Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Cells
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Cells

721
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
721
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Figure 5.1 Why do scientists study the structures of macromolecules?
  • Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers.
  • Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers.
  • Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers.
  • Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides.
  • Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides.
  • Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides.
  • Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides.
  • Figure 5.4 Linear and ring forms of glucose.
  • Figure 5.5 Examples of disaccharide synthesis.
  • Figure 5.6 Storage polysaccharides of plants and animals.
  • Figure 5.6 Storage polysaccharides of plants and animals.
  • Figure 5.6 Storage polysaccharides of plants and animals.
  • Figure 5.7 Starch and cellulose structures.
  • Figure 5.7 Starch and cellulose structures.
  • Figure 5.7 Starch and cellulose structures.
  • Figure 5.8 The arrangement of cellulose in plant cell walls.
  • Figure 5.8 The arrangement of cellulose in plant cell walls.
  • Figure 5.8 The arrangement of cellulose in plant cell walls.
  • Figure 5.8 The arrangement of cellulose in plant cell walls.
  • Figure 5.9 Chitin, a structural polysaccharide.
  • Figure 5.9 Chitin, a structural polysaccharide.
  • Figure 5.9 Chitin, a structural polysaccharide.
  • Figure 5.10 The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol.
  • Figure 5.10 The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol.
  • Figure 5.10 The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol.
  • Figure 5.11 Saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids.
  • Figure 5.11 Saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids.
  • Figure 5.11 Saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids.
  • Figure 5.11 Saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids.
  • Figure 5.11 Saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids.
  • Figure 5.12 The structure of a phospholipid.
  • Figure 5.12 The structure of a phospholipid.
  • Figure 5.13 Bilayer structure formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in an aqueous environment.
  • For the Cell Biology Video Space Filling Model of Cholesterol, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Stick Model of Cholesterol, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 5.14 Cholesterol, a steroid.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.15 An overview of protein functions.
  • Figure 5.UN01 In-text figure, p. 78
  • Figure 5.16 The 20 amino acids of proteins.
  • Figure 5.16 The 20 amino acids of proteins.
  • Figure 5.16 The 20 amino acids of proteins.
  • Figure 5.16 The 20 amino acids of proteins.
  • Figure 5.17 Making a polypeptide chain.
  • Figure 5.18 Structure of a protein, the enzyme lysozyme.
  • Figure 5.18 Structure of a protein, the enzyme lysozyme.
  • Figure 5.18 Structure of a protein, the enzyme lysozyme.
  • Figure 5.19 An antibody binding to a protein from a flu virus.
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • For the Cell Biology Video An Idealized Alpha Helix: No Sidechains, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video An Idealized Alpha Helix, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video An Idealized Beta Pleated Sheet Cartoon, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video An Idealized Beta Pleated Sheet, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.20 Exploring: Levels of Protein Structure
  • Figure 5.21 A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease.
  • Figure 5.21 A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease.
  • Figure 5.21 A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease.
  • Figure 5.22 Denaturation and renaturation of a protein.
  • Figure 5.23 A chaperonin in action.
  • Figure 5.23 A chaperonin in action.
  • Figure 5.23 A chaperonin in action.
  • Figure 5.24 Inquiry: What can the 3-D shape of the enzyme RNA polymerase II tell us about its function?
  • Figure 5.24 Inquiry: What can the 3-D shape of the enzyme RNA polymerase II tell us about its function?
  • Figure 5.24 Inquiry: What can the 3-D shape of the enzyme RNA polymerase II tell us about its function?
  • Figure 5.25 DNA → RNA → protein.
  • Figure 5.25 DNA → RNA → protein.
  • Figure 5.25 DNA → RNA → protein.
  • Figure 5.26 Components of nucleic acids.
  • Figure 5.26 Components of nucleic acids.
  • Figure 5.26 Components of nucleic acids.
  • Figure 5.27 The structures of DNA and tRNA molecules.
  • Figure 5.UN02 Summary table, Concepts 5.2–5.5
  • Figure 5.UN02a Summary table, Concepts 5.2–5.3
  • Figure 5.UN02b Summary table, Concepts 5.4–5.5
  • Figure 5.UN03 Appendix A: answer to Figure 5.4 legend question
  • Figure 5.UN04 Appendix A: answer to Figure 5.5 legend question
  • Figure 5.UN05 Appendix A: answer to Figure 5.12 legend question
  • Figure 5.UN06 Appendix A: answer to Figure 5.14 legend question
  • Figure 5.UN07 Appendix A: answer to Figure 5.17 legend question
  • Figure 5.UN08 Appendix A: answer to Concept Check 5.5, question 1
  • Figure 5.UN09 Appendix A: answer to Concept Check 5.5, question 2
  • Figure 5.UN10 Appendix A: answer to Concept Check 5.5, question 3a
  • Figure 5.UN11 Appendix A: answer to Concept Check 5.5, question 3b
  • Figure 5.UN12 Appendix A: answer to Test Your Understanding, question 8
  • Figure 5.UN13 Appendix A: answer to Test Your Understanding, question 9
  • Transcript

    • 1. LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5
    • 2. Overview: The Molecules of Life • All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids • Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms • Molecular structure and function are inseparable © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 3. Figure 5.1
    • 4. Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers • A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks • These small building-block molecules are called monomers • Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Nucleic acids © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 5. • A dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule • Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Polymers
    • 6. Figure 5.2 (a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. Longer polymer (b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond. 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 3
    • 7. Figure 5.2a (a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. Longer polymer 1 2 3 4 1 2 3
    • 8. Figure 5.2b (b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3
    • 9. The Diversity of Polymers • Each cell has thousands of different macromolecules • Macromolecules vary among cells of an organism, vary more within a species, and vary even more between species • An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers HO © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 10. Concept 5.2: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material • Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars • The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or single sugars • Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 11. Sugars • Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O • Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide • Monosaccharides are classified by – The location of the carbonyl group (as aldose or ketose) – The number of carbons in the carbon skeleton © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 12. Figure 5.3 Aldoses (Aldehyde Sugars) Ketoses (Ketone Sugars) Glyceraldehyde Trioses: 3-carbon sugars (C3H6O3) Dihydroxyacetone Pentoses: 5-carbon sugars (C5H10O5) Hexoses: 6-carbon sugars (C6H12O6) Ribose Ribulose Glucose Galactose Fructose
    • 13. Figure 5.3a Aldose (Aldehyde Sugar) Ketose (Ketone Sugar) Glyceraldehyde Trioses: 3-carbon sugars (C3H6O3) Dihydroxyacetone
    • 14. Figure 5.3b Pentoses: 5-carbon sugars (C5H10O5) Ribose Ribulose Aldose (Aldehyde Sugar) Ketose (Ketone Sugar)
    • 15. Figure 5.3c Aldose (Aldehyde Sugar) Ketose (Ketone Sugar) Hexoses: 6-carbon sugars (C6H12O6) Glucose Galactose Fructose
    • 16. • Though often drawn as linear skeletons, in aqueous solutions many sugars form rings • Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 17. Figure 5.4 (a) Linear and ring forms (b) Abbreviated ring structure 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 23 4 5 6
    • 18. • A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides • This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Disaccharide
    • 19. Figure 5.5 (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose (b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose Glucose Glucose Glucose Maltose Fructose Sucrose 1–4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage 1 4 1 2
    • 20. Polysaccharides • Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles • The structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of glycosidic linkages © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 21. Storage Polysaccharides • Starch, a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers • Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids • The simplest form of starch is amylose © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 22. Figure 5.6 (a) Starch: a plant polysaccharide (b) Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide Chloroplast Starch granules Mitochondria Glycogen granules Amylopectin Amylose Glycogen 1 µm 0.5 µm
    • 23. Figure 5.6a Chloroplast Starch granules 1 µm
    • 24. • Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals • Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 25. Figure 5.6b Mitochondria Glycogen granules 0.5 µm
    • 26. Structural Polysaccharides • The polysaccharide cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells • Like starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ • The difference is based on two ring forms for glucose: alpha (α) and beta (β) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Polysaccharides
    • 27. Figure 5.7 (a) α and β glucose ring structures (b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of α glucose monomers (c) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of β glucose monomers α Glucose β Glucose 4 1 4 1 41 41
    • 28. Figure 5.7a (a) α and β glucose ring structures α Glucose β Glucose 4 1 4 1
    • 29. Figure 5.7b (b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of α glucose monomers (c) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of β glucose monomers 41 41
    • 30. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. • Polymers with α glucose are helical • Polymers with β glucose are straight • In straight structures, H atoms on one strand can bond with OH groups on other strands • Parallel cellulose molecules held together this way are grouped into microfibrils, which form strong building materials for plants
    • 31. Cell wall Microfibril Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wall Cellulose molecules β Glucose monomer 10 µm 0.5 µm Figure 5.8
    • 32. Figure 5.8a
    • 33. Figure 5.8b Cell wall 10 µm
    • 34. Figure 5.8c Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wall 0.5 µm
    • 35. • Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing α linkages can’t hydrolyze β linkages in cellulose • Cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract as insoluble fiber • Some microbes use enzymes to digest cellulose • Many herbivores, from cows to termites, have symbiotic relationships with these microbes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 36. • Chitin, another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods • Chitin also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 37. Figure 5.9 Chitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods. The structure of the chitin monomer Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread that decomposes after the wound or incision heals.
    • 38. Figure 5.9a Chitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods.
    • 39. Figure 5.9b Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread that decomposes after the wound or incision heals.
    • 40. Concept 5.3: Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules • Lipids are the one class of large biological molecules that do not form polymers • The unifying feature of lipids is having little or no affinity for water • Lipids are hydrophobic because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds • The most biologically important lipids are fats, phospholipids, and steroids © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 41. Fats • Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids • Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon • A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 42. Figure 5.10 (a) One of three dehydration reactions in the synthesis of a fat (b) Fat molecule (triacylglycerol) Fatty acid (in this case, palmitic acid) Glycerol Ester linkage
    • 43. Figure 5.10a (a) One of three dehydration reactions in the synthesis of a fat Fatty acid (in this case, palmitic acid) Glycerol
    • 44. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. • Fats separate from water because water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and exclude the fats • In a fat, three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, creating a triacylglycerol, or triglyceride
    • 45. Figure 5.10b (b) Fat molecule (triacylglycerol) Ester linkage
    • 46. • Fatty acids vary in length (number of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds • Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds • Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Fats
    • 47. Figure 5.11 (a) Saturated fat (b) Unsaturated fat Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Space-filling model of stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule Space-filling model of oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid Cis double bond causes bending.
    • 48. (a) Saturated fat Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Space-filling model of stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid Figure 5.11a
    • 49. Figure 5.11b (b) Unsaturated fat Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule Space-filling model of oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid Cis double bond causes bending.
    • 50. Figure 5.11c
    • 51. Figure 5.11d
    • 52. • Fats made from saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats, and are solid at room temperature • Most animal fats are saturated • Fats made from unsaturated fatty acids are called unsaturated fats or oils, and are liquid at room temperature • Plant fats and fish fats are usually unsaturated © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 53. • A diet rich in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease through plaque deposits • Hydrogenation is the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen • Hydrogenating vegetable oils also creates unsaturated fats with trans double bonds • These trans fats may contribute more than saturated fats to cardiovascular disease © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 54. • Certain unsaturated fatty acids are not synthesized in the human body • These must be supplied in the diet • These essential fatty acids include the omega-3 fatty acids, required for normal growth, and thought to provide protection against cardiovascular disease © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 55. • The major function of fats is energy storage • Humans and other mammals store their fat in adipose cells • Adipose tissue also cushions vital organs and insulates the body © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 56. Phospholipids • In a phospholipid, two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol • The two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, but the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophilic head © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 57. Figure 5.12 Choline Phosphate Glycerol Fatty acids Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails (c) Phospholipid symbol(b) Space-filling model(a) Structural formula HydrophilicheadHydrophobictails
    • 58. Choline Phosphate Glycerol Fatty acids (b) Space-filling model(a) Structural formula HydrophilicheadHydrophobictails Figure 5.12a
    • 59. • When phospholipids are added to water, they self-assemble into a bilayer, with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward the interior • The structure of phospholipids results in a bilayer arrangement found in cell membranes • Phospholipids are the major component of all cell membranes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 60. Figure 5.13 Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail WATER WATER
    • 61. Steroids • Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings • Cholesterol, an important steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes • Although cholesterol is essential in animals, high levels in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 62. Figure 5.14
    • 63. Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions • Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells • Protein functions include structural support, storage, transport, cellular communications, movement, and defense against foreign substances © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 64. Figure 5.15-a Enzymatic proteins Defensive proteins Storage proteins Transport proteins Enzyme Virus Antibodies Bacterium Ovalbumin Amino acids for embryo Transport protein Cell membrane Function: Selective acceleration of chemical reactions Example: Digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of bonds in food molecules. Function: Protection against disease Example: Antibodies inactivate and help destroy viruses and bacteria. Function: Storage of amino acids Function: Transport of substances Examples: Casein, the protein of milk, is the major source of amino acids for baby mammals. Plants have storage proteins in their seeds. Ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for the developing embryo. Examples: Hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein of vertebrate blood, transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Other proteins transport molecules across cell membranes.
    • 65. Figure 5.15-b Hormonal proteins Function: Coordination of an organism’s activities Example: Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, causes other tissues to take up glucose, thus regulating blood sugar concentration High blood sugar Normal blood sugar Insulin secreted Signaling molecules Receptor protein Muscle tissue Actin Myosin 100 µm 60 µm Collagen Connective tissue Receptor proteins Function: Response of cell to chemical stimuli Example: Receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect signaling molecules released by other nerve cells. Contractile and motor proteins Function: Movement Examples: Motor proteins are responsible for the undulations of cilia and flagella. Actin and myosin proteins are responsible for the contraction of muscles. Structural proteins Function: Support Examples: Keratin is the protein of hair, horns, feathers, and other skin appendages. Insects and spiders use silk fibers to make their cocoons and webs, respectively. Collagen and elastin proteins provide a fibrous framework in animal connective tissues.
    • 66. Figure 5.15a Enzymatic proteins Enzyme Example: Digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of bonds in food molecules. Function: Selective acceleration of chemical reactions
    • 67. Figure 5.15b Storage proteins Ovalbumin Amino acids for embryo Function: Storage of amino acids Examples: Casein, the protein of milk, is the major source of amino acids for baby mammals. Plants have storage proteins in their seeds. Ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for the developing embryo.
    • 68. Figure 5.15c Hormonal proteins Function: Coordination of an organism’s activities Example: Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, causes other tissues to take up glucose, thus regulating blood sugar concentration High blood sugar Normal blood sugar Insulin secreted
    • 69. Figure 5.15d Muscle tissue Actin Myosin 100 µm Contractile and motor proteins Function: Movement Examples: Motor proteins are responsible for the undulations of cilia and flagella. Actin and myosin proteins are responsible for the contraction of muscles.
    • 70. Figure 5.15e Defensive proteins Virus Antibodies Bacterium Function: Protection against disease Example: Antibodies inactivate and help destroy viruses and bacteria.
    • 71. Figure 5.15f Transport proteins Transport protein Cell membrane Function: Transport of substances Examples: Hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein of vertebrate blood, transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Other proteins transport molecules across cell membranes.
    • 72. Figure 5.15g Signaling molecules Receptor protein Receptor proteins Function: Response of cell to chemical stimuli Example: Receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect signaling molecules released by other nerve cells.
    • 73. Figure 5.15h 60 µm Collagen Connective tissue Structural proteins Function: Support Examples: Keratin is the protein of hair, horns, feathers, and other skin appendages. Insects and spiders use silk fibers to make their cocoons and webs, respectively. Collagen and elastin proteins provide a fibrous framework in animal connective tissues.
    • 74. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Structural Proteins Animation: Storage Proteins Animation: Transport Proteins Animation: Receptor Proteins Animation: Contractile Proteins Animation: Defensive Proteins Animation: Hormonal Proteins Animation: Sensory Proteins Animation: Gene Regulatory Proteins
    • 75. • Enzymes are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions • Enzymes can perform their functions repeatedly, functioning as workhorses that carry out the processes of life © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Enzymes
    • 76. Polypeptides • Polypeptides are unbranched polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids • A protein is a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 77. Amino Acid Monomers • Amino acids are organic molecules with carboxyl and amino groups • Amino acids differ in their properties due to differing side chains, called R groups © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 78. Figure 5.UN01 Side chain (R group) Amino group Carboxyl group α carbon
    • 79. Figure 5.16 Nonpolar side chains; hydrophobic Side chain (R group) Glycine (Gly or G) Alanine (Ala or A) Valine (Val or V) Leucine (Leu or L) Isoleucine (Ile or I) Methionine (Met or M) Phenylalanine (Phe or F) Tryptophan (Trp or W) Proline (Pro or P) Polar side chains; hydrophilic Serine (Ser or S) Threonine (Thr or T) Cysteine (Cys or C) Tyrosine (Tyr or Y) Asparagine (Asn or N) Glutamine (Gln or Q) Electrically charged side chains; hydrophilic Acidic (negatively charged) Basic (positively charged) Aspartic acid (Asp or D) Glutamic acid (Glu or E) Lysine (Lys or K) Arginine (Arg or R) Histidine (His or H)
    • 80. Figure 5.16a olar side chains; hydrophobic Side chain Glycine (Gly or G) Alanine (Ala or A) Valine (Val or V) Leucine (Leu or L) Isoleucine (Ile or I) Methionine (Met or M) Phenylalanine (Phe or F) Tryptophan (Trp or W) Proline (Pro or P)
    • 81. Figure 5.16b Polar side chains; hydrophilic Serine (Ser or S) Threonine (Thr or T) Cysteine (Cys or C) Tyrosine (Tyr or Y) Asparagine (Asn or N) Glutamine (Gln or Q)
    • 82. Figure 5.16c Electrically charged side chains; hydrophilic Acidic (negatively charged) Basic (positively charged) Aspartic acid (Asp or D) Glutamic acid (Glu or E) Lysine (Lys or K) Arginine (Arg or R) Histidine (His or H)
    • 83. Amino Acid Polymers • Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds • A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids • Polypeptides range in length from a few to more than a thousand monomers • Each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence of amino acids, with a carboxyl end (C-terminus) and an amino end (N-terminus) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 84. Figure 5.17 Peptide bond New peptide bond forming Side chains Back- bone Amino end (N-terminus) Peptide bond Carboxyl end (C-terminus)
    • 85. Protein Structure and Function • A functional protein consists of one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique shape © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 86. Figure 5.18 (a) A ribbon model (b) A space-filling model Groove Groove
    • 87. Figure 5.18a (a) A ribbon model Groove
    • 88. Figure 5.18b (b) A space-filling model Groove
    • 89. • The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s three-dimensional structure • A protein’s structure determines its function © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 90. Figure 5.19 Antibody protein Protein from flu virus
    • 91. Four Levels of Protein Structure • The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids • Secondary structure, found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain • Tertiary structure is determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups) • Quaternary structure results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Protein Structure Introduction
    • 92. Figure 5.20a Primary structure Amino acids Amino end Carboxyl end Primary structure of transthyretin
    • 93. • Primary structure, the sequence of amino acids in a protein, is like the order of letters in a long word • Primary structure is determined by inherited genetic information © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Primary Protein Structure
    • 94. Figure 5.20b Secondary structure Tertiary structure Quaternary structure Hydrogen bond α helix β pleated sheet β strand Hydrogen bond Transthyretin polypeptide Transthyretin protein
    • 95. • The coils and folds of secondary structure result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone • Typical secondary structures are a coil called an α helix and a folded structure called a β pleated sheet © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Secondary Protein Structure
    • 96. Secondary structure Hydrogen bond α helix β pleated sheet β strand, shown as a flat arrow pointing toward the carboxyl end Hydrogen bond Figure 5.20c
    • 97. Figure 5.20d
    • 98. • Tertiary structure is determined by interactions between R groups, rather than interactions between backbone constituents • These interactions between R groups include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions • Strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges may reinforce the protein’s structure © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Tertiary Protein Structure
    • 99. Figure 5.20e Tertiary structure Transthyretin polypeptide
    • 100. Figure 5.20f Hydrogen bond Disulfide bridge Polypeptide backbone Ionic bond Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals interactions
    • 101. Figure 5.20g Quaternary structure Transthyretin protein (four identical polypeptides)
    • 102. Figure 5.20h Collagen
    • 103. Hemoglobin Heme Iron α subunit α subunit β subunit β subunit Figure 5.20i
    • 104. Figure 5.20j
    • 105. • Quaternary structure results when two or more polypeptide chains form one macromolecule • Collagen is a fibrous protein consisting of three polypeptides coiled like a rope • Hemoglobin is a globular protein consisting of four polypeptides: two alpha and two beta chains © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Quaternary Protein Structure
    • 106. Sickle-Cell Disease: A Change in Primary Structure • A slight change in primary structure can affect a protein’s structure and ability to function • Sickle-cell disease, an inherited blood disorder, results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 107. Figure 5.21 Primary Structure Secondary and Tertiary Structures Quaternary Structure Function Red Blood Cell Shape β subunit β subunit β β α α Exposed hydrophobic region Molecules do not associate with one another; each carries oxygen. Molecules crystallize into a fiber; capacity to carry oxygen is reduced. Sickle-cell hemoglobin Normal hemoglobin 10 µm 10 µm Sickle-cellhemoglobinNormalhemoglobin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 β β α α
    • 108. Figure 5.21a 10 µm
    • 109. Figure 5.21b 10 µm
    • 110. What Determines Protein Structure? • In addition to primary structure, physical and chemical conditions can affect structure • Alterations in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental factors can cause a protein to unravel • This loss of a protein’s native structure is called denaturation • A denatured protein is biologically inactive © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 111. Figure 5.22 Normal protein Denatured protein Den tur t on Ren t r t on a a i a u a i
    • 112. Protein Folding in the Cell • It is hard to predict a protein’s structure from its primary structure • Most proteins probably go through several stages on their way to a stable structure • Chaperonins are protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins • Diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and mad cow disease are associated with misfolded proteins © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 113. Figure 5.23 The cap attaches, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide. Cap Polypeptide Correctly folded protein Chaperonin (fully assembled) Steps of Chaperonin Action: An unfolded poly- peptide enters the cylinder from one end. Hollow cylinder The cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released. 1 2 3
    • 114. Figure 5.23a Cap Chaperonin (fully assembled) Hollow cylinder
    • 115. Figure 5.23b The cap attaches, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide. Polypeptide Correctly folded protein Steps of Chaperonin Action: An unfolded poly- peptide enters the cylinder from one end. The cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released. 32 1
    • 116. • Scientists use X-ray crystallography to determine a protein’s structure • Another method is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which does not require protein crystallization • Bioinformatics uses computer programs to predict protein structure from amino acid sequences © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 117. Figure 5.24 Diffracted X-rays X-ray source X-ray beam Crystal Digital detector X-ray diffraction pattern RNA DNA RNA polymerase II EXPERIMENT RESULTS
    • 118. Figure 5.24a Diffracted X-rays X-ray source X-ray beam Crystal Digital detector X-ray diffraction pattern EXPERIMENT
    • 119. Figure 5.24b RNA DNA RNA polymerase II RESULTS
    • 120. Concept 5.5: Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information • The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a unit of inheritance called a gene • Genes are made of DNA, a nucleic acid made of monomers called nucleotides © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 121. The Roles of Nucleic Acids • There are two types of nucleic acids – Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Ribonucleic acid (RNA) • DNA provides directions for its own replication • DNA directs synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and, through mRNA, controls protein synthesis • Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 122. Figure 5.25-1 Synthesis of mRNA mRNA DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM 1
    • 123. Figure 5.25-2 Synthesis of mRNA mRNA DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM mRNA Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm 1 2
    • 124. Figure 5.25-3 Synthesis of mRNA mRNA DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM mRNA Ribosome Amino acidsPolypeptide Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm Synthesis of protein 1 2 3
    • 125. The Components of Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids are polymers called polynucleotides • Each polynucleotide is made of monomers called nucleotides • Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups • The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate group is called a nucleoside © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 126. Figure 5.26 Sugar-phosphate backbone 5′ end 5′C 3′C 5′C 3′C 3′ end (a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid (b) Nucleotide Phosphate group Sugar (pentose) Nucleoside Nitrogenous base 5′C 3′C 1′C Nitrogenous bases Cytosine (C) Thymine (T, in DNA) Uracil (U, in RNA) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Sugars Deoxyribose (in DNA) Ribose (in RNA) (c) Nucleoside components Pyrimidines Purines
    • 127. Figure 5.26ab Sugar-phosphate backbone 5′ end 5′C 3′C 5′C 3′C 3′ end (a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid (b) Nucleotide Phosphate group Sugar (pentose) Nucleoside Nitrogenous base 5′C 3′C 1′C
    • 128. Figure 5.26c Nitrogenous bases Cytosine (C) Thymine (T, in DNA) Uracil (U, in RNA) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Sugars Deoxyribose (in DNA) Ribose (in RNA) (c) Nucleoside components Pyrimidines Purines
    • 129. • Nucleoside = nitrogenous base + sugar • There are two families of nitrogenous bases – Pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil) have a single six-membered ring – Purines (adenine and guanine) have a six- membered ring fused to a five-membered ring • In DNA, the sugar is deoxyribose; in RNA, the sugar is ribose • Nucleotide = nucleoside + phosphate group © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 130. Nucleotide Polymers • Nucleotide polymers are linked together to build a polynucleotide • Adjacent nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds that form between the —OH group on the 3′ carbon of one nucleotide and the phosphate on the 5′ carbon on the next • These links create a backbone of sugar- phosphate units with nitrogenous bases as appendages • The sequence of bases along a DNA or mRNA polymer is unique for each gene © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 131. The Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules • RNA molecules usually exist as single polypeptide chains • DNA molecules have two polynucleotides spiraling around an imaginary axis, forming a double helix • In the DNA double helix, the two backbones run in opposite 5′→ 3′ directions from each other, an arrangement referred to as antiparallel • One DNA molecule includes many genes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 132. • The nitrogenous bases in DNA pair up and form hydrogen bonds: adenine (A) always with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always with cytosine (C) • Called complementary base pairing • Complementary pairing can also occur between two RNA molecules or between parts of the same molecule • In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil (U) so A and U pair © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 133. Figure 5.27 Sugar-phosphate backbones Hydrogen bonds Base pair joined by hydrogen bonding Base pair joined by hydrogen bonding (b) Transfer RNA(a) DNA 5′ 3′ 5′3′
    • 134. DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of Evolution • The linear sequences of nucleotides in DNA molecules are passed from parents to offspring • Two closely related species are more similar in DNA than are more distantly related species • Molecular biology can be used to assess evolutionary kinship © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 135. The Theme of Emergent Properties in the Chemistry of Life: A Review • Higher levels of organization result in the emergence of new properties • Organization is the key to the chemistry of life © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 136. Figure 5.UN02
    • 137. Figure 5.UN02a
    • 138. Figure 5.UN02b
    • 139. Figure 5. UN03
    • 140. Figure 5. UN04
    • 141. Figure 5. UN05
    • 142. Figure 5. UN06
    • 143. Figure 5. UN07
    • 144. Figure 5. UN08
    • 145. Figure 5. UN09
    • 146. Figure 5. UN10
    • 147. Figure 5. UN11
    • 148. Figure 5. UN12
    • 149. Figure 5. UN13