3The Restoration After the Congress of Vienna 1815, major powers sought torestore legitimate rulers and is therefore known as theRestoration. Wanted a balance of power and a collective security against anyfuture revolutionary upheavals. 1815 to 1848 illustrates conservatives who want slow changewithin the institutional structure and to return to the old regimespolicies. Many liberal & national concepts developed by Napoleon wherereplaced by conservative rulers Spain – removed constitution and brought back Inquisition Prussia – retained the abolition of serfdom and religioustoleration.
4The Congress System In 1815, Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russiasigned the Quadruple Alliance and met regularlyto maintain peace. Eventually included France –Quintuple Alliance. The conservative monarchies of Eastern Europe– Austria, Russia, Prussia – formed the HolyAlliance dedicated to protect Christian principlesof religion, peace, and justice. England did notjoin, being less fearful of liberalism.
5The Congress System inAction The reactionary forces in Europe faced many revolutions oftenunder the leadership of military officers & members of liberal secretsocieties After a series of military revolts, in 1820 the King of Spain wasforced to bring back the Constitution of 1812 making Spain aconstitutional monarchy. France provided military support in 1823 of 100 000soldiers, making it possible for the King to once again remove theconstitution. Civil war broke out in Spain, ended with a definitive victory forconstitutional monarchy. Other successful revolts include: Greeks, Portugal and Belgium.
6Restoration in France Louis XVIII ruled from 1814 to 1824. All people had civil rights and wereequal before the law, but political rights, as in England, were restrictedto males who owned land. A group of “Ultras” – ultra royalists wanted to end constitutionalmonarchy – Louis held them off near the end of his life Louis brother, Charles X (reigned from 1824 – 1830) openly supportedthe Ultras. In 1830, he suspended the freedom of press and dissolvedparliament, which lead to rebellion by all but the privilege class. CharlesX was sent into exile. Charle’s cousin, named King Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848) ruled as theCitizen King Louis Philippe never called himself king of France, but king of theFrench. The king was often seen dressed in middle class clothes andhe associated with new moneyed class of France.
7The British Example Britain was able to avoid revolution because it had: A history of limited monarchy Power of a limited parliamentary democracy A sound justice system Tradition of free speech Passed reforms that precluded the need for revolution: Restrict the hours of work Improved work conditions The Reform Act 1832 recognized the growth in urban centers andit increased the size of the electorate seats from these centers. Opened trade by repealing laws that restricted international trade Education was provided by the church, with government grants