L9. The Skeleton Student Version

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L9. The Skeleton Student Version

  1. 1. BONES H/W = 1)Draw out a long bone, and label the parts 2) What role does this do in the long bone? A) Cartilage b) red marrow c) the periosteum 3) Why do we need calcium in our diet? 4) What is ossification?
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>How tall will you be? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be petit or will you have thick, heavy bones? </li></ul><ul><li>As we have already mentioned in the previous chapter, bone/body size is an important factor in high-level sports </li></ul><ul><li>Bones do not stop growing until you are in your twenties. </li></ul>
  3. 4. The composition of a typical adult long bone
  4. 5. The composition of a typical adult long bone <ul><li>Cartilage – </li></ul><ul><li>Compact bone – </li></ul><ul><li>Marrow cavity – </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteum – </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone – </li></ul>
  5. 7. Key revision points <ul><li>Epiphysis </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Marrow cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy bone </li></ul>
  6. 8. Objectives <ul><li>Name and locate the main bones of the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the main functions of the skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the types of bones located in your skeleton </li></ul>
  7. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Without your skeleton you would be a shapeless sack of flesh </li></ul><ul><li>The skeleton has 206 bones </li></ul><ul><li>The bones are held together at joints by ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Each arm & leg has three long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female skeletons are slightly different: </li></ul>
  8. 10. The functions of the skeleton <ul><li>Support – frame work to keep body shape </li></ul><ul><li>Protection – cranium protects the brain, ribs protect your heart & lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Movement – muscles are attached to bones, when muscles contract the bones move </li></ul><ul><li>Blood production – some bones have red bone marrow, this makes red cells, white cells & platelets for blood </li></ul>
  9. 11. The four types of bones in your skeleton <ul><li>Long bones – </li></ul><ul><li>Short bones – </li></ul><ul><li>Flat bones – </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones – </li></ul>
  10. 12. Recap <ul><li>Know and be able to locate the main bones </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the the four functions of the skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the four different shaped bones in relation the their function </li></ul>
  11. 13. The vertebral column H/W=
  12. 14. Introduction
  13. 15. How many pieces are there? <ul><li>Keep saying the numbers to a beat: 7 12 5 5 4 </li></ul><ul><li>TASK: Create your own rhyme to remember the order. </li></ul>Rhyme name Location 4 Tail remains Coccyx Cuddles 5 pelvis Sacrum Some 5 Lower back Lumbar Love 12 Attached to ribs Thoracic Teddies 7 Neck Cervical Cute
  14. 16. Parts of a vertebra
  15. 17. Atlas and axis Atlas axis
  16. 18. Task <ul><li>How do we warm up our neck joint before physical activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the job/function of each? </li></ul>
  17. 19. Why the spine is regarded as weak for some activities <ul><li>The shape of the spine is fairly thin for the weight it is expected to carry and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional activity where we have to lift or carry can be dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>If we break our spine we will damage our spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>This can result in paralysis or death. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Why the spine is regarded as weak for some activities <ul><li>Look at the shape of the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>It is particularly vulnerable to injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower down, the spine is supported by ribs and it becomes thicker. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Task <ul><li>Copy the table below and add 2 neck-related examples of your own. </li></ul>Body weight lands on your neck at a band angle and breaks it Collapsed scrum Rugby Possible result incident Sport
  20. 23. Why the spine is regarded as weak for some activities <ul><li>Look at the movement of the back it looks very flexible </li></ul><ul><li>… .but in fact it’s not! </li></ul>
  21. 24. Look at the movement of the back it looks very flexible <ul><li>Between each vertebra you have a disc of cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>When we bend there is a small amount of movement between each one. </li></ul><ul><li>Many vertebrae means there is a lot of movement. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Task <ul><li>When we play golf, the spine seems to move a lot. How can this be? </li></ul>
  23. 26. Look at the movement of the back it looks very flexible <ul><li>If you lift something badly or bend over or twist unexpectedly you can tear or strain the ligaments holding the vertebrae. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a ‘slipped disc’. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Task <ul><li>List four functions of the skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Using these four functions, explain how the vertebrae help fulfil those functions. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Different kinds of joints HW= Find a picture of a fixed, slightly moveable, and freely moveable joint. Give a description of how they work and their main function.
  26. 29. Learning objectives <ul><li>What is a joint and what function does it perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the various types of joints found in the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>Discover the damage that can be caused at joints. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Introduction <ul><li>Your skeleton is made up of 206 bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Joints are where two, or more, bones meet. </li></ul><ul><li>They are divided up into three types depending on how freely the bones can move. </li></ul><ul><li>If we did not have joints no movement would occur. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Task <ul><li>What is a joint? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we have joints? </li></ul>http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/anatomy
  29. 32. Fixed or immovable joints <ul><li>Bone’s at an immovable joint can’t move at all. </li></ul><ul><li>They either interlock or overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>A good example is the joints between the plates of the cranium. </li></ul><ul><li>Fused joints in the sacrum are another good example. </li></ul><ul><li>We have this type of joint in areas requiring great strength. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Task <ul><li>What are the four functions of the skeleton and briefly describe how it does these? </li></ul>This ensures that our vital organs are kept safe from bumps and knocks Supports Produces This allows us to contract and relax at each joint in the body
  31. 34. Slightly movable joints <ul><li>These bones at a slightly movable joint can move only a little. </li></ul><ul><li>They are held together by strong white cords or straps called ‘ligaments’ and joined by cartilage . </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage is a gristly cushion and stops the bone from knocking together. </li></ul><ul><li>Joints between most of your vertebrae are slightly moveable. </li></ul><ul><li>The pads of cartilage between them act as a shock absorber so the bones won’t jar when you run or jump . </li></ul>
  32. 35. Task <ul><li>Go to: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index.shtml?skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>See if you can place all ten bones in their correct locations. Use the hint button to get a description of where it can be found. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Freely moveable joints <ul><li>Outer sleeve is called the joint capsule . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It holds bones together & protects joint. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is an extension of the skin or periosteum that covers the bone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A synovial membrane . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines the capsule and oozes a slippery liquid called synovial fluid. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A joint cavity . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A small gap between the bones. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filled with synovial fluid. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricates the joint so the joint moves more freely. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A covering of smooth slippery cartilage at the end of the bones. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stops the bones knocking together. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ligaments which hold the bones together. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freely moveable joints are also called synovial joints . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Knee joint from the side
  35. 38. Task <ul><li>In your own words, write a description of the following synovial joints and get one example of each in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding – </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge – </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot – </li></ul><ul><li>Ball and socket – </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsoid – </li></ul>Hinge joint http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/anatomy/jointsrev4.shtml Use slides 44 onwards for help
  36. 39. Joints and injury <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe contact, e.g. falling from a horse onto your shoulder, could cause dislocation. This is where a bone is pulled out of its normal position. Causing tearing of the ligaments (sprain) and tendons. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wear and tear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise of a joint or unusual use of it could cause cartilage to be worn away. Joint could swell causing it to stiffen.in older people it could cause arthritis. This makes the joint stiff and swollen. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. Task <ul><li>Give your own example of an impact injury </li></ul><ul><li>And a sporting example of wear and tear </li></ul>
  38. 41. Task <ul><li>What parts make a synovial joint a) strong and stable b) help it move easily. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Synovial joints
  40. 43. Learning objectives <ul><li>Examine four of our major synovial joints of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the structure of each of these synovial joints, both diagrammatically and physiologically . </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the directions of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand examples of sporting activities where these joints are used. </li></ul>
  41. 44. Introduction <ul><li>Most joints are freely moveable. </li></ul><ul><li>They allow different movement, depending on the shape of the bones at the joint. </li></ul><ul><li>The shoulder, hip and ankle are susceptible to injury due to the amount of movement possible at them </li></ul>
  42. 45. Ball-and-socket joint <ul><li>Most moveable joint in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>One bone has a bulge like a a ball at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>This fits into a socket in the other bone. </li></ul><ul><li>It can turn in many directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>The hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>The shoulder joint </li></ul>
  43. 46. task <ul><li>Why do you think it is difficult to dislocate a ball-and socket joint? </li></ul><ul><li>In what joint do you think a cricket bowler would be want to be very flexible? </li></ul>
  44. 47. The hinge joint <ul><li>This works like a hinge on a door. </li></ul><ul><li>The bone can swing backwards and forward. </li></ul><ul><li>The end of one bone is shaped like a cotton reel. </li></ul><ul><li>It fits into the hollow of the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The joint will open until it is straight and no further. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>The elbow joint </li></ul><ul><li>The knee joint </li></ul>
  45. 48. The pivot joint <ul><li>One bone has a bit that juts out, like a peg or ridge. </li></ul><ul><li>This fits into a ring or notch on the other bone. </li></ul><ul><li>The joint only allows rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>The joint between the atlas and axis. </li></ul><ul><li>The joint between the radius and ulna. </li></ul>
  46. 49. The gliding joint <ul><li>Here the end of the bones are flat enough to glide over. </li></ul><ul><li>There is little movement in all directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Of all synovial joints this gives the least movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Joints between the carpals (hand) and tarsals (foot). </li></ul><ul><li>Joints between most of the vertebrae. </li></ul>
  47. 50. Cartilage <ul><li>Cartilage stops bones knocking together. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a gristly cushion between the bones at slightly moveable joints. </li></ul><ul><li>It forms a smooth slippery coat on the ends of bones at synovial joints </li></ul>
  48. 51. Ligaments <ul><li>Ligaments are strong cords and straps that lash bones together and hold joints in place. </li></ul><ul><li>They are a bit elastic-enough to let the bones move. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Tendons <ul><li>Tendons are the cords and straps that join muscle to bone. </li></ul><ul><li>The best known joins our calf muscle to our heel and is called the Achilles tendon. </li></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><li>Achilles, the Heel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achilles was the son of Thetis and Peleus, the bravest hero in the Trojan war, according to Greek mythology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When Achilles was born, his mother, Thetis, tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx. As she immersed him, she held him by one heel and forgot to dip him a second time so the heel she held could get wet too. Therefore, the place where she held him remained untouched by the magic water of the Styx and that part stayed mortal or vulnerable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To this day, any weak point is called an “Achilles’ heel”. We also refer to the strong tendon that connects the muscles of the calf of the leg with the heel bone as the “Achilles’ tendon”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the above rendition of the Achilles’ story is in current vogue, Michael Macrone, in his It’s Greek to Me, tells us that Achilles didn’t always have a vulnerable heel. Oh yes, he had a weak spot, but according to the original story about Achilles, Homer, in the Iliad , said it was his pride. Later versions indicate his weakness was his love for the Trojan princess Polyxena. In his Metamorphoses , Ovid suggested that Achilles had a vulnerable spot on his body; but the Roman poet, Statius (c. A.D. 45-96), was the first to imply in a poem that it was his heel. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Joints and movement: a summary A little movement in all directions (no bending or circular motions) gliding Only rotation Pivot Flexion and extension Hinge Flexion and extension Abduction and adduction Ball-and-socket MOVEMENT ALLOWED TYPE OF JOINT
  52. 55. Key revision points <ul><li>You need to know the four different synovial joints (ball-and-socket, hinge, pivot and gliding joint). </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the differences of each and the movements that occur at those joints. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, understand the role of cartilage, ligaments and tendons. </li></ul>
  53. 56. Movement
  54. 57. Learning objectives <ul><li>Be able to analyse three different planes of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Give clear examples of each movement </li></ul>
  55. 58. Flexion and extension <ul><li>Extension means straightening a part of the body to its normal position. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion means bending it. ( F lexion is nearly always F orward.) </li></ul>When you stand straight like this, your arms, legs, head, hands and feet are extended to their normal position. Here the right arm is bent or flexed at the elbow joint. The left leg is flexed at the knee joint. When you run you repeatedly flex and extend your hip, knee, ankle, elbow and shoulder joints.
  56. 59. Task <ul><li>Sit straight in your chair, elbows by your sides, hands flat on your knees, feet flat on the floor. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which joints are flexed? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name two joints that are extended? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 60. More examples <ul><li>I have found a number of other examples of flexion. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, you are able to ‘hyperextend’ joints. </li></ul>
  58. 61. Abduction and adduction Imagine a line drawn down the centre of your body. Abduction is a sideways movement of a limb, out from the centre line. Adduction is the sideways movement, like this, towards and even across the centre line. (A dd uction is towards the mi dd le!) This karate kick is an example of abduction. Can you think of another example from tennis? Or gymnastics?
  59. 62. Task <ul><li>Stand up and show me an example of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In swimming front crawl what movements occur at your hips? </li></ul><ul><li>In breast stroke what movements occur at your hips? </li></ul>
  60. 63. Rotation and circumduction Rotation is a turning movement around an imaginary line, like a wheel turning on its axis. Turning your head is an example. This backwards walkover is another example. The girls body is rotating like a wheel on an imaginary axis. In circumduction, the end of the bone moves in a circle. Swinging your arms in a circle is an example. Bowlers do it!
  61. 64. Joints, flexibility & health <ul><li>All movements require a degree of flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of injury is lessened if we make our joints more flexible and strong. </li></ul><ul><li>The things you need to increase flexibility are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A good diet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular exercise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular flexibility work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A lack of exercise leads to a decrease in flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a big problem for the elderly who find it difficult to do everyday tasks, e.g. turning a steering wheel & picking up shopping. </li></ul><ul><li>Gentle exercise will remedy this. </li></ul>
  62. 65. Key revision points <ul><li>Flexion and extension are the straightening and bending of a joint respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction and adduction are the movement away and toward the midline of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation is a turning movement around an imaginary line and circumduction is when a bone moves in a circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Three things needed for good flexibility are a good diet, regular exercise and regular flexibility work! </li></ul>

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