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Short Term Causes of World War I
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Short Term Causes of World War I

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This Presentation outlines the short term steps that lead to the starting of World War I. From the Assassination of the Arch Duke to Britain finally joining the war.

This Presentation outlines the short term steps that lead to the starting of World War I. From the Assassination of the Arch Duke to Britain finally joining the war.

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  • 1. The Short Term Steps to World War I
  • 2. The Steps to World War I Note: All text appearing in boxes like this one must be recorded in your notes. Note: All text appearing in boxes like this one must be recorded in your notes. All text in this type of box is a primary source. All text in this type of box is a primary source. Any blue underlined text can be clicked on to view its meaning in the glossary
  • 3. Background 1882 - Triple Alliance formed •Italy joins the German alliance with Austria 1907 - Triple Entente formed •Great Britain, France, Russia 1908 – Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina •angering Serbia (hopes to form Slavic Union) 1913 – Russia demonstrates support for Serbia •Third Balkan Crisis 1914 – Ottoman Empire (Turkey) signs secret alliance with Germany •common enemy of Russia 1882 - Triple Alliance formed •Italy joins the German alliance with Austria 1907 - Triple Entente formed •Great Britain, France, Russia 1908 – Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina •angering Serbia (hopes to form Slavic Union) 1913 – Russia demonstrates support for Serbia •Third Balkan Crisis 1914 – Ottoman Empire (Turkey) signs secret alliance with Germany •common enemy of Russia
  • 4. Triple Alliance – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy Triple Alliance – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
  • 5. Background • 1882 - Triple Alliance formed – Italy joins the German alliance with Austria • 1907 - Triple Entente formed – Great Britain, France, Russia. • 1908 – Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina – angering Serbia (hopes to form Slavic Union) • 1913 – Russia demonstrates support for Serbia – Third Balkan Crisis • 1914 – Ottoman Empire (Turkey) signs a secret alliance with Germany – common enemy of Russia
  • 6. Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, Russia Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, Russia
  • 7. Background • 1882 - Triple Alliance formed – Italy joins the German alliance with Austria • 1907 - Triple Entente formed – Great Britain, France, Russia. • 1908 – Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina – angering Serbia (hopes to form Slavic Union) • 1913 – Russia demonstrates support for Serbia – Third Balkan Crisis • 1914 – Ottoman Empire (Turkey) signs a secret alliance with Germany – common enemy of Russia
  • 8. Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 9. Background • 1882 - Triple Alliance formed – Italy joins the German alliance with Austria • 1907 - Triple Entente formed – Great Britain, France, Russia. • 1908 – Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina – angering Serbia (hopes to form Slavic Union) • 1913 – Russia demonstrates support for Serbia – Third Balkan Crisis • 1914 – Ottoman Empire (Turkey) signs a secret alliance with Germany – common enemy of Russia
  • 10. Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, Russia Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, Russia
  • 11. Background • 1882 - Triple Alliance formed – Italy joins the German alliance with Austria • 1907 - Triple Entente formed – Great Britain, France, Russia. • 1908 – Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina – angering Serbia (hopes to form Slavic Union) • 1913 – Russia demonstrates support for Serbia – Third Balkan Crisis • 1914 – Ottoman Empire (Turkey) signs a secret alliance with Germany – common enemy of Russia
  • 12. Triple Alliance – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy Triple Alliance – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
  • 13. Balance of Power France Russia Great Britain Serbia Austria-Hungary Germany Turkey Italy
  • 14. June 28, 1914June 28, 1914 Sarajevo, (Bosnia) Austria-HungarySarajevo, (Bosnia) Austria-Hungary
  • 15. June 28, 1914 1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife at Sarajevo, Bosnia. Austria blames Serbia. 1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife at Sarajevo, Bosnia. Austria blames Serbia.
  • 16. June 28, 1914 1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife at Sarajevo, Bosnia. Austria blames Serbia. 1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife at Sarajevo, Bosnia. Austria blames Serbia. Black Hand’s stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organisation prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret." "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organisation prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."
  • 17. Austria-Hungary has not been lacking in good will and in the spirit of conciliation, to bring about reasonably good relations with Serbia, but it has just been shown that these efforts have been completely impotent and that the Monarchy must expect in the future to deal with the bitter, irreconcilable and aggressive enmity of Serbia. In these conditions the Monarchy must tear away with a strong hand the net in which its enemy seeks to entangle it. Austria-Hungary has not been lacking in good will and in the spirit of conciliation, to bring about reasonably good relations with Serbia, but it has just been shown that these efforts have been completely impotent and that the Monarchy must expect in the future to deal with the bitter, irreconcilable and aggressive enmity of Serbia. In these conditions the Monarchy must tear away with a strong hand the net in which its enemy seeks to entangle it. Emperor Franz Josef (Austria) sends a letter to Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) asking for support. July 2, 1914
  • 18. 2. Germany sends a telegram indicating it would honour its treaty obligations to support Austria (known historically as the German ‘blank cheque’) 2. Germany sends a telegram indicating it would honour its treaty obligations to support Austria (known historically as the German ‘blank cheque’) July 5, 1914 …Finally, as far as concerns Serbia, His Majesty, of course, cannot interfere in the dispute now going on between Austria-Hungary and that country, as it is a matter not within his competence. The Emperor Francis Joseph may, however, rest assured that His Majesty will faithfully stand by Austria-Hungary, as is required by the obligations of his alliance and of his ancient friendship… …Finally, as far as concerns Serbia, His Majesty, of course, cannot interfere in the dispute now going on between Austria-Hungary and that country, as it is a matter not within his competence. The Emperor Francis Joseph may, however, rest assured that His Majesty will faithfully stand by Austria-Hungary, as is required by the obligations of his alliance and of his ancient friendship… Telegram from the Imperial Chancellor, von Bethmann-Hollweg, to the German Ambassador at Vienna. Tschirschky, July 6, 1914
  • 19. 3. Austria delivers an ultimatum to Serbia, demanding a response in 48 hours. 3. Austria delivers an ultimatum to Serbia, demanding a response in 48 hours. July 23, 1914 Austria-Hungary insisted that Serbia: 1. Put down all nationalist hatred against Austria- Hungary 2. Punish all those involved in the assassination plot 3. Allow Austro-Hungarian officials into Serbia to help crush the Black Hand Austria-Hungary insisted that Serbia: 1. Put down all nationalist hatred against Austria- Hungary 2. Punish all those involved in the assassination plot 3. Allow Austro-Hungarian officials into Serbia to help crush the Black Hand
  • 20. 4. Serbia responds to the ultimatum by agreeing to many, but not all, of the terms. 4. Serbia responds to the ultimatum by agreeing to many, but not all, of the terms. July 25, 1914 "Part of your demands we have accepted... For the rest, we place our hopes on your loyalty and chivalry as an Austrian general." Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pasic "Part of your demands we have accepted... For the rest, we place our hopes on your loyalty and chivalry as an Austrian general." Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pasic
  • 21. 5. Austria sends a telegram to Serbia declaring war. 5. Austria sends a telegram to Serbia declaring war. July 28, 1914
  • 22. 6. Russia, in support of Serbia, proclaims a general mobilization 6. Russia, in support of Serbia, proclaims a general mobilization July 30, 1914
  • 23. 7. France, as Russia’s ally, also authorizes a full mobilization 7. France, as Russia’s ally, also authorizes a full mobilization July 31, 1914
  • 24. 8. Germany declares war on Russia 8. Germany declares war on Russia August 1, 1914
  • 25. 9. Germany declares war on France 9. Germany declares war on France August 3, 1914
  • 26. 10. Germany puts Schlieffen Plan into motion, invading neutral Luxemburg and Belgium. 10. Germany puts Schlieffen Plan into motion, invading neutral Luxemburg and Belgium. August 2-4, 1914
  • 27. 11. Because of treaty agreements guaranteeing Belgian neutrality, Great Britain, along with Australia and Canada, declare war on Germany. 11. Because of treaty agreements guaranteeing Belgian neutrality, Great Britain, along with Australia and Canada, declare war on Germany. August 4, 1914 From a Canadian perspective, World War I had now begun. From a Canadian perspective, World War I had now begun.
  • 28. 1914 - 1917 •1914 (Aug 5) – Montenegro joins the Allied Powers •1914 (Aug. 23) – Japan joins the Allied Powers by declaring war on Germany •1914 (Oct. 29) – Turkey joins the Central Powers •1915 (May 23) – Italy joins the Allied Powers •1915 (Oct. 14) – Bulgaria joins the Central Powers •1916 (August 27) – Romania joins the Allied Powers •1917 (Apr. 6) – The United States joins the Allied Powers •1917 (Jun. 27) – Greece joins the Allied Powers
  • 29. Countries Involved in World War I Ecuador Severed relations with Germany December 8, 1917 France Invaded by Germany August 2, 1914 Germany Declared war on Russia August 1, 1914 Great Britain (Australia, Canada) Declared war on Germany August 4, 1914 Greece Declared war on Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire June 27, 1917 Guatemala Declared war on Germany April 23, 1918 Haiti Declared war on Germany July 12, 1918 Honduras Declared war on Germany July 19, 1918 Italy Declared war on Austria-Hungary May 23, 1915 Japan Declared war on Germany August 23, 1914 Liberia Declared war on Germany August 4, 1917 Montenegro Declared war on Austria-Hungary August 5, 1914
  • 30. Your Assignment • Read the “War Breaks Out” (photocopy) • Summarize each of the Long Term Causes of World War I in your notes –Alliances –Nationalism –Imperialism –Militarism • Write an article for the front page of a newspaper on August 5, 1914 • This article should: • Explain why Canada is at war • include both long and short term causes • Use inverted pyramid style (most important information first)
  • 31. Glossary •Alliance - An association to further certain common interests of the members. •Mobilization - To make ready or muster forces for military service. •Neutral - Does not take sides, impartial. •Schlieffen Plan - A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts •Treaty – a legal agreement detailing a relationship between countries •Ultimatum - Terms presented by one power (or group of powers) to another
  • 32. Glossary •Alliance - An association to further certain common interests of the members. •Mobilization - To make ready or muster forces for military service. •Neutral - Does not take sides, impartial. •Schlieffen Plan - A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts •Treaty – a legal agreement detailing a relationship between countries •Ultimatum - Terms presented by one power (or group of powers) to another
  • 33. Glossary •Alliance - An association to further certain common interests of the members. •Mobilization - To make ready or muster forces for military service. •Neutral - Does not take sides, impartial. •Schlieffen Plan - A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts •Treaty – a legal agreement detailing a relationship between countries •Ultimatum - Terms presented by one power (or group of powers) to another
  • 34. Glossary •Alliance - An association to further certain common interests of the members. •Mobilization - To make ready or muster forces for military service. •Neutral - Does not take sides, impartial. •Schlieffen Plan - A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts •Treaty – a legal agreement detailing a relationship between countries •Ultimatum - Terms presented by one power (or group of powers) to another
  • 35. Glossary •Alliance - An association to further certain common interests of the members. •Mobilization - To make ready or muster forces for military service. •Neutral - Does not take sides, impartial. •Schlieffen Plan - A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts •Treaty – a legal agreement detailing a relationship between countries •Ultimatum - Terms presented by one power (or group of powers) to another
  • 36. Glossary •Alliance - An association to further certain common interests of the members. •Mobilization - To make ready or muster forces for military service. •Neutral - Does not take sides, impartial. •Schlieffen Plan - A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts •Treaty – a legal agreement detailing a relationship between countries •Ultimatum - Terms presented by one power (or group of powers) to another
  • 37. Sources: •www.westernfront.co.uk •www.worldwar1.com •din-timelines.com •www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk •www.firstworldwar.com •Microsoft Encarta 2004