Crosswinds Flight School - Day 1

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Private Pilot Airplane
Crosswinds Flight School

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Crosswinds Flight School - Day 1

  1. 1. Private Pilot Airplane Crosswinds Flight School
  2. 2. <ul><li>17 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Able to read, write and converse in English </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain at least a 3 rd class medical certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Receive and log ground training from an authorized instructor or complete a home study course </li></ul><ul><li>Pass a knowledge test scoring 70% or better </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Accumulate at least 40 hours of flight time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 20 hours from an authorized flight instructor, including at least : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 hr. cross-country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 hr. at night including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 cross-country flight over 100 NM total distance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 takeoff and landings to a full stop </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 hr. instrument training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 hr. in airplanes in preparation for the practical test within 60 days prior </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>10 hr. solo flight time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 hr. of solo cross country flights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 solo cross-county of at least 150 NM total distance, with full-stop landings at a minimum of 3 points and with one segment consisting of at least a 50 NM leg between the takeoff and landing locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 solo takeoffs and landings to a full stop at an airport with an operating control tower. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Obtain a logbook sign-off by your CFI for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preflight preparation/procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport/seaport base operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance maneuvers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground reference maneuvers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow flight and stalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic instrument maneuvers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post flight procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successfully complete a practical flight test with FAA </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Aircraft Training </li></ul><ul><li>Airports </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Stability, Load Factors, and Wake </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dispatch procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Use of checklists </li></ul><ul><li>Certificates and Documents Location and Use </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft Preflight </li></ul><ul><li>Aeronautical Decision Making and Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Engine Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Equipment & survival gear </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft Servicing </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel grades </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft key control procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft and airport security/access procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Handling of aircraft and discrepancies found during preflight including re-dispatch in a new aircraft, if appropriate </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety </li></ul>Preflight inspection Before engine start Engine starting Before taxi Before takeoff After takeoff Cruise Descent Before landing After landing Engine shutdown/ securing emergency
  10. 10. <ul><li>A airworthiness certificate </li></ul><ul><li>R registration </li></ul><ul><li>R radio license ( not required in US ) </li></ul><ul><li>O operation limitations – may be </li></ul><ul><li>any combination of FAA –approved airplane </li></ul><ul><li>Flight manual and/or pilot’s operating </li></ul><ul><li>handbook, placards, instrument markings </li></ul><ul><li>W weight and balance info </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Follow the checklist! </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Decisions with time constraints </li></ul><ul><li>immediate action </li></ul><ul><li>Aviate </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate </li></ul><ul><li>communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions without time constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Aviate </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul><ul><li>Consider alternative action </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Antiauthority - resents supervision, does not like </li></ul><ul><li>to be bound by schedules or habits, prefers to do </li></ul><ul><li>things when they feel ready </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity - the inclination of an individual to </li></ul><ul><li>initiate behavior without adequate forethought as </li></ul><ul><li>to the consequences of their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Invulnerability – resistant to harm and impact </li></ul><ul><li>Macho - trying to cover up their complex </li></ul><ul><li>Resignation – believes they can’t do it and gives in </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ground handling after flight – fueling </li></ul><ul><li>Securing the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Locking and securing keys </li></ul><ul><li>Paperwork after flight </li></ul><ul><li>Notification of aircraft discrepancies </li></ul><ul><li>Return of aircraft to the way it was found </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Primer – if engine is cold </li></ul><ul><li>Master switch – battery/alternator </li></ul><ul><li>Throttle – pump 3 times </li></ul><ul><li>Ignition – turn to start </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Ailerons </li></ul><ul><li>Rudder </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>ELT – required </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>First aid kit </li></ul><ul><li>Aviation fire extinguisher </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>Flotation device – if over water </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency strobe/flash light – batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Blanket/hat/coat/gloves – cold weather gear </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Money or credit card for fuel/oil </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you are able to self-service </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Low-lead 100- octane ( 100LL ) </li></ul><ul><li>Dyed blue </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive AVGAS odor </li></ul><ul><li>Jet-A </li></ul><ul><li>Clear or straw colored </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene scent and oily to touch </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive gas –MOGAS (appropriate aircraft) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Wind Direction Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Markings </li></ul><ul><li>Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Calls and Checks </li></ul><ul><li>CTAF </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining Airport Advisories </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Airport signs – color is key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red- mandatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black/yellow letters – position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow/black letters - directional </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Phonetic alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Use the 5 W’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are you calling – “Crosskeys traffic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are you – “Cessna 14H” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are you – “Departing/downwind/final/clear” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What your intentions are - “For 27/9” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are you calling – for clarification – “Crosskeys” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><ul><li>For airports without a control tower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be a: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNICOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tower frequency (when closed) and is identified in appropriate aeronautical publications. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>UNICOM – a nongovernmental communications </li></ul><ul><li>facility which may provide information at certain </li></ul><ul><li>airports. </li></ul><ul><li>Multicom – a mobile service not open to public </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence used to provide communications </li></ul><ul><li>essential to conduct the activities being </li></ul><ul><li>performed by or directed from private aircraft. </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>1-800 WX-brief </li></ul><ul><li>FSS – Air traffic facilities which provide </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot briefings </li></ul><ul><li>En route communication </li></ul><ul><li>VFR search and rescue services </li></ul><ul><li>Assist lost aircraft and aircraft in emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Relay ATC clearances </li></ul><ul><li>Originate Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast aviation wx and NAS (National air service) information </li></ul><ul><li>Receive and process flight plans </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor NAVAIDs </li></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>In addition, at selected locations, FSSs provide </li></ul><ul><li>En route Flight Advisory Service (Flight watch) </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Watch is the common name in the United States for </li></ul><ul><li>an Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) dedicated to </li></ul><ul><li>providing weather to and collecting it from pilots </li></ul><ul><li>operating at lower altitudes (mostly general aviation ). </li></ul><ul><li>Take weather observations </li></ul><ul><li>Issue airport advisories </li></ul><ul><li>Advise customs and immigrations of trans-boarder flights </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>Local airport advisory is provided by flight service stations or the military at airports not serviced by an operating control tower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information to arriving and departing aircraft concerning wind direction and speed, favored runway, altimeter setting, pertinent know traffic, pertinent know field conditions, airport taxi routes and traffic patters, and authorized instrument approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This information is advisory only – not an ATC clearance </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><ul><li>Other airport advisories common at non-tower airports may be obtained over the CTAF from other aircraft in the pattern or through the UNICOM. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilots landing at non-tower airports should monitor the CTAF at least 10-20 miles out to hear other traffic in the pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>If unable, request an airport advisory 5-10 miles out. </li></ul><ul><li>Check wind sock. </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>Runway Incursions </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Aircraft Lighting during Taxi and Traffic Pattern Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Collision avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning for Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Pattern Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Area Operations </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Never taxi onto any runway without first looking for landing traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Always monitor the CTAF and/or the appropriate ATC frequencies while operating on the surface of an airport. </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>General – see and avoid </li></ul><ul><li>In distress – has the right of way above all </li></ul><ul><li>Converging – the aircraft to the right </li></ul><ul><li> or the least maneuverable (glider, balloon, </li></ul><ul><li> airship) or an aircraft towing another aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Head-on – each alters to the right </li></ul><ul><li>Overtaking – the aircraft being overtaken, the </li></ul><ul><li>overtaking aircraft alters course to the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Landing – aircraft on final, or the lower aircraft. </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Engine running - beacon </li></ul><ul><li>Taxiing – navigation, position, anti-collision </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing runway – all exterior lights </li></ul><ul><li>Taxi to takeoff – all lights that silhouette </li></ul><ul><li>Takeoff – landing light on when cleared </li></ul><ul><li>Day or night – landing light should be left on until well clear of the pattern and turned </li></ul><ul><li>on well before reaching the pattern. </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>Look outside the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Use the radio to announce intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Determine relative altitude of other aircrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Take appropriate action – (right-of-way) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple threats – climb, descend, turn </li></ul><ul><li>Collision course – appear to not be moving </li></ul><ul><li>High hazard areas – airports, VORs </li></ul><ul><li>Cockpit management – proper flight planning </li></ul><ul><li>ATC support – request flight following </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>Eyes can observe an approximate 200 degree arc at a glance but only a small part of the eye can focus in on a point. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements, 10 degrees at a time for 1 minute each. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the whole scanning area even behind each wing </li></ul>
  35. 40. <ul><li>Review practice area </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing turns </li></ul><ul><li>Look for traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a safe altitude </li></ul>
  36. 41. <ul><li>4 Forces of Flight </li></ul><ul><li>Angle of Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Airframe (Components) </li></ul><ul><li>Three Axes of Flight </li></ul><ul><li>Forces Acting on a Climbing Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Forces Acting on a Descending Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Forces Acting on a Turning Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Flaps </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Angle of Attack/Stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Spin Awareness </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>Supporting force for flight in an atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Acts perpendicular to the relative wind </li></ul><ul><li>Generated through Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Law </li></ul>
  38. 44. <ul><li>As a fluid passes through a pipe that narrows or widens, the velocity and pressure of the fluid vary. As the pipe narrows, the fluid flows more quickly. Surprisingly, Bernoulli's Principle tells us that as the fluid flows more quickly through the narrow sections, the pressure actually decreases rather than increases! </li></ul><ul><li>http://mitchellscience.com/bernoulli_principle_animation </li></ul>
  39. 50. <ul><li>Considered to act parallel and just about on the longitudinal axis </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by movement of the air by propeller or the expansion of air in a turbine </li></ul>
  40. 51. <ul><li>Mass X acceleration (gravity) </li></ul><ul><li>Always act toward the center on the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to act from the center of gravity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CG is the point on the aircraft, that if suspended it would balance. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 52. <ul><li>drag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types- parasite & induced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retarding force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts parallel to relative wind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During straight & level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift = Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrust = Drag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steady state flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward and downward forces are equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward = retarding forces </li></ul></ul>
  42. 57. <ul><li>The acute angle between the chord line of the airfoil and the direction of the relative wind </li></ul><ul><li>At angles less that the critical angle of attack, an increase in the angle of attack will increase lift provided that all other factors are the same </li></ul>
  43. 61. <ul><li>Fuselage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocoque – skin carries all of the stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truss – internal structure with non-load carrying skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-monocoque – inside formers & stringers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides all the lift that supports aircraft in flight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empennage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical stabilizer – directional balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudder – direction of yaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal stabilizer – longitudinal balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator – controls the pitch </li></ul></ul>
  44. 62. <ul><li>Rudder - yaw about the vertical axis </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator – pitch about the lateral axis </li></ul><ul><li>Ailerons – bank (roll) around the longitudinal axis </li></ul>
  45. 66. <ul><li>Trim tabs - for trimming and balancing aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trim tabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servo tabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance tabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-servo tabs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spoilers & dive brakes – increase descent without an increase in airspeed </li></ul><ul><li>Wing flaps – increase lift and drag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slotted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fowler </li></ul></ul>
  46. 68. <ul><li>Retractable vs. fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Tricycle vs. conventional (tail wheel) </li></ul>
  47. 70. <ul><li>Vy – best rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most altitude over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vx – best angle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most altitude over distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cruise climb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for improved engine cooling and visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steady state climb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant rate & airspeed climb </li></ul></ul>
  48. 71. <ul><li>P-factor – descending propeller blade produces </li></ul><ul><li>more lift and pulls aircraft to the left (yaw) </li></ul><ul><li>Torque reaction - twisting on engine creates </li></ul><ul><li> roll and yaw </li></ul><ul><li>Spiraling slip stream - twisting air around </li></ul><ul><li>fuselage creates roll and yaw </li></ul><ul><li>Gyroscopic precession – propeller act as a </li></ul><ul><li>gyroscope </li></ul>
  49. 73. <ul><li>Lift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be the same as level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component acts forward from vertical due to the line of flight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thrust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilots prerogative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always acts toward the center of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best glide - Most distance per unit of altitude </li></ul>
  50. 75. <ul><li>Bank the aircraft in order to change the direction of flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudder yaws but does not create the unbalance of forces needed to change direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slip – tail inside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skid – tail outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adverse yaw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised wing creates more lift and more drag. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft tries to turn opposite the turn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creates added drag </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 77. <ul><li>Horizontal turns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift vector is tilted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates an acceleration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shallow - 0 to 20 degrees of bank </li></ul><ul><li>Medium – 20 to 45 degree of bank </li></ul><ul><li>Steep – more than 45 degree of bank </li></ul><ul><li>Apply coordinated aileron and rudder initially for the turn, then increase back pressure, once the turn is established pressure on controls can be relaxed </li></ul>
  52. 80. <ul><li>The raised wing creates more lift than the lowered wind. Especially in steeper turns the lift on the raised wing will continue to increase and will need aileron applied opposite the turn in order to correct. </li></ul>
  53. 81. <ul><li>Extending the flaps increases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing camber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing area (some types) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle of attack of the wing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These changes increase lift and drag (induced and parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the pilot to make a steeper approach without increasing airspeed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May provide increased lift required for certain maneuvers </li></ul></ul>
  54. 82. <ul><li>An airplane will fly as long as the wing is creating sufficient lift to counteract the load imposed on it </li></ul><ul><li>The angle of attack at which a wing stalls regardless of airspeed, flight attitude, or weight is known as the critical angle of attack </li></ul>
  55. 83. <ul><ul><li>The direct cause of every stall is an excessive angle of attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The smooth flow of air over the top of the wing is disturbed at this critical angle of attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stalling speed of a particular airplane is not a fixed value for all flight situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A given airplane will always stall at the same angle of attack regardless of airspeed, weight, load factor, or density altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The angle is typically from 16-20 degrees, depending on the airplane’s design </li></ul></ul>
  56. 85. <ul><li>The critical angle of attack can be exceeded at any attitude or airspeed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At low airspeed, the angle of attack will tend to be high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrupt control application and/or higher bank angles will be involved with exceeding the critical angle of attack at higher airspeeds or lower pitch attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery from a stall requires the pilot to reduce the angle of attack to allow the smooth air over the wing to begin again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable altitude may be lost during recovery </li></ul></ul>
  57. 86. <ul><li>A spin may be defined as an aggravated stall that results “autorotation” and the airplane follows a downward corkscrew path </li></ul><ul><li>The “autorotation” results from an unequal angle of attack on the airplane’s wings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rising wing is less stalled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The descending wing has exceeded the critical angle of attack and is more stalled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spins may occur during stalls with a sideslip or yaw acting on the airplane at the time of the stall </li></ul>
  58. 87. <ul><li>Entry - stall </li></ul><ul><li>Incipient – lasts about 4 to 6 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>approximately 2 turns </li></ul><ul><li>Developed – airspeed vertical speed, and rate </li></ul><ul><li>of rotation are stabilized. Altitude loss </li></ul><ul><li>approximately 500 feet each 3 second turn </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery - wings regain lift recovery in about ½ to ¼ turn after anti-spin inputs are applied </li></ul>
  59. 88. <ul><li>Reduce the throttle to idle </li></ul><ul><li>Position the ailerons to neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Apply full opposite rudder </li></ul><ul><li>Apply positive forward movement of the elevator forward of neutral to break the stall </li></ul><ul><li>After spin rotation stops, neutralize the rudder </li></ul><ul><li>Begin applying back pressure to raise the nose to level flight </li></ul>
  60. 89. <ul><li>Spin avoidance and recovery require positive control applications </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional spins should only be practiced within the limitations of a properly rigged airplane with a qualified instructor at an altitude allowing recovery prior to descent below 3000ft AGL </li></ul>
  61. 90. <ul><li>Static Stability (Positive/Negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Stability (Positive/Negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Dihedral Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Wing Tip Vortices </li></ul><ul><li>Wake Static Stability (Positive/Negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Stability (Positive/Negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Dihedral Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Wing Tip Vortices </li></ul><ul><li>Wake Turbulence and Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Load Factor and Gusts  </li></ul>
  62. 91. <ul><li>Stability - the inherent quality of an airplane to correct for conditions that may disturb it from equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Controllability - the airplane’s capability to respond to a pilot’ control inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Maneuverability - the ability of the aircraft to change direction about the three exes and withstand the forces imposed by the maneuver </li></ul>
  63. 92. <ul><li>Positive – when moved out of equilibrium the </li></ul><ul><li>more likely it is to return to equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral – when moved out of equilibrium it </li></ul><ul><li>will tend to stay in the new position </li></ul><ul><li>Negative – when moved out of equilibrium the </li></ul><ul><li>more likely it is to continue in the new direction </li></ul>
  64. 93. <ul><li>In inherently stable aircraft returns to it’s original position after being disturbed </li></ul><ul><li>The location of the center of gravity (CG) determines the longitudinal stability </li></ul><ul><li>Too much stability is detrimental to maneuverability </li></ul><ul><li>Too little stability can be detrimental to controllability </li></ul>
  65. 95. <ul><li>Stability - the inherent quality of an airplane to correct for conditions that may disturb it from equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Controllability - the airplane’s capability to respond to a pilot’ control inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Maneuverability - the ability of the aircraft to change direction about the three exes and withstand the forces imposed by the maneuver </li></ul>
  66. 96. <ul><li>The result over time when reacting to a disturbance from equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic stability requires positive static stability as the initial reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An aircraft with positive dynamic stability will tend to return to equilibrium through smaller and smaller oscillations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An aircraft with neutral dynamic stability will tend to continue oscillation with the same magnitude for each oscillation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An aircraft with negative dynamic stability will continue oscillating with the magnitude of each oscillation increasing </li></ul></ul>
  67. 97. <ul><li>Dihedral is the angle at which the wings are slanted upward from the root to the tip </li></ul><ul><li>Dihedral’s stabilizing effect is the result of a slight sideslip which occurs when one wing is forced down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sideslip creates a difference between the angle of attack on the upper and lower wings with the lower wing having a greater angle of attack (creating more lift) and raises the lowered wing </li></ul></ul>
  68. 99. <ul><li>By over-controlling/correcting the aircraft the pilot disturbs the inherent stability creating oscillations that increase in magnitude until the aircraft become impossible to control </li></ul>
  69. 100. <ul><li>The condition of improved performance encountered when the aircraft is near the ground (approximately a wing span) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ground changes the airflow around the wing and creates a cushion of air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This reduces the upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results in a reduction of induced drag </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 102. <ul><li>Good stuff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the pilot to reduce wear and tear on the aircraft and increase acceleration when operating from a soft-field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be utilized to soften a landing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad stuff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May allow the aircraft to takeoff before the aircraft is ready to continue flying which can result in settling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause excessive float on landing </li></ul></ul>
  71. 106. <ul><li>Strongest wake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy (larger AOA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean (no changes in the wing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow (larger AOA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jet blast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust from a jet can flip a light aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay back 500 ft. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 107. <ul><li>Wake turbulence avoidance in flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid 5+ miles behind the aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid 1,000ft below the aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wake turbulence avoidance landing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach above the larger aircraft’s path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touchdown beyond the larger aircraft’s touchdown point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land prior to the larger aircraft’s rotation point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be cautious of crosswinds that can make them drift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wake turbulence avoidance departing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate prior to and climb above the flight path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait 2-3 minutes if departing for dissipation </li></ul></ul>
  73. 108. <ul><li>A load is a force which is supported by the wings of the aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the load in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight is the weight of the aircraft and its contents (1 G) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A load factor is a ratio of the total load supported by the wings to the actual weight of the aircraft and its contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also referred to as G’s (gravities) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climbing or turning will increase the G load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The load factor in turning flight is determined by the bank angle </li></ul></ul>
  74. 113. <ul><li>In order to maintain level flight during a turn, the wings must produce enough lift to support the weight of the aircraft multiplied by the load factor </li></ul><ul><li>The increased angle of attack required to produce the extra lift at any given bank angle will increase the stall speed of the aircraft (multiply the stall speed by the square root of the load factor to determine the higher stall speed) </li></ul>
  75. 114. <ul><li>Designed to handle without breaking apart </li></ul><ul><li>Normal = +2.5 to +3.8/-1.0 to -1.52 </li></ul><ul><li>(weight dependent) </li></ul><ul><li>Utility = +4.4/-1.76 </li></ul><ul><li>Acrobatic = +6.0/-3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Transport = +2.5 to +3.8/-1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>(weight dependent) </li></ul>
  76. 115. <ul><li>V a – the maximum speed that the aircraft will stall before a damaging load factor results </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>the maximum speed at which full of abrupt control movements may be used without overstressing the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>V a changes with the weight of the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>V a is typically published for max gross weight (at weights less than max V a is lower) </li></ul>
  77. 116. <ul><li>Vertical air currents or gusts may impose an increased load factor on an airplane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These gusts are felt by the pilot and passengers as turbulence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The aircraft’s speed must be kept below V no (normal operating range) in any turbulence to prevent damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should be kept below V a in severe of greater turbulence to allow an additional safety factor </li></ul></ul>

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