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Europe After Napoleon
Europe After Napoleon
Europe After Napoleon
Europe After Napoleon
Europe After Napoleon
Europe After Napoleon
Europe After Napoleon
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Europe After Napoleon

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  • 1. 1Restoration and Revolution
  • 2. 2Nationalist ConservativesLiberal
  • 3. 3The Restoration After the Congress of Vienna 1815, major powers sought torestore legitimate rulers and is therefore known as theRestoration. Wanted a balance of power and a collective security against anyfuture revolutionary upheavals. 1815 to 1848 illustrates conservatives who want slow changewithin the institutional structure and to return to the old regimespolicies. Many liberal & national concepts developed by Napoleon wherereplaced by conservative rulers Spain – removed constitution and brought back Inquisition Prussia – retained the abolition of serfdom and religioustoleration.
  • 4. 4The Congress System In 1815, Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russiasigned the Quadruple Alliance and met regularlyto maintain peace. Eventually included France –Quintuple Alliance. The conservative monarchies of Eastern Europe– Austria, Russia, Prussia – formed the HolyAlliance dedicated to protect Christian principlesof religion, peace, and justice. England did notjoin, being less fearful of liberalism.
  • 5. 5The Congress System inAction The reactionary forces in Europe faced many revolutions oftenunder the leadership of military officers & members of liberal secretsocieties After a series of military revolts, in 1820 the King of Spain wasforced to bring back the Constitution of 1812 making Spain aconstitutional monarchy. France provided military support in 1823 of 100 000soldiers, making it possible for the King to once again remove theconstitution. Civil war broke out in Spain, ended with a definitive victory forconstitutional monarchy. Other successful revolts include: Greeks, Portugal and Belgium.
  • 6. 6Restoration in France Louis XVIII ruled from 1814 to 1824. All people had civil rights and wereequal before the law, but political rights, as in England, were restrictedto males who owned land. A group of “Ultras” – ultra royalists wanted to end constitutionalmonarchy – Louis held them off near the end of his life Louis brother, Charles X (reigned from 1824 – 1830) openly supportedthe Ultras. In 1830, he suspended the freedom of press and dissolvedparliament, which lead to rebellion by all but the privilege class. CharlesX was sent into exile. Charle’s cousin, named King Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848) ruled as theCitizen King Louis Philippe never called himself king of France, but king of theFrench. The king was often seen dressed in middle class clothes andhe associated with new moneyed class of France.
  • 7. 7The British Example Britain was able to avoid revolution because it had: A history of limited monarchy Power of a limited parliamentary democracy A sound justice system Tradition of free speech Passed reforms that precluded the need for revolution: Restrict the hours of work Improved work conditions The Reform Act 1832 recognized the growth in urban centers andit increased the size of the electorate seats from these centers. Opened trade by repealing laws that restricted international trade Education was provided by the church, with government grants

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