The Cold War 1945-50


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An introduction to the beginnings of the Cold War and Canada's role.

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The Cold War 1945-50

  1. 1. THE COLD WAR
  2. 2.  The Cold War existed between the USA and its allies, and the USSR and its allies.  While the war never went ‘hot’ the fear and suspicion, combined with nuclear weapons, kept the world on edge for several decades.  (1945-1991)
  3. 3. Igor Gouzenko    He was a clerk in the Soviet Embassy in Canada in 195 Asked for political asylum In return would give government documents that proved Russia was operating two spy rings in Canada
  4. 4. Igor Gouzenko  37 spies were caught from his information  Canadians were shocked at these claims and for many, this is when the Cold War started  Gouzenko live in Ontario under police protection until the day he died in 1985  He published two books, one of which won the Governor General’s Prize for Literature
  5. 5. After the War  Europe was in ruins and the USA and Soviet Union (USSR) became the two major powers in the world  Canada would side with the Americans  Canada would come to evolve into a middle power  Would help contribute to the creation of the United Nations
  6. 6. 1946 Iron Curtain   Russia set up communist governments in all the countries they ‘liberated’ during WWII. Churchill gave a speech in which he said: “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow ”.
  7. 7. 1946 Iron Curtain  Europe was now divided  West = democracy  East = communism
  8. 8. Map: The Iron Curtain
  9. 9. 1947 Truman Doctrine   US President Truman promised American support to any country where communism was a threat Canada sided with the US because they didn’t feel the UN was effective enough
  10. 10. 1947 Truman Doctrine  This was also known as ‘containment’ because they wanted to contain communism
  11. 11. 1947 Marshall Plan   The US gov’t sent money and supplies to rebuild war-torn Europe Reasons: humanitarian, beneficial to US economy, prevent spread of communism
  12. 12. 1948 Berlin Blockade     After WWII, Germany and Berlin were split into 4 sectors by the Allies West Germany = French, British, American sectors and democracy East Germany = Russian sector and communism Berlin was also divided, even though it was in East Germany
  13. 13. 1948 Berlin Blockade   Stalin decided to close the roads and rails from West Germany to West Berlin He was determined to starve West Berliners into submission and gain control of Berlin
  14. 14. 1948 Berlin Blockade   The Western democracies decided it was worth the effort to save West Berlin They flew in EVERYTHING needed in West Berlin in the greatest airlift ever seen
  15. 15. 1948 Berlin Blockade    Also known as the Berlin Airlift Stalin was furious, but eventually gave in and opened up the roads and rails again The West and democracy had won this time
  16. 16. 1949 USSR has the bomb  Soviet spies helped the USSR build a bomb just like Fat Man, the atomic bomb the Americans had dropped on Japan.
  17. 17. •Now that both superpowers had the bomb, the Cold War officially began. Nuclear war was now a real threat. •The West wondered how to protect themselves from Russian atomic bombs.
  18. 18. 1949/1955 NATO and the Warsaw Pact   In 1949, Western Allies formed a defensive alliance known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization This was to protect themselves against the USSR and its allies
  19. 19.   In 1955, the USSR formed its own defensive alliance called the Warsaw Pact Now Europe was divided into two teams.
  20. 20. 1949 Chinese Revolution    After a long civil war, the communists finally took control of China The world’s most populated country was now communist The West now had a new huge enemy to worry about
  21. 21. Cold War Hysteria  1950s and 60s were full of tension between the Eastern and Western “Blocs”.  West was scared that the communists would continue to take land  The spread of communism was seen as a direct threat  East was scared of the West’s intentions and so they kept a ‘buffer’ between its borders incase of invasion
  22. 22. Nuclear War    Hysteria came from the possibility of nuclear war Any tension could rise into a war that could destroy most of the world All it took was one push of the button!
  23. 23. Table of Global Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles 1945-59