Church and KingsChurch Was granted favours by Roman Emperors/Kings land exemption from taxes Kings immunity in courts Got a supply of educated positions in courts administrators from In return church helped Church kings secure control of In return kings would territory enforce laws that Most influential prohibited other religions organization in Europe
Monasticism Most dynamic and significant institution in the Early Middle Ages Impulse to withdraw from the world and devote one’s self to God Regarded as the most perfect form of the Christian life “And every man that has forsaken home, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands for my name’s sake, shall receive his reward a hundredfold, and obtain everlasting life.” Matt. 19:29
Monasticism Started with St. Anthony from Egypt Retired to the desert to live the ascetic life of a good hermit A colony of would-be ascetics gathered around him to draw inspiration from his holiness The colony lived together but did not communicate to one another Soon other colonies grew in Egypt and other areas of the Roman Empire St. Simeon Stylites lived atop a 60 ft pillar for 30 years!
Monasticism St. Benedict of Nurisa (c. 480-544) added common sense Changed from severe fasting, hair shirts, and lashings Benedict was born into a rich family and had keen psychological insight Well organized and learned from experiences Founded a number of monasteries (Monte Cassino) Became a model monastery Focused on comprehensive, practical and compassionate rule
Monasticism and Saints Monasteries grew 400 -700 CE centres of education, literacy and learning Saints performs miracles as evidence of a special relationship with God Must be canonized after death St. Augustine wrote “Confessions” ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will Wrote treatise allowing violence against heretics – the “just war”
The Church takes Charge Peace of God: 989 CE No stealing from church No assaulting clerics, women, peasants Excommunication Truce of God: 1027 CE No fighting Thursday to Monday, feast days, holy days No killing Christians Led to justification for Crusades Truce created a paradox: Peace & Truce of God created to bring order and civility to society, yet this peace movement also contributed to idea of the righteousness of holy war.
Church takes Charge, cont’d Church Schism: 1054 CE Pope and Patriarch excommunicate each other Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox split War of Investitures: 1075 CE Who gets to appoint bishops? Pope or King? 50 years of bloodshed Concordat of Worms: 1112 CE King appoint bishops and abbots as vassal of empire Pope then gives staff and ring Kings gave up religious influence
Church takes Charge, cont’d Pope Innocent III Believed in supreme power of the papacy Emperors and kings were servants of the church Involved himself in disputes all over Europe Freely used his power of excommunication Placed kings in France and England were placed under interdict (removing sacramental and burial privileges). Other kings were overthrown and replaced by rulers of his choice Innocent started the trend of using the faith of various kings to their people to their advantage