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Mouton Dfid Presentaion  14 September2009

Mouton Dfid Presentaion 14 September2009






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  • Guide has been designed to serve as a resource by all those who conduct research and for those who manage and monitor research in HEIs It is intended to inform institutional self-assessments, by providing common reference points against which HEIs can review the strengths and weaknesses of their capacity to undertake and quality assure research activities and outputs and to inform their plans for improvement. The Guide should be interpreted flexibly and sensitively, with due regard for the institutional mission and the context in which a particular institution operates. Finally, the Guide considers only mechanisms for research quality assurance at the institutional level and does not consider research management in general.

Mouton Dfid Presentaion  14 September2009 Mouton Dfid Presentaion 14 September2009 Presentation Transcript

  • Research utilisation Models and some empirical data Johann Mouton, CREST 14 September 2009
  • Knowledge production, dissemination, uptake and impact The research process New knowledge Research (based) Outputs/ results Knowledge applications/ technologies CODIFIED New facts/ theories/ models Policies/ legislation/practices Technologies Tests/ scenario’s/ systems Scientific community EMBODIED Students Society Industry Government Impact Uptake Production Dissemination
  • Models of research utilisation Science push model The production of scientific knowledge Appropriate dissemination strategies Science push model of research utilisation The supply of advances in research (findings) is the major determinant of knowledge utilisation. The researchers are the sources for ideas for directing research and the users are (simply) receptacles for the research results. This means that utilisation follows a linear sequence from the supply of research advances to utilisation by decision-makers and practitioners. Within this framework, the more detailed discussions in the literature focus on which of the dimensions of the production of science could lead to more or less effective utilisation. Dimensions that have been studied over the years include content attributes (the quality and credibility of the research produced); types of research (basic/applied) and differences between research domains and disciplines. Utilisation of knowledge
  • Models of research utilisation User-driven model The basic premise of this model can be formulated as follows: The users of research are regarded as the major sources of ideas for directing research . This approach generates a “customer-contractor” relationship where the practitioners and decision-makers behave like “customers” who define what research they want, and where the researchers behave like “contractors” who execute contracts in exchange of payments. It should be pointed out that this is still essentially a linear sequential model, which, in this case starts with the identification of the research problem by the customers or potential users. Within the user driven model, knowledge utilisation is best explained (only) by the needs of the users. It is argued that the use of knowledge is increased when researchers focus their projects on the needs of users instead of focussing them only or primarily on the advancement of scholarly knowledge. The production of scientific knowledge Organisational interests User needs Utilisation of knowledge
  • Models of knowledge utilisation The network model
    • According to the network model, effective knowledge utilisation depends on various “disorderly” interactions occurring between researchers and users. The model predicts that the more sustained and intense the interactions and collaborations between researchers and users, the more likely there will be utilisation. It gives greater attention to the relationships between researchers and users at different stages of knowledge production, dissemination and utilisation. The focus now is much more on the nature of the linkages and other interactive mechanisms that bind producers and users of knowledge (as well as other potential stakeholders) into a system of knowledge and innovation. Linkage mechanisms include informal personal contacts, participation in committees, and transmission of reports to non-academic organisation. The key issue in this model is basically the “intensity” of linkage mechanisms.
  • Bozeman’s technology transfer model
  • The Bozeman network-model
  • Summary on models
    • The network model of knowledge utilisation incorporates all of the features of the science push and user driven models. This allows one then to explain the dynamics of knowledge utilisation through reference to three sets of factors:
      • Types of research, scientific disciplines and dissemination strategies (Expanded science push model)
      • Needs and organisational interests of users (User driven model)
      • Linkage mechanisms and forms of collaboration (Network model)
  • Factors correlated with effective utilisation
    • Basic science push model
    • Types of research
    • Domain differences
    • Expanded science push
    • (Traditional) dissemination strategies
    • User-driven model
    • User needs
    • Network model
    • Collaborations
    • Interactions
    • Organisational linkages
    • Resource base
    Improved utilisation
  • SA Survey Respondents and Research Projects by Sector of Research Performance    
  • Research utilisation by sector (57% across all sectors)
  • Communication of Research Results (%)   % calculated out of a total of 1803 projects
  • Academic modes of dissemination
  • User-driven modes of dissemination
  • “ Network” modes of dissemination
  • Dissemination modes and reported utilisation of research 1 = Above average on all three modes of dissemination 2 = Above average on academic-driven and user-driven only 3 = Above average on academic-driven and network-driven only 4 = Above average on user-driven and network-driven only 5 = Above average on academic-driven only 6 = Above average on user-driven only 7 = Above average on network-driven only 8 = Below average on all three modes of dissemination
  • Concluding comments
    • Utilisation of knowledge/research is optimised under the following conditions (in descending order of importance):
    • Where multiple modes of dissemination are employed
    • Where scientists collaborate: both across fields and across institutions
    • Where R&D projects have reached a minimum size and scope (funding)
    • Where there is an experienced principal project leader
  • The End