Scientific Revolution and The EnlightenmentPresentation Transcript
The Scientific Revolution To Do:With a partner, diagram the Universeas we know it today… Be as accurate as possible!
The Scientific RevolutionQuestion:How does your diagramDiffer from this one?
The Scientific Revolution1500 - 1687By 1000s AD, the Europeans were behind the rest of the world in science and technology1295 – Marco Polo, a European explorer, visits Asia and sees their advancements… He comments on the inferiority of the EuropeansNow Europe really picks up the pace… By the 1800s Europeans have the attitude that they are superior to China!
OriginsScientificRevolution of the 17th and 18th centuries explored the world of nature and the heavens ◦ Used to be taught by religious institutionsPeople rejected priests to study by themselvesPeople started to test theoriesNew discoveries in physics, medicine, biology, and chemistry
The Scientific Revolution A new way of thinking emerges:1) Secular – “of this world” - This is the focus of things on this world, not so much about religion. - Around the 1500s there’s a shift from theology to philosophy; taught in universities. (politics, natural sciences, etc…) we still have Ph.D.s - They believed that while God did create the Universe, he did so in a way that we humans could understand, reconstruct, and know. 2) Rational – reason things out, and think about everything! 3) Reason – Humans CAN figure out the way the world works (Laws of nature) by studying physics, biology, chemistry, and politics (i.e. what makes society work). 4) Progress – You get to knowledge through progress!!! To do this humans need to re-engineer the world. At this time we see a rise in literacy and city populations…
The Scientific RevolutionNicholas Copernicus (1473 - 1543)A Polish Priest who wrote in Latin - Up to the time of Copernicus, people thought that there was a sort of crystal sphere the kept the planets, moon, and stars in orbit around the Earth. -Copernicus proposed the idea that the Earth revolved around the sun, and not vice versa… The sun was the center of the Universe, not the Earth. -In 1543 Copernicus published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. He waited until he was about to die before publishing it because he knew what he was proposing would be trouble… He sends a letter to the Pope before its publication… ”I don’t mean to…” He provides a Possible Alternative Explanation…
The Scientific Revolution The Copernican Universe
The Scientific RevolutionJohannes Kepler (1571 - 1630)A German who also publishes in Latin - Kepler proved Copernicus was right through mathematics -To do this he needed to gather a lot of information. He uses night observations (over the span of years) from a Danish Nobleman named Tycho Brahe. - Kepler uses his information to make accurate models of the heavens. - Kepler demonstrates that planets move in an elliptical orbit… not a circular orbit that Copernicus had previously said.
The Scientific Revolution Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642)- He was one of the first Europeans to buildand use a telescope (he didn’t invent it!)- Galileo used a telescope to observe themoon, and saw craters. This proved that the moonwas not a perfect sphere… hmm… trouble…- He saw moons on Jupiter (thus we have the Galilean Moons of Jupiter) - Aristotle didn’t mention moons… there they are!!!- Galileo used the scientific method to come to his conclusions; (Observe – Define – Test… Rethink, Observe, Experiment, Observe, Test…)
The Scientific Revolution Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727) -Wrote “Principia Methematica” which contained mathematical descriptions of how the world works (up to the speed of light, as Einstein later proves…)Law 1: Every object continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.Law 2: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.Law 3: Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.
Discussion Questions◦ Why was the Church so opposed to the heliocentric theory?◦ If you were Galileo or Copernicus, would you have fought for your beliefs, even at the risk of being executed or jailed?◦ Are there ideas or beliefs that you would defend today at all costs?◦ Major advances in science are often controversial because they change our way of thinking, raise important ethical questions, or come into conflict with traditional religious values. Give examples of scientific advancements that have raised such controversy during your lifetime.
Why so important?The rise of a secular (non-religious society)The rise of the individual (end of absolutism)Advances in navigation, applied mathematicsImproves trade and the overall quality of life
Two Significant PhilosophersRead the article on Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon and answer the following for each: ◦ What aspects of learning did they influence? How? ◦ What type of reasoning did they come up with? What did it involve? ◦ Write down their most famous quote ◦ What are their legacies?
The Enlightenment 1687 - 1826The 18th Century proudly referred to itself as the "Age ofEnlightenment" and rightfully so for Europe had dwelled in the dim glowof the Middle Ages when suddenly the lights began to come on in mensminds and humankindmoved forward.To understand the natural world and humankinds place in it solely onthe basis of reason and without turning to religious belief was the goalof the wide-ranging intellectual movement called the Enlightenment.The movement claimed the allegiance of a majority of thinkers during the17th and 18th centuries, a period that Thomas Paine called the Age ofReason. At its heart it became a conflict between religion and the inquiringmind that wanted to know and understand through reason based onevidence and proof. Many “Enlightenment Thinkers” were atheist…
The Enlightenment 1687 - 1826 Why 1826? This is the year that Thomas Jefferson dies… TheDeclaration of Independence was an Enlightenment document…-Those capable of reading (nobles, merchants, and some artisans)are exposed to enlightenment ideas…-The peasants at this time are too busy to care, plus, the nobles don’tWant educated peasants… (insert France here…) “Philosophes” – French for Philosophers LOTS of philosophers at the time were FrenchPolitical Philosophers that influenced Jefferson: 1) John Locke (1632 – 1704) 2) Baron de Montesquieu (1689 – 1755) 3) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778)Those good at explaining Newton to the Laymen: 1) Madam du Chatelet (1706 – 1749) 2) Denis Diderot (1713 – 1784)
The EnlightenmentJohn Locke (1632 - 1704) Treatise on Government (1 and 2)… #2 in 1690 -Addressed the question: What is the purpose of government? - What is the purpose? - To protect the natural rights of its citizens… - Everyone has them - Life, Liberty, and Property… -If the government isn’t doing it’s job, it’s illegitimate and people have the right to overthrow it. - 2 years previous to the second treatise was “The Glorious Revolution” in 1688 – 1689, where James II is ran off the thrown and replaced by Mary, James’ daughter… she has to agree to the English Bill of Rights… No one Rule without sharing power with Parliament -Locke agreed that James was properly and justly disposed - Later Jefferson would use this for his grievances to King George III
The EnlightenmentMontesquieu (1689 - 1755) Spirit of the Laws - 1748 -Montesquieu believed in the separation of powers idea Checks and Balances * One person could not be judge, jury, and executioner - Without checks and balances there would be tyranny… * This has a huge influence on our constitution…
The EnlightenmentRousseau (1712 - 1778) The Social Contract - 1762 - Government is not there for the glory of God, but because there are obligations between the government and its people. - The Social Contract was first published in Amsterdam… He would have gotten in trouble if he had published it in France… 1) Popular Sovereignty (Sovereignty = the right to rule) - Not from God, but from the people. This was a radical thought at the time! Up until now sovereignty was from God. 2) General Will – Works well for Democracy and Dictators - The decisions of government should be what people want Tyranny of Majority… Bad though!... Hitler said he represented the general will of Germany (also Mussolini of Italy)
The EnlightenmentDiderot (1713 - 1784) Encyclopedia - Diderot was the editor of the Encyclopedia from 1751-1765… The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences. - He recruits experts to write on different topics (to put knowledge in Leymen terms)… for quick reference. There were MANY volumes. His Purpose: was to change the general way of thinking… to put the Enlightenment in the hands of the general public. He later gets in trouble with the king over later volumes (after #1)… The Vatican in Rome puts it in the index of “bad books”
The Enlightenment Literacy Rates (males) 1600 1800 France 1/6 2/3 English 1/4 1/2 Chaterlet - Translates Isaac Newton into French Adam Smith Wealth of Nations - 1776 - This book was an attack on mercantilism – it said that less government was necessary… A person (or markets) left to their own devices could do better than governments.There are certain things that government should do: Laws, and national Defense…
The Enlightened Despots The courts of Europe became enlivened as philosophes tried to persuade rulers to adopt their ideas… Some did accept the Enlightenment ideas, while others still practiced absolutism. Those that did became known as “Enlightened Despots”Frederick II (1740-1786) - aka Frederick the Great - He exerted extremely tight control during his reign of Prussia - Saw himself as the “first servant of the state” working for the common good. - Reduced torture and allowed free press - Simplified laws, and reorganized the govt’s civil service - Tolerated religious differences* In the end he still wanted a strong monarchy and power for himself Catherine the Great - Exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot - Believed in equality and liberty - Abolished torture and established religious tolerance - Criticized serfdom (being tied to the land) * In the end she did not intend to give up her power…Joseph II (son of Maria Theresa of Austria) - Continuing his mother’s reforms, he was the most radical of the enlightened Despots - He would travel in disguise as a peasant to see how they lived - Supported religious equality for Protestants and Jews (Catholic Empire) - Ended censorship = free press - Sold monastery property if it did not educate or care for the sick* After his death many of his reforms were canceled…
The EnlightenmentThese ideas have reached the public by now… They start to influence others… Thus we see the start of revolutions in America and France.