Chapter 19 - The Gilded Age powerpoint


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Chapter 19 - The Gilded Age powerpoint

  1. 1. The Gilded Age Chapter 19
  2. 2. The Gilded Age Refers to American history from about 1870 to 1900  Businesses were growing and making more money than ever  U.S. Government was making laws that allowed this growth to continue  BUT there was a lot of corruption and illegal deals occurring beneath the surface. 
  3. 3. Spoils System vs. Civil Service After the Civil War, most people employed by the government got their job through The Spoils System, where elected officials gave jobs to their family, friends, and political supporters.  Starting in 1883, the Civil Service was designed to give people jobs in the government based on whether or not the candidate was qualified for the job, not whether or not they knew someone 
  4. 4. The Gilded Age: Era of Political Machines A Political Machine is a political group that makes deals and runs politics in an area through a series of corrupt deals between politicians, local businesses and citizens.  Political Machines provided goods and services, like fire and police protection to the poor in exchange for votes – Accepted bribes from businesses to ensure inspectors wouldn’t shut down the business
  5. 5. Thomas Nast Anti-Tweed Ring Satire, 1871
  6. 6. The Gilded Age: Era of Political Machines
  7. 7. The Gilded Age: Era of Political Machines  The leaders of these political machines were called Party Bosses.  The Most Notorious of these was William “Boss” Tweed.  He controlled New York City via a corrupt network of connections.  Tammany Hall was the building and group that carried out all of Boss Tweed’s political activity.
  8. 8. The Notorious Boss Tweed I don't care who does the electing, so long as I get to do the nominating! The way to have power is to take it!
  9. 9. The Notorious B.I.G. Move over Lucifer, I’m more ruthless, leave you toothless!
  10. 10. Progressive Movement  Progressives tried to sway people towards more legitimate political candidates with a new approach to get voters more involved in the process  This included the creation of the Primary Election in which voters chose who they wanted to run for a political office.  Voters also were given the power of Recall, Initiative, and Referendum
  11. 11. Muckraking Journalists Newspapers had to find new ways to sell stories  One approach was through Muckraking, or the attempt to expose corruption in big business and government by digging up the dirty details and publishing them in the newspaper  – Ida Tarbell is famous for exposing the business practices of the Standard Oil Trust of John D. Rockefeller, which led to the breakup of the business!
  12. 12. Raking the Muck
  13. 13. Welcome to the Jungle!  One of the most influential pieces from the muckraking period was Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle”  This book focused on the disgusting conditions within a Chicago Meatpacking plant.  The book succeeded in opening up people’s eyes to how bad some of these big business’s practices were.
  14. 14. The Progressive Presidents Chapter 18 Section 2
  15. 15. Teddy Roosevelt the Progressive  Theodore Roosevelt becomes President in 1901 after William T. McKinley is assassinated.  T.R. will devise the Square Deal, plan for America focusing on regulation of big business, conservation of Natural Resources, and protecting consumers.
  16. 16. Teddy Roosevelt and The Rough Riders
  17. 17. Teddy Roosevelt the Progressive  Teddy Roosevelt would pass the Food and Drug Act after reading Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle”, which would set up the Food and Drug Administration, which strove to maintain safe standards for keeping, processing, and serving food.  T.R. also received the nickname of Trustbuster, for his attempts to shut down big business monopolies.
  18. 18. Teddy Roosevelt the Progressive  Conservation – is the attempt at maintaining and preserving natural resources and wildlife.  Roosevelt’s love of nature and the outdoors led to him working on a number of conservation projects, including: – Setting up the National Forestry Service – Creating the National Park System – As well as the Antiquities Act
  19. 19. Taft the Somewhat Progressive  William H. Taft would be elected in 1908 as T.R.’s replacement, he is ineffective because of major problems with his administration, but still has some successes in: – Fixing working conditions in mines – Child Labor laws – 8 Hour work day for government workers
  20. 20. Wilson the Democratic Progressive  Woodrow Wilson is the only Democrat Progressive president, and stole the election of 1912 from Roosevelt and Taft. Continued Progressive reforms by: – Establishing the Federal Trade Commission to investigate business practices – Signed New Anti-Trust legislations ensuring fair competition, and – Established the Federal Reserve to control money supply through use of interest rates
  21. 21. The Rights of Women and The Struggle for Equality Chapter 19 Sections 3 and 4
  22. 22. Prohibition  Women’s groups, like the Women’s Christian Temperance Union led by Francis Willard, believed that America’s obsession with drinking was destroying families. – They pushed for Prohibition or the elimination of alcohol from society  In 1917 the 18th Amendment would ban making, selling, or transporting alcohol.
  23. 23. Prohibition: Saving Babies
  24. 24. Women’s Suffrage  Carrie Chapman Catt would develop a plan to get the right for women to vote in each state.  These women who fought for the right to vote were called Suffragists.  This would be passed as the 19th Amendment, first ratified by only a few states in 1919, and finally by most of the others in 1920.
  25. 25. Suffrage VS. Suffering
  26. 26. Advancing African American Rights  Booker T. Washington worked his way from slavery to become one of the most prominent AfricanAmerican minds in American society – Booker T. believed that only through proving their worth in the workplace would African-Americans gain equality – He founded the all-black Tuskegee Institute, a college to teach these skills.
  27. 27. Advancing African American Rights  W.E.B. Du Bois agreed with Booker T. Washington about education and skills as a necessity for AfricanAmericans. – DuBois believed that segregation had to be eliminated first before AfricanAmericans could take steps toward progress and equality. – DuBois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples to fight legal battles and promote the
  28. 28. Booker T. vs. W.E.B.  The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremist folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. -- Booker T. Washington  We claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a free American, political, civil and social, and until we get these rights we will never cease to protest and assail the ears of America. -- W.E.B. Du Bois
  29. 29. More People!!!  Mexican Immigration would increase in the early 1900’s as a famine and revolution hit Mexico  It is during this time that L.A. really begins to grow.  Roosevelt would feel pressure from many sides to limit Asian immigration, and would do just that.
  30. 30. Religious Intolerance  Because of Anti-Catholic AntiImmigrant Nativists in America, a movement to establish Parochial Schools sponsored by the Catholic church  There was also a great deal of AntiSemitism, or hatred for people of Jewish faith. – This would often follow them from their old countries.