TAKS review BIO 6A 6B 6C

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TAKS review BIO 6A 6B 6C

  1. 1. DNA, mRNA, and Protein Synthesis<br />TAKS Review<br />
  2. 2. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid<br />Functions:<br />Store and transmit genetic info<br />Contains the blueprint for making proteins<br />What is DNA?<br />
  3. 3. Location and Structure of DNA <br />Location:<br />Nucleus <br />Structure:<br />Double stranded, often called double helix<br />Composed of three part nucleotides:<br />Deoxyribose (sugar)<br />Phosphate (PO4)<br />Nitrogen base (1 of 4):<br />Adenine (A)<br />Thymine (T)<br />Cytosine (C)<br />Guanine (G)<br />
  4. 4. Base Pairing Rule<br />
  5. 5. During cell reproduction an exact copy of the parent cell is made<br />DNA unzips to make two new strands of DNA<br />Location: Nucleus<br />DNA Replication<br />
  6. 6. DNA Replication<br />
  7. 7. DNA contains the instructions for building proteins<br />Proteins are made at the ribosomes<br />DNA cannot leave the nucleus<br />How does DNA’s information get to the ribosome?<br />Making Proteins <br />
  8. 8. Messenger RNA (mRNA)<br />What is mRNA?<br />Ribonucleic acid:<br />Single stranded<br />Nucleotides composed of:<br />Ribose (sugar)<br />Phosphate<br />Nitrogen bases:<br />Adenine (A)<br />Guanine (G)<br />Cytosine (C)<br />Uracil (U)<br />
  9. 9. Transcription: RNA is made from a strand of DNA<br />Location:<br />nucleus<br />mRNA leaves the nucleus and takes the information to the RIBOSOME where a protein will be made<br />How does mRNA take DNA’s information to the ribosome?<br />
  10. 10. Transcription<br />
  11. 11. What happens to mRNA at the ribosome?<br />mRNA will bind to the ribosome<br />tRNA will read mRNA in three part sections (codon)<br />tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome<br />Amino acids will bond to form a protein<br />
  12. 12. Translation<br />
  13. 13. Translation<br />
  14. 14. Translation (continued)<br />
  15. 15. Remember: mRNA is read in 3 part sequences called a codon(there are 64 total)<br />Every 3 part sequence codes for an amino acid<br />Proteins are determined by the order in which amino acids are joined together<br />There are 20 different amino acids which can combine to form many different proteins<br />Genetic Code-language of mRNA<br />
  16. 16. Mutations – are changes in the genetic material.<br />2 Kinds:<br />Gene mutations<br />Chromosomal mutations<br />Mutations <br />
  17. 17. Produce changes in a single cell.<br />Types:<br />Point mutations– involves changes in one or a few nucleotides and occur at a single point in the DNA sequence.<br />Substitutions – one base is changed to another; only affects a single amino acid.<br />Insertions & Deletions– a base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence; much more dramatic because the genetic code is read in 3-base codons.<br />Frameshift mutations– the shifting of codons & the “reading frame” which may change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation. It can alter a protein so much that it is unable to perform its normal functions.<br />Gene MutationsSee pg. 307, Fig. 12-20<br />
  18. 18. Gene Mutations: Substitution, Insertion, and Deletion<br />Deletion<br />Insertion<br />Substitution<br />

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