Digital Divide
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Digital Divide concepts & examples, old statistics

Digital Divide concepts & examples, old statistics

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  • Slides re Home Ownership of PCs in Boston, by children and slide of 2005 Internet Usage by Sex and Race added march 06.

Digital Divide Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Digital Divide: Introduction and Overview By Pat Samuel WS 445/545: Women and Computers February 2005 (as updated March 2006)
  • 2. Digital Divide - Definition Digital – computers, software, Internet, etc. Divide – gap Digital Divide - the unequal opportunities to access and make use of computers and the Internet. What is the extent of the Gap between males and females? between whites and people of color? between rich and poor? Does it matter? Why? What might be done to overcome these inequalities ?
  • 3. Unequal Access by Race: Home Ownership of Computers Source: Chakraborty & Bosman
  • 4. Unequal Access – Boston 2003 Source : The Boston Indicators Project 2004
  • 5. Unequal Access - Children Source : University of California at Santa Cruz
  • 6. Unequal Access – Home Ownership Of Computers Source: Chakraborty & Bosman
  • 7. Who Uses the Internet? Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project
  • 8. Formal Numerical Equality OR Real Substantive Equality?
    • Almost all K-12 schools have computers and Internet access.
    • But is it real equality if some schools have 1 computer per 50 students while other schools have 1 computer per 12 students?
    • Is it real equal opportunity to learn about computers if most educational software is based on shoot-em-up games which boys love and girls hate?
  • 9. Schools – The Racial Divide
    • 85% in schools with majority white students
    • 64% in schools where students of color are the majority
    Per cent of Instructional Classrooms with Internet Access Source: Gorski
  • 10. Schools – Racial Divide Cont’d
    • In schools where students of color are the majority,
    • teachers are one-third less likely to receive training and assistance in using computers than teachers in predominantly white schools.
    • computers mostly used for rote drills – unlike predominantly white schools where analytical skills are emphasized.
    Source: Gorski
  • 11. Schools – Gender Inequities
    • Is educational software as likely to inspire girls to use computers as much as it does boys?
        • Demolition Division
        • Slam Dunk Math
        • Word Invasion
        • Space War Math
  • 12. Educational Software and Institutional Sexism
    • Shoot-em-up educational software produces high anxiety levels in girls – not conducive to learning !
    Mean Stress Levels Reported When Learning Division Source : Cooper & Weaver 28 56 Boys 14 77 Girls Arithmetic Classroom Demolition Division
  • 13. Are Programming Skills Taught in a Gender Neutral Fashion?
    • Two styles of programming:
      • “Formal” - Make overall plan with separate modules, complete each module one by one.
      • “Concrete” – Start with part that interests you, move back & forth between different aspects, synthesizing as you go along.
    • Males tend to prefer the “Formal” Style.
    • Guess which Style taught as “correct”?
    Source : Cooper & Weaver
  • 14. Results of Androcentric Norms
    • Women are only
    • 17% of students taking the Advanced Placement Computer Science test
    • 31% of students majoring in computer science (1999)
    • 20% of IT (information technology) professionals
    Source : Cooper & Weaver
  • 15. References
    • The Boston Indicators Project 2004: "9.2.1 In-home access to computers and the Internet" Copyright by Boston Foundation, 2005 Accessed 3-13-2006 at http://www.tbf.org/indicators2004/technology/indicators.asp
    • Chakraborty, Jayajit and M. Martin Bosman, “Race, Income, and Home PC Ownership: a Regional Analysis of the Digital Divide,” Race and Society , Vol. 5, Issue 2, (2002) Pp. 163-177. Available online via ScienceDirect.
    • Cooper, Joel and Kimberlee D. Weaver. Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
    • Gorski, Paul C. “Privilege and Repression in the Digital Era: Rethinking the Sociopolitics of the Digital Divide,” Race, Gender & Class, 10:1 (Oct. 2003). Available online via GenderWatch.
    • Pew Internet and American Life Project, “Demographics of Internet Users” (Dec. 2005 Data). Online at http://www.pewinternet.org/trends/User_Demo_12.05.05.htm
    • University of California at Santa Cruz, Press Release, "Kids with access to a home computer are more likely to graduate, digital divide study finds," Oct. 19, 2005. Accessed 3-13-2006 at http://www.ucsc.edu/news_events/press_releases/text.asp?pid=767
  • 16. Results of Androcentric Norms
    • Women are only
    • 17% of students taking the Advanced Placement Computer Science test
    • 31% of students majoring in computer science (1999)
    • 20% of IT (information technology) professionals
    Source : Cooper & Weaver Experiment with color