Enlightenment’s Impact on MusicVoltaire thought that people of other cultures and religions should not only be tolerated but embraced as part of a greater brotherhood of manSuch ideas were quickly absorbed into the music of the dayChristoph Willibald Gluck sought to rid musical expression of “useless, excessive ornamentation” and draw from the ideals of “simplicity, truth and naturalness” in his music.
Changes in MusicThe Enlightenment also saw: ◦ the beginning of public concerts ◦ The middle class sought entertainment which they could now affordMusic was no longer for the private amusement of a privileged fewComposers like Haydn invented new ways to indulge large audiences with music that demanded greater attention ◦ He often included a narrative theme and effects like contrast, subtlety, suspense and climax.
Musical PeriodsBaroque Period ◦ Johann Sebastian Bach ◦ George Frederick HandelClassical Period ◦ Joseph Hayden ◦ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ◦ Ludwig Von BeethovenFor each composer record their background, major works and legacy
The Baroque PeriodRoughly from the 1600s to 1760.Baroque music shares a heavy use of polyphony (more than one melody) and counterpoint (two melodies going back and forth).It begins to be felt as chords in a hierarchical, functional tonal scheme.Baroque music also uses longer lines and stronger rhythms ◦ the initial line is extended, either alone or accompanied only by the bass, until the theme reappears in another voice (fugue).
Johann Sebastian Bach Born into a musically gifted family Bach picked up the violin and became part of the private orchestra of the prince at Weimar Not even a year later, he left to become an organist in Arnstadt As an organist, he graced Mühlhausen with his new talents. In 1708 he was made court organist and chamber musician at Weimar, and in 1714 he became concert master In 1723 he took the important post of music director of the church of St. Thomas, Leipzig, and of its choir school; he remained in Leipzig until his death.
Johann Sebastian BachMany of Bachs works were not published during his lifetimeBest Known For:The Brandenburg ConcertosWell-Tempered ClavierArt of the Fugue
Johann Sebastian BachHe composed an astonishing number of instrumental works, many of them designed for the instruction of his numerous pupils. ◦ combined inventiveness and control in his great, striding fuguesDuring his lifetime, Bach was better known as an organist than as a composer ◦ For decades after his death, his works were neglected, but in the 19th century his genius came to be recognized, particularly by romantic composers such as Mendelssohn and Schumann ◦ Since that time his reputation has grown steadily.
George Frideric Handel After studying law at the Univ. of Halle (1703), he joined the opera orchestra at Hamburg. He accomplished his first two operas there, Almira and Nero Handels sight became impaired in 1751, and by 1753 he was totally blind ◦ With his determination, he continued to conduct performances of his works For the next for years he stayed in Italy, where his operas Rodrigo (1707?) and Agrippina (1709) were staged, the latter very successfully. In 1710 Handel became musical director to the elector of Hanover but obtained leave to visit England in 1711, when his Rinaldo was produced in London He returned to England in 1712 and took up permanent residence there. His employer, the elector, became George I of England in 1714. It was for the king that Handel composed his celebrated orchestral Water Music (1717). He is buried in Westminster Abbey
George Frideric HandelBest Known As:Composer of MessiahWater MusicMusic for the Royal FireworksZadok the Priest
George Frideric HandelHandels musical style exemplifies the vigour and grandeur of the late German baroque and at the same time has English and Italian qualities of directness, clarity, and charm.He strongly influenced English composers for a century after his death, and, following a period of relative neglect, he has again come to be recognized as one of musics great figures.
Classical Period Spanning from the 1730s to the 1820s This era brought in some of the most well known and the supposed best composers ever Taste for structural clarity worked its way into the world of music as well ◦ moving away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period, and towards a style where a melody over a subordinate harmony, which is a combination, called homophony, was preferred ◦ This meant that playing of chords, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single selection, became a much more prevalent feature of music, and this in turn made the tonal structure of works clearer and harmonious There was a rise in the liking of public opera, leading to the changes in which the music was performed
Joseph Haydn His parents noticed his musical talents and so they accepted a proposal from their relative Johann Matthias Franck that Haydn be apprenticed to Franck in his home to train as a musician ◦ At the time he was not quite six He soon moved off to Vienna, where he worked for the next nine years as a chorus member Haydn was offered a job in 1761 as assistant Kapellmeister to the Eszterházy family ◦ They were one of the wealthiest and most important families in the Austrian Empire Gradually, Haydn came to write as much for publication as for his employer Around 1781 Haydn established a close friendship with Mozart, whose work he had already been influencing by example for many years The two composers enjoyed playing in string quartets together Haydn died in 1809, following an attack on Vienna by the French army under Napoleon.
Joseph HaydnBest Known For:The CreationThe Seasons
Joseph Haydn He was the first to employ attention-grabbing special effects. Haydn would also evoke democracy with another musical invention: the string quartet Author Nicholas Till explains the “democratic principles” of the string quartet, which he says is a form of open dialogue among equal participants: two violinists, a violist and a cellist The German philosopher Goethe said Haydn’s string quartets resembled “four civilized persons holding a conversation.” One instrument did not dominate Each instrument in the string quartet carried an equal share, taking turns in expressing a musical argument from different vantage points
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mozart was a remarkable prodigy He was taught how to play the harpsichord, violin, and organ by his father, Leopold, and began composing before he was five When Mozart was six, he and his older sister, Marianne, were presented by their father in concerts at the court of the Empress Maria Theresa in Vienna and also in the principal aristocratic households of central Europe, Paris, and London By the age of 13 he had written concertos, sonatas, symphonies, a German operetta, Bastien und Bastienne (1768), and an Italian opera buffa, La finta semplice (1769). Mozart was appointed concertmaster to the archbishop of Salzburg in 1771 He was dissatisfied with his position and the restrictions placed on his work After six years he went on tour in search of a better post. Despite the successful performance in Paris of his Symphony in D (1778), known as the Paris Symphony, Mozart did not receive much attention there. In Vienna, Mozart met Haydn, and the two developed a long and warm friendship that benefited the work of each.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Up until this period, composers were often just highly- skilled servants to the church or royal courts Mozart’s sought to sever his obligation to the hierarchy that employed his services so rigidly Eventually, Mozart found greater freedom in Vienna, where he supported himself with public concerts and commissions, and through teaching engagements Mozart’s opera “The Marriage of Figaro” epitomized the new ways of thinking by giving servants a central role Previously, servants were comic figures to be laughed at; but, building on ideas in the play by Beaumarchais, Mozart presented them as equally worthy of serious attention as any noble aristocrat
Wolfgang Amadeus MozartBest Known For:Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music, 1787)Don GiovanniDie Zauberflote (The Magic Flute, 1791)
Wolfgang Amadeus MozartBecame one of the world’s first freelance musiciansHe reflected social upheaval in his musicCreated a new classical style that emphasized balance, symmetry, and emotional expressionCreated 626 total pieces
Ludwig van Beethoven He was noticed for his talent at a very young age His father, who was a court musician, subjected him to a cruel schedule, hoping to exploit him as a child prodigy. In 1787 Beethoven first visited Vienna, at that time the center of the music world. There he performed for Mozart, whom he greatly impressed. In 1792 Haydn invited him to become his student. This made Beethoven return to Vienna, where he was to remain permanently. However, Beethovens unorthodox musical ideas insulted the old master, and the lessons were ended. Beethoven studied with several other eminent teachers, including Antonio Salieri, but was developing according to his own singular brilliance and could no longer profit greatly from instruction.
Ludwig van Beethoven Both his breathtaking piano ability and his notable compositions won Beethoven favour among the enlightened aristocracy congregated at Vienna, and he enjoyed their charitable support throughout his life They were tolerant, too, of his notoriously crude manners, careless appearance, and towering rages. His work itself was widely accepted, if controversial, and from the end of the 1790s Beethoven was not dependent on patronage for his income. 1801 marked the commencement of Beethovens tragic suffering, his deafness, which became progressively worse and, by 1817, total. Public performance eventually became impossible; but his creative works were not restricted. Beethoven died, after a long illness, in the midst of a fierce thunderstorm, and legend has it that the dying man shook his fist in defiance of the heavens.
Ludwig van BeethovenBest Known For:Fifth SymphonyRomance #2
Ludwig van Beethoven Beethoven produced sonatas for violin and piano and for cello and piano; string and piano trios; music for wind instruments; miscellaneous piano works ◦ Produced over 200 songs; a number of shorter orchestral works; and several choral pieces. Beethovens influence on following composers has been immeasurable Aside from his architectonic innovations and expansion of the classical sonata and symphony, he brought to music a new depth and intensity of emotion that was emulated by later romantic composers but never surpassed