Naming 2 SMART
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Naming 2 SMART Naming 2 SMART Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 7
    Nomenclature II
    How to get the formula from the name
  • Binary Covalent Compounds
    Binary covalent compounds are compounds with two (2) nonmetals (Ex. CO, SF6, P2O5).
  • Binary Covalent Compounds
    Determining the formula:
    Identify the elements in the compound. Confirm they are both nonmetals.
     Use the prefix to tell how many atoms of each element there are in the compound.
    mono = 1 •di = 2 • tri = 3 • tetra = 4 •penta = 5
    hexa = 6 •hepta = 7 •octo = 8 •nona = 9 •deca = 10
  • Binary Covalent Compounds
    Determining the formula:
     To indicate how many atoms of each element are in the formula, use subscripts.
    Example: carbon dioxide has
    1 carbon and 2 oxygens = C1O2 = CO2
    (carbon’s 1 subscript is understood)
    mono = 1 •di = 2 • tri = 3 • tetra = 4 •penta = 5
    hexa = 6 •hepta = 7 •octo = 8 •nona = 9 •deca = 10
  • Binary Covalent Compounds
    Practice:
     selenium tetrafluoride __________________________________
     octaphosphoruspentabromide __________________________________
     heptanitrogenhexachloride __________________________________
     iodine trifluoride __________________________________
    mono = 1 •di = 2 • tri = 3 • tetra = 4 •penta = 5
    hexa = 6 •hepta = 7 •octo = 8 •nona = 9 •deca = 10
  • Acids
    Acid - a compound that produces hydrogen ions, (H+) when dissolved in water. An acid will always end in the word "acid"! Also, an acid formula will always begin with hydrogen!
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    1) What kind of acid is it?
    If it begins with “hydro”, it is binary, meaning hydrogen bound to a nonmetal.
    If it does not begin with “hydro”, it is ternary, meaning hydrogen bound to a polyatomic ion.
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    2) Find the formula of a binary acid!
    a. First, identify the nonmetal from the root of the word before acid.
    Example: Hydrochloric Acid
    the nonmetal is chlorine.
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    Find the formula of a binary acid!
    b. Then, find the oxidation number of hydrogen (always 1+) and the nonmetal and write them as superscripts of each ion. This makes a cation(+) and an anion(–)
    Example: H+1 Cl–1
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    2) Find the formula of a binary acid!
    c. Next, CRISS-CROSS the number of each oxidation number (NOT the charge!) down to the subscript of the opposite ion to indicate how many atoms you have of each ion in the compound.
    Example:
    H+1Cl–1 = H1 Cl1
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    2) Find the formula of a binary acid!
    d. Reduce subscripts to lowest whole number ratio.
    ExampleHCl
    (1 subscripts are understood)
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    2) Find the formula of a binary acid!
    Practice:
     Hydrochloric Acid_________________________________
    Hydroselenic Acid_________________________________
    Hydroiodic Acid _________________________________
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    3) Find the formula of a Ternary Acid!
    a. Identify the polyatomic ion.
    i. If it ends in “-ous” acid, change the end to “-ite”, look up on polyatomic ion list.
    ii. If it ends in “-ic” acid, change the end to “-ate”, look up on polyatomic ion list.
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    3) Find the formula of a Ternary Acid!
    Write the oxidation numbers of H and the polyatomic anion as superscripts
    Criss cross the numbers only (not the charge!)
    Reduce subscripts to lowest whole number ratio.
    SAME AS BINARY ACIDS
  • Acids
    Finding the formula of an acid
    3) Find the formula of a Ternary Acid!
    Practice:
    Chlorous Acid____________________________________
     Sulfuric Acid____________________________________
     Perchloric Acid____________________________________
  • Ionic Compounds
    Ionic Compoundsare made of a metal and a nonmetal (KCl, NaCl, NaI, CaCl2, BeF2).
  • Ionic Compounds
    Determining the Formula of an Ionic Compound
    1) Identify the elements that make up the compound
    a. The first term, the metal, is the cation (+) and will look the same as it does on the periodic table.
    b. The second term, the nonmetal, is the anion (–) and its ending has been changed to"-ide”. Determine the element name from the root of the word.
  • Ionic Compounds
    Determining the Formula of an Ionic Compound
    2) Form the cation and anion by looking at oxidation numbers.
    3) Use the criss-cross method to form the compound.
    4) Reduce subscripts to lowest whole numbers.
  • Ionic Compounds
    Practice:
     sodium chloride ____________________________________________
     magnesium fluoride ____________________________________________
     aluminum iodide ____________________________________________
     calcium sulfide ____________________________________________
  • Compounds with
    Polyatomic Ions
    Polyatomic ions are groups of covalently bonded atoms that function as ions.
  • Compounds w/Polyatomic Ions
    Determining the Formula:
    1) Identify the first term, the cation (+), and the second term, the anion (–)
    a. the cation, anion, or BOTH may be polyatomic ions.
    2) Form the cation and anion by looking at oxidation numbers.
    3) Use the criss-cross method to form the compound.
    4) Reduce subscripts to lowest whole numbers.
  • Compounds w/Polyatomic Ions
    Practice:
     Sodium cyanide ________________________________
     Aluminum nitrite ________________________________
     Ammonium silicate ________________________________
  • Ionic Compounds w/ Transition Metals
    Transition metals are the d block on the periodic table!
  • Ionic Compounds w/ Transition Metals
    Determining the Formula from the Name:
    1) Identify the transition metal and the anion.
    2) Form the cation and anion by finding the oxidation numbers of the ions.
    a. transition metal - the Roman numeral
    b. anion - periodic table groups or polyatomic ions
    3) Use the criss-cross method to form the compound.
    4) Reduce subscripts to lowest whole numbers.
  • Ionic Compounds w/ Transition Metals
    Practice:
    tin (IV) iodide__________________
    mercury (II) sulfide______________
    iron (III) oxide__________________
    nickel (III) sulfate________________
    chromium (VI) phosphate__________
  • Compounds w/Polyatomic Ions