Australia History

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Australia History

  1. 1. HistoryHistoryofofAustraliaAustralia
  2. 2. StandardsStandardsSS6H8 The student will describe the culture andSS6H8 The student will describe the culture anddevelopment of Australia prior to contact withdevelopment of Australia prior to contact withEuropeans.Europeans. a. Describe the origins and culture of the Aborigines.a. Describe the origins and culture of the Aborigines.SS6H9 The student will explain the impact EuropeanSS6H9 The student will explain the impact Europeanexploration and colonization had on Australia.exploration and colonization had on Australia. a. Explain the reasons for British colonization ofa. Explain the reasons for British colonization ofAustralia; include the use of prisoners as colonists.Australia; include the use of prisoners as colonists. b. Explain the impact of European colonization ofb. Explain the impact of European colonization ofAustralia in terms of diseases and weapons on theAustralia in terms of diseases and weapons on theindigenous peoples of Australia.indigenous peoples of Australia.
  3. 3. AssessmentAssessment You will be creating a timeline on theYou will be creating a timeline on theHistory of Australia.History of Australia.Gather InformationGather Information….Slide show and notes….Slide show and noteson handout “ Australia History: A Time Line”on handout “ Australia History: A Time Line”AnalyzeAnalyze……Determine what events are……Determine what events areimportantimportant and put them in (refer to yourand put them in (refer to yourstandards to determine importance)standards to determine importance)and…..Create descriptions and illustrations forand…..Create descriptions and illustrations foryou significant eventyou significant eventProduceProduce….Timeline with dates, events,….Timeline with dates, events,descriptions and illustrations.descriptions and illustrations.
  4. 4. Changes to HandoutChanges to Handout Add these eventsAdd these eventsAustralian ActAustralian ActReject IndependenceReject IndependenceTribes moved to ReservesTribes moved to Reserves Add these datesAdd these dates1830’s1830’s1967196719991999
  5. 5. AboriginesAborigines The indigenousThe indigenouspeoples of Australiapeoples of Australia Where did theWhere did theAborigines comeAborigines comefrom?from?Based on studies doneBased on studies doneby geographers onby geographers onlanguage and otherlanguage and otherelements theelements theAborigines most likelyAborigines most likelycame Asia andcame Asia andmigrated about 60,000migrated about 60,000years ago.years ago.
  6. 6. Using themaps from theGreeks ofTerraAustralisIncognita (i.e.200 AD) theDutch set outto find a newplace to live.
  7. 7. European Exploration: DutchEuropean Exploration: Dutch First Europeans to sail to Australia were theFirst Europeans to sail to Australia were theDutch (Netherlands) in 1606, but they didn’tDutch (Netherlands) in 1606, but they didn’tsettle theresettle thereThe Dutch made one landing, were attacked byThe Dutch made one landing, were attacked byAborigines, and then abandoned furtherAborigines, and then abandoned furtherexploration but they left there mark on the regionexploration but they left there mark on the regionby naming it New Hollandby naming it New Holland
  8. 8. European Exploration : BritishEuropean Exploration : British 1770: Captain James Cook sailed around1770: Captain James Cook sailed aroundAustraliaAustraliaIgnored the Aborigines living there & claimedIgnored the Aborigines living there & claimedthe land for Englandthe land for EnglandCook named the area New South WalesCook named the area New South Wales Sailors also mapped theSailors also mapped thecoast of eastern Australia &coast of eastern Australia &TasmaniaTasmania
  9. 9. Prisoners as ColonistsPrisoners as Colonists American Revolution forced the British toAmerican Revolution forced the British tostop sending prisoners to Georgia (usedstop sending prisoners to Georgia (usedas aas a prison colonyprison colony at the time)at the time)Great Britain had to start looking for anotherGreat Britain had to start looking for anotherplace to send its prisoners…place to send its prisoners… Australia seemed like a good choice: noAustralia seemed like a good choice: nochance of escape, no colonies around it,chance of escape, no colonies around it,and very few indigenous people livedand very few indigenous people livedthere.there.
  10. 10.  1787 – British ships1787 – British shipscalled the “Firstcalled the “FirstFleet” left EnglandFleet” left Englandwith convicts towith convicts toestablish a prisonestablish a prisoncolonycolony 1788—British1788—Britishprisoners settled inprisoners settled inAustraliaAustralia
  11. 11. Early Prison SettlementEarly Prison Settlement
  12. 12. New South WalesNew South Wales 1788 to 1832: New South Wales was officially a1788 to 1832: New South Wales was officially aprison colony consisting mainly of convicts,prison colony consisting mainly of convicts,marines (guards), and their familiesmarines (guards), and their families Transportation stopped in 1840 butTransportation stopped in 1840 butovercrowding in Britain caused it to start againovercrowding in Britain caused it to start again Transportation of large numbers of convictsTransportation of large numbers of convictsstopped in 1853; small groups were still sentstopped in 1853; small groups were still sentuntil 1868until 1868 By this time, many free immigrants were settlingBy this time, many free immigrants were settlingtherethereThey built businesses, trading posts, farms, etc.They built businesses, trading posts, farms, etc.
  13. 13. GOLDGOLDIn 1851, Edward HargravesIn 1851, Edward Hargravesdiscovered a grain of gold in adiscovered a grain of gold in awaterhole near Bathurst.waterhole near Bathurst.Hargraves was convinced thatHargraves was convinced thatthe similarity in geologicalthe similarity in geologicalfeatures between Australia andfeatures between Australia andthe California goldfields (fromthe California goldfields (fromwhere he had just returned)where he had just returned)boded well for the search ofboded well for the search ofgold in his homeland. He wasgold in his homeland. He wasproved correct.proved correct.
  14. 14. GoldGoldRushRush The discovery marked the beginning of theThe discovery marked the beginning of theAustralian gold rushes and a radical change inAustralian gold rushes and a radical change inthe economic and social fabric of the nation.the economic and social fabric of the nation.
  15. 15. PopulationPopulationThe number of convicts pales in comparison to theThe number of convicts pales in comparison to theimmigrants who arrived in Australia in the 1851-1871 goldimmigrants who arrived in Australia in the 1851-1871 goldrush. In 1852 alone, 370,000 immigrants arrived in Australia.rush. In 1852 alone, 370,000 immigrants arrived in Australia.By 1871 the total population had nearly quadrupled fromBy 1871 the total population had nearly quadrupled from430,000 to 1.7 million people430,000 to 1.7 million people
  16. 16. Population ExplosionPopulation Explosion A large-scale program of migration to AustraliaA large-scale program of migration to Australiabegan at the end of World War II when millions ofbegan at the end of World War II when millions ofpeople in Europe were displaced from theirpeople in Europe were displaced from theirhomelands.homelands. During this time in Australia there was a desperateDuring this time in Australia there was a desperateshortage of labor and a growing belief thatshortage of labor and a growing belief thatsubstantial population growth was essential for thesubstantial population growth was essential for thecountrys future.countrys future. These and other factors led to the creation of aThese and other factors led to the creation of afederal immigration portfolio in 1945, more thanfederal immigration portfolio in 1945, more thanseven million people since its establishment inseven million people since its establishment in1945.1945.
  17. 17. Population ExplosionPopulation Explosion The department reached agreements with otherThe department reached agreements with othercountries to encourage migrants, includingcountries to encourage migrants, includingdisplaced persons from war-torn Europedisplaced persons from war-torn Europeescaping widespread poverty andescaping widespread poverty andunemployment to come to Australia.unemployment to come to Australia. By 1950, almost 200 000 people had arrived.By 1950, almost 200 000 people had arrived.One million more migrants arrived in each ofOne million more migrants arrived in each ofthe following four decades.the following four decades. Today, approximately one in four of AustraliasToday, approximately one in four of Australiaspopulation of more than 22 million people waspopulation of more than 22 million people wasborn overseas.born overseas.
  18. 18. The Perfect Colony…The Perfect Colony… Great Britain saw that Australia was aGreat Britain saw that Australia was agood location to base its navy in the Southgood location to base its navy in the SouthPacific OceanPacific OceanIts location would make it possible for BritishIts location would make it possible for Britishships to make repairs & get suppliesships to make repairs & get supplies Had many opportunities for trade with AsiaHad many opportunities for trade with Asiaand the Americasand the Americas
  19. 19. Commonwealth of AustraliaCommonwealth of Australia Non-prisoner colonization continued…Non-prisoner colonization continued… Major coastal settlements became 7Major coastal settlements became 7independent coloniesindependent colonies1861: government officials created1861: government officials createdboundaries for the colonies that are still inboundaries for the colonies that are still inplace todayplace today January 1, 1901: the Commonwealth ofJanuary 1, 1901: the Commonwealth ofAustralia was established.Australia was established.Melbourne served as the national capitalMelbourne served as the national capitaluntil Canberra was completed in 1927until Canberra was completed in 1927
  20. 20. " I ha v e p l a nne d a c i t y t ha t i s no t l i ke a nyo t he r i n t he wo r l d . I ha v e p l a nne d i t no t i n awa y t ha t I e x p e c t e d a ny g o v e r nme nt a ut ho r i t i e si n t he wo r l d wo ul d a c c e p t . I ha v e p l a nne d a ni d e a l c i t y – a c i t y t ha t me e t s my i d e a l o f t hec i t y o f t he f ut ur e . "•Canber r a wassel ect ed t o be t henat i on s capi t al i n1908 as acompr omi se bet weenr i val s Sydney andMel bour ne.• Wal t er Gr i f f i nspl an f eat ur edgeomet r i c mot i f ssuch as ci r cl es,hexagons andt r i angl es, and wascent er ed ar oundCapital City -- CanberraCapital City -- Canberra
  21. 21. •The desi gn i ncor por at essi gni f i cant ar eas ofnat ur al veget at i on t hathave ear ned Canber r a t het i t l e of t he " bushcapi t al “ .•As t he seat of t hegover nment of Aust r al i a,Canber r a i s t he si t e ofPar l i ament House, t heHi gh Cour t and numer ousgover nment depar t ment sand agenci es as wel l asmany soci al and cul t ur alCapital City -- CanberraCapital City -- Canberra
  22. 22. AboriginesAborigines Aborigines went through stages of beingAborigines went through stages of beingconquered through an invasion andconquered through an invasion andtaking of their lands.taking of their lands. European settlers often separatedEuropean settlers often separatedAborigines from societyAborigines from societySome were removed from their families and placedSome were removed from their families and placedinto institutionsinto institutionsOthers were killed because they were seen as aOthers were killed because they were seen as a“nuisance”“nuisance” 1830s: remnants of the tribes in the1830s: remnants of the tribes in thesettled areas were moved onto Reservessettled areas were moved onto ReservesThey were forbidden from teaching their children theirThey were forbidden from teaching their children theirlanguage and customs.language and customs.
  23. 23. Dur i ng t he1900s,separ at i onwas anof f i ci algover nmentpol i cy whi chl ast ed f ormany decadesToday, manyAbor i gi nalpeopl e do notknow t hei ror i gi ns:whi ch t r i bet hey ar edescendedf r om or t henames oft hei r par ent sand or
  24. 24. AboriginesAborigines 1967: federal government began to pass1967: federal government began to passlegislation to help the Aborigineslegislation to help the AboriginesIt was widely seen as affirmation of the AustralianIt was widely seen as affirmation of the Australianpeople’s wish to see its government take direct actionpeople’s wish to see its government take direct actionto improve the living conditions of Aboriginesto improve the living conditions of Aborigines In March, striking Aboriginal farmers changedIn March, striking Aboriginal farmers changedpolitical history by extending a demand for equalpolitical history by extending a demand for equalwages to a declaration of their rights ofwages to a declaration of their rights ofownership of traditional lands.ownership of traditional lands.This became one of Australia’s first successful landThis became one of Australia’s first successful landclaims by its indigenous people.claims by its indigenous people.
  25. 25.  In this photographIn this photographMervyn Bishop capturesMervyn Bishop capturesthe moment when thethe moment when thecountry is symbolicallycountry is symbolicallyhanded back to Vincenthanded back to VincentLingiari, one of theLingiari, one of thetraditional land ownerstraditional land ownersof Dagu Ragu (Wattieof Dagu Ragu (WattieCreek), by the PrimeCreek), by the PrimeMinister of the day,Minister of the day,Gough Whitlam.Gough Whitlam.
  26. 26. Australia Today…Australia Today… 1986: Australia Act -- all legal ties with the1986: Australia Act -- all legal ties with theBritish Empire were severedBritish Empire were severed Today, Australia is a parliamentaryToday, Australia is a parliamentarydemocracy (constitutional monarchy) withdemocracy (constitutional monarchy) withElizabeth II as queenElizabeth II as queen 1999: 55% of voters rejected the idea of1999: 55% of voters rejected the idea ofbecoming an independentbecoming an independentrepublic.republic.
  27. 27. Summer OlympicsSummer OlympicsCathy Freeman, theCathy Freeman, theAustralian athlete, hadAustralian athlete, hadthe honor of lightingthe honor of lightingthe Olympic Torch atthe Olympic Torch atthe Openingthe OpeningCeremony in 2000.Ceremony in 2000.This EmotionalThis Emotionalmoment helpedmoment helpedsymbolize the desiresymbolize the desireto reconcile with theto reconcile with theAboriginal population.Aboriginal population.
  28. 28. Your Task:Your Task:CREATE A TIMELINECREATE A TIMELINE IncludeInclude6 events with dates6 events with datesA description of each eventA description of each eventAn illustration to represent each eventAn illustration to represent each event Turn in with RubricTurn in with Rubric Due Wednesday May 15thDue Wednesday May 15th
  29. 29. TimelineTimelineRubricRubricCategory 4 3 2 1Title and Name Title is Evident andclearly represents theTimeLine. Author’sname is on the back.Title is visible andrepresents theTimeLine. Author’sname is on the back.Title is visible andauthors nameincluded.No title authors name maybe missing.Quality of content Included events areimportant andinteresting. No majordetails are excluded.Descriptions are verydetailed.Most of the includedevents are importantor interesting.Descriptions aredetailed.Some eventsincluded are trivial,and major events aremissing. Descriptionsare barley detailed.Many major events areexcluded, and too manytrivial events are included.Descriptions are missing ornot detailed.Accuracy ofcontentFacts are accuratefor all events reportedon the timeline.Facts are accuratefor almost all eventsreported on thetimeline.Facts are accuratefor most (75%) of theevents reported.Facts are often inaccuratefor events reported.Sequence ofcontentEvents are placed inproper order.Almost all events areplaced in properorder.Most (75%) of theevents are placed inproper order.Most events are incorrectlyplaced on the timeline.Dates An accurate,complete date hasbeen included foreach event.An accurate,complete date hasbeen included foralmost every event.An accurate date hasbeen included foralmost every event.Dates are inaccurate ormissing for several events.Mechanics Free of grammaticalerrors or typos.Contains just onesmall grammaticalerror or typo.Contains more thanone grammaticalerror or typo.Contains many errors.Illustration Graphics and artworkare eye-catching!Graphics further aidreader inunderstanding event.Effort, care and prideare evident.Graphics and artworkare appealing.Graphics aid readerin understandingevent. Effort, careand pride are evident.Graphics are notappropriate or doesnot aid reader infurther understandingevent. Some effort isevident.Little evidence of graphics orinappropriate or irrelevantgraphics. Lacks evidence oftime and effort in this area.Organization Timeline is easy toread and all elementsare clearly writtenand drawn.Timeline is easy toread and mostelements are clearlywritten and drawn.Timeline is somewhateasy to read andsome elements areclearly written anddrawn.Timeline is hard to read andfew elements are clearlywritten and drawn.Use of Time Used time wisely. Used time wiselymost of the time.Used time wiselysome of the time.Wasted time in class.6671136The comic
  30. 30. How to Use Timetoast:How to Use Timetoast: Go to the site www.timetoast.com.Go to the site www.timetoast.com. Create an account.Create an account. Title your project: “History of Australia”.Title your project: “History of Australia”. Click “Add Event”. Type the title, chooseClick “Add Event”. Type the title, choosethe date, write a description, & add anthe date, write a description, & add animageimageUse Google to find an image and save it toUse Google to find an image and save it toyour H: drive.your H: drive.Click on “Choose an Image” to insert yourClick on “Choose an Image” to insert yourpicturepicture

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