the death toll from
• How would countries respond?
77. Infirmary at Fort Riley, KS
78. Dealing With the Flu
79. Other World Events
After the war ends, society slowly
begins to return back to normal.
People no longer have to save for the
war effort, and can buy what they
Inflation will occur where
businesses will raise the prices on
goods in high demand.
80. Other World Events
This rise in inflation means people
have a higher Cost of Living, or the
amount of money it takes to buy the
basics in our lives.
This is going to lead to problems, in
that unions will again start striking to
get back their higher pays, so they
can stay afloat in the economy.
81. Other World Events
A General Strike occurs when
workers from different industries in a
particular location all decide to strike
In the case of Seattle it crippled the
city, and began to worry business
owners in cities all across America…
European radicals also used this
82. Other World Events
Will set a precedent for public safety
75% of police force goes on strike,
riots and chaos break out.
Governor Calvin Coolidge refuses to
let the city re-hire those strikers…
they will instead hire a whole new
Other World Events
350,000 Steelworkers strike across the
350,000 Steelworkers strike across the
• Higher wages
• 8 hour work day
• Union Recognition
Elbert H. Gary the head of the U.S. Steel
Corporation will back these strikes down
by refusing to negotiate.
This strike will be ineffective, and unions
will lose a great deal of their power, as
they are portrayed as political radicals.
84. Big Steel Strike Announcement
85. Other World Events
The most glaring example comes in
Chicago when riots break out…all
from a couple of people throwing
stones at each other.
Young boy drowns, both sides erupt.
Aren’t happy until many are dead.
86. Other World
One of the goals of Marx and Engels
was to create a world-wide
Communist utopia; This scares a lot
Soviets will set up the Communist
International which works to
organize all Communist parties and
individuals world wide.
87. Other World Events
The onset of Communism will lead to
The Red Scare, or widespread panic
over the possibility of a Communist
Many people believed that the
Communists would stop at nothing to
spread their message, even going as
far as to send bomb packages in the
mail to destroy democracy.
88. Other World Events
A. Mitchell Palmer
was the U.S.
his home was the
recipient of one of
these mail bombs,
he will dedicate the
rest of his career to
89. A New Normalcy.
America had seen enough progress
after the war, and now wanted to go
back to being just plain old America.
For this reason, voters will select
politicians that will strive to create an
environment which will focus on
America in the here and now, and