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Use Of Esters And Fatty Acids

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Use Of Esters And Fatty Acids Use Of Esters And Fatty Acids Presentation Transcript

  • Use of esters and fatty acids
  • Body Shop • Fruit esters are used in products which have a fruity smell.( perfumes) • Properties include low molecular mass and boiling points. • They are volatile and so are easy to smell and flammable. • The smell doesn’t linger long. • In industry they are synthetic to cut cost
  • • A blackcurrant perfume contains ethyl butanoate. • It is made from ethanol and butanoic acid.
  • Forms Ethyl Butanoate • Ethyl • Butanoate • Water left over
  • Structure of fats and oils • It is possible to have more than one ester link between acid and alcohol. • These release more energy when oxidised than carbohydrates and so they are important to plants and animals as an energy store. • The alcohol in fats and oils is glycerol. This is a compound with 3 OH groups.
  • Glycerol forms 3 ester links with Fatty acids
  • • The Carboxylic acids in fats and oils are often called Fatty acids. • In animal fats all the bonds are single in the molecules. They are saturated because the molecule has all the hydrogen it can take. • In vegetable oils there is a double bond between each molecule. We say they are unsaturated.
  • Saturated Unsaturated Animal fat Vegetable oil
  • Properties of fats • Butter and Lard are animal fats • Has saturated molecules which are straight. • Tend to be solids. • They have a regular shape and pack together easily. • Stearic acid is typical of acids combined in animal fats.
  • What about oils? • Corn oil , olive oil and sunflower oil are examples of vegetable oils. • Oleic acid is often found in vegetable oils. • It is unsaturated. • The double bond means that the molecules are not straight. • It doesn’t pack together well so is liquid at room temperature.
  • Making soap from fats and oils. • Esters split up into an acid and alcohol when they react with water. • This type of reaction is called hydrolysis. Ester + Water exactly = acid + alcohol
  • • This is a slow reaction how could we speed it up without heating?
  • • Add a catalyst • Sodium hydroxide ( strong alkali) is used
  • What about soaps? • Hydrolysis of fats or oils by heating with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide produces soaps. • Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.
  • What about health? • Margarine is a vegetable oil hardened by adding hydrogen to saturate it. • It turns from liquid to solid. • This a cheap and easy process.
  • Trans and cis fats • Some margarine tubs indicate that there are Trans and cis fats present. • This refers to how the hydrogen atoms are arranged either side of the double bond.
  • Cis ( same side)
  • Trans ( opposite side)
  • • Note the acid link has been omitted from the end of each diagram for simplicity. • Nearly all naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids contain cis double bonds. • They are runnier than ones containing trans double bonds.
  • You need to know • What saturated and unsaturated mean. • The difference between a fat and an oil. • How soap is made. • What hydrolysis means. • What esters are used for and their properties.
  • What product is this? • High in polyunsaturates • Rich in omega 3 & 6 oils • Rich in folic acid • Virtually Trans fat free. • No hydrogenated oils.