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Westward Expansion

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  • 1. Henry Clay of Kentucky – represented the West Daniel Webster of Massachusetts Represented the North John C. Calhoun of South Carolina Represented the South The Three Leaders of Sectionalism
  • 2. 1821 – Mexico wins it’s independence from Spain 1823 – United Provinces of Central America formed two years later included the present day nations of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. Meanwhile!!
  • 3.
    • In 1818 Andrew Jackson, without formal permission from President Monroe launched an attack against the Black Seminoles at the Negro Fort in Spanish owned Florida.
    • Spain protested but were involved in wars in Latin America and could not risk war with the U.S.
    • John Quincy Adams, the Secretary of State, worked out a treaty with Spain called the Adams - Onis Treaty .
    • Spain agreed to cede Florida to the U.S. for 5 million dollars.
    WE Got Florida!!!!
  • 4. The first debate over slavery in the territories. It temporilary solved the issue of slavery in the territories by creating the Missouri Compromise line.
  • 5. http:// www.pbs.org/weta/thewest /
  • 6. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/narrative.html Take a look at the pictures on the following slides: Spend a few short sentences in response to each. How do they make you feel?
  • 7. Slavery A Study in Controversy and Contradiction
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  • 13. http://www.antislavery.org/breakingthesilence/upfromslavery.shtml
  • 14. "The Corrupt Bargain" Election of 1824 Candidates John Quincy Adams – Northern support Henry Clay – Western Support Andrew Jackson – Western Support William Crawford – favored in the South
    • WHAT HAPPENED?
    • Jackson won a majority of the popular vote.
    • No candidate won a majority in the electoral college .
    • House of Representatives had to choose the President from the top three candidates.
    • Clay finished fourth and was out of the running but he struck a deal with John Quincy Adams.
    • If Adams made him Secretary of State Clay would convince his fellow members of congress to vote for Adams.
    • Adams won the election
  • 15. Andrew Jackson Elected President in 1828 After the “Corrupt Bargain of 1824.” What was the Corrupt Bargain?
    • John C. Calhoun
    • Spokesman for the South.
    • South Carolina senator and Vice President for Jackson but resigned over states rights vs. federal government argument.
  • 16. Sam Houston Stephen F. Austin James K. Polk The ALAMO
  • 17. Many Americans in the mid part of the 18oo’s argued that the United States had a right to expand to it’s natural borders. What was this idea called? Which President made it his goal to make it happen?
  • 18. What might this idea have been called? What did it mean?
  • 19. Texan Independence The Original settlers in Texas were lead by an American Land Speculator who had been given a land grant by his father. Who was he? As the relationship between Mexico and American settlers in Texas deteriorated Texans took up arms under the leadership of this man. Who was he? Stephen F. Austin Texans and Mexicans under the leadership of Santa Anna, clashed here at an old Spanish mission called? Sam Houston The Alamo
  • 20. As a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo the United States purchased territory from Mexico. Although the addition of this land helped the U.S. achieve Manifest Destiny it also posed many major problems. What might some of these problems be?
  • 21. The Major issue that arose with the addition of new territory to the U.S., was whether or not to allow slaves in the new territory. California applied for Statehood in 1850 which deepened the debate in congress. Many of the settlers who were moving west came from the South. In the South almost all of the land was already owned by very wealthy plantation owners who purchased and sold large numbers of slaves. The West was an opportunity for small farmers to own land and purchase slaves in small numbers. This debate raged in Congress. Henry Clay - Senator from Kentucky presented a Compromise based on the original Missouri Compromise of 1820. Stricken with Tuberculosis Henry Clay asked Senator Stephen Douglass of Illinois to present the bill for him.
  • 22.
    • What did Clay’s Compromise say?
    • California would enter the union as a free state. Texas had entered in 1845 as a slave state.
    • The territory gained from the Mexican cession would be divided into two Territories – Utah and Nebraska. The slavery question would not be an issue until either territory applied for statehood. Oregon would be Free territory as it was well above the line and there no slaves there as of yet.
    • The Slave trade was banned in Washington D.C. People could still won slaves but the huge slave market in Washington D.C. was closed.
    • In order to satisfy the South who got less territory the bill called for a New Fugitive Slave Law . It fined anyone who helped slaves escape from the South and called for the return of any slaves who had already escaped.
    As we look at the map / What is the problem? Why was the Missouri Compromise insufficient to deal with the issue of slavery in California?
  • 23. Although Clay’s Bill temporarily solved the slavery issue it was also very controversial. Why? http:// www.nps.gov/boaf/fugitiveslavelaw.htm
  • 24. The Second Great Awakening was a religious movement which swept through the country in the early 1800’s. It was led by a preacher named Charles Grandison Finney. The movement stressed a personal relationship with god and led to a movement for Social Reform in the 1800’s What does social reform mean? Why was it necessary at this time?
  • 25. The Second Great Awakening led to several key reform movements. The Temperance Movement was a campaign against alchohol abuse. Many women took a leading role in this campaign which led to the development of a second reform movement aimed at increasing Women’s rights In 1848 200 women and forty men met in Sennecca Falls Convention New York to pass a resolution demanding better rights for women.
  • 26. During the Early 18oo’s Many Slaves had escaped to the north and purchased their freedom. There really were no laws protecting the property of the slave owners so many went free. The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 however paid judges more to return a slave to their master than to make a slaves freedom legal.
  • 27. Another key reform movement that took place was the Abolitionist Movement. The Abolitionists believed that slavery was morally wrong and that it needed to be eradicated. A Key figure in the abolitonist movement was an escaped slave named Fredrick Douglass. He quickly became known for his dynamic speaking ability and his antislavery newspaper called the North Star
  • 28. A key figure on the Underground Railroad was one of it’s most famous Conductors, Harriet Tubman who led more than 300 hundred slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad
  • 29. Abolitonists – (Those totally opposed to slavery) refused to sit by and accept the Fugitive Slave Act. They responded by creating the Underground Railroad. What do we know about the Underground Railroad? The maps shows some of the routes that escaped slaves took.
  • 30. Another major abolitionist was William Lloyd Garrison who wrote a passionately anti-slavery newspaper called the Liberator and also helped many slaves escape on the Underground Railroad.
  • 31. Kansas and Nebraska Act -1854 In 1854 Senator Stephen Douglass of Illinois proposed a Bill that divided the Nebraska Territory into two territories – Kansas and Nebraska. SO WHAT? Douglass acted on pressure from Railroad investors who wanted to build stations in the Nebraska terriory and needed it organized to do so.
  • 32.
    • The Kansas and Nebraska Act /
    • Southerners supported the bill.
    • They reasoned that since The Compromise of 1850 allowed New Mexico and Utah to determine the issue of slavery by Popular Sovereignty, then it was logical that Kansas also ought to be able to choose whether to be free or slave.
  • 33. David Wilmot Member of Congress from Pennsylvania Proposed a plan to ban slavery in all lands gained from Mexico. Missouri Compromise only applied to Land in the Louisiana Purchase Created Debate The fight over slavery in the territories intensified Northern Abolitionists wanted slavery abolished Southern slave owners wanted Slavery to be allowed in the new territories. Moderates advocated popular sovereignty – or a vote from the residents of the territory
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    • Bleeding Kansas
    • After the Compromise of 1850 slavery in the territories was decided by popular sovereignty.
    • Stephen Douglas Senator from Illinois introduced a bill in 1754 which divided the Nebraska Territory into two districts
    • Kansas
    • Nebraska
    • Proslavery and Antis-slavery forces rushed to Kansas to try and sway the elections. An-slavery forces under the leadership of John Brown massacred pro slavery supporters under cover of nightfall
    John Brown
  • 38.