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Lymphatic and immune system
 

Lymphatic and immune system

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    Lymphatic and immune system Lymphatic and immune system Presentation Transcript

    • Lymphatic and Immune System
    • Hodgkin's Disease
      Also known as Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
      It is cancer of lymph cells found in the lymph nodes
      People between the ages of 15 to 40 are risk for Hodgkin's disease. Individuals older than 55 are at a higher risk
      Originates in white blood cells
      Discovered by Thomas Hodgkins in 1832
    • Types of Hodgkin's Disease
      Non Hodgkin's Disease
      Far more common type of Hodgkin's Disease
      It is characterized by swelling of the lymphatic tissues
      There is the classical Hodgkin's disease
      It is cancer of lymph cells found in the lymph nodes
      Has 4 subtypes
      Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma
      Mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma
      Lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin's lymphoma
      Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Risk Factors
      Sex
      Males are more at risk than females to contract Lymphoma
      Family
      If brothers or sisters have had lymphoma, you may be at risk
      Age
      Individuals between the ages of 15 to 40 and individuals 55 and over are at a higher risk
      Past Epstein Barr Infection
      People who have had mononucleosis , a virus caused by the Past-Epstein Barr Infection have a high risk
      Compromised Immune Disease
      Individuals with aids can contract lymphoma easier
      Geography
      Common in the Unite States, Canada, and Northern Europe
      Socioeconomic Status
      People with higher socioeconomic background seem to contract Lymphoma
    • Symptoms and Complications
      Symptoms
      Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin
      Persistent fatigue
      Fever and chills
      Night sweats
      Unexplained weight loss — as much as 10 percent or more of your body weight
      Coughing, trouble breathing or chest pain
      Loss of appetite
      Itching
      Increased sensitivity to the effects of alcohol or pain in your lymph nodes after drinking alcohol
      Complications
      Cardiovascular disease
      Second malignancy, such as leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and tumors in the lungs, breasts or gastrointestinal system
      Vascular disease, including stroke
      Thyroid dysfunction
      Sterility
    • Treatment
      Patients can undergo either chemotherapy or radiation therapy
      Patients who are diagnosed earlier are either given radiation therapy or chemotherapy
      Patients in later stages are given only chemotherapy
    • Hives
      Itchy red welts on the surface of the skin
      These red welts are commonly referred to as wheals
      Usually caused by an allergic reaction to food or medication
      Also referred to as Urticaria
      Not these Guys
    • Different types of Hives
      Chronic urticaria and angioedema
      This type of hives last more than 6 weeks
      The cause for this type of hives is sometimes unknown and hard to find
      Physical urticaria
      Hives caused by direct stimulation to the skin
      Appear within an hour of exposure
      Dermatographism
      Hives that occur after firmly scratching
    • Causes of Hives
      Animal dander (especially cats)
      Insect bites
      Medications
      Pollen
      Shellfish, fish, nuts, eggs, milk, and other foods
    • Causes of Hives
      Emotional stress
      Extreme cold or sun exposure
      Excessive perspiration
      Illness (including lupus, other autoimmune diseases, and leukemia
      Infections such as mononucleosis
    • Complications and Treatment
      Complications
      Hives can turn into Anaphylaxis
      Anaphylaxis is a whole body allergic reaction that causes difficulty breathing
      Swelling in the throat can lead to trouble breathing
      Treatment
      It is recommended that patients avoid hot baths and showers
      Avoid tight wearing clothing around infected area
      Antihistamines are given and Diphenhydramine is the most commonly administered
    • Sarcoidosis
      Inflammation of the lymph nodes, liver, eyes, skin, lungs, and other tissues
      Sarcoidosis in some case has been known to reach the small bones of the feet and hands
    • Causes of Sarcoidosis
      Causes are unknown
      Clumps usually form in certain parts of the body
      Sarcoidosis can basically attack any organ but usually infects the lungs
      Some causes for Sarcoidosis have been suggested
      Genetics
      Extreme immune response to infection
      Sensitivity to certain environmental factors
    • Symptoms
      Lung and Chest
      Dry cough
      Shortness of breath
      Uneasiness behind your breast bone
      Abnormal breath sounds
      Skin Symptoms
      Skin rashes
      Old scars become more visible
      Visible, red, firm skin sores, almost always on the front part of the lower legs
      Skin lesions
      Hair loss
    • Symptoms
      Nervous system
      Headache
      Seizures
      Weakness or paralysis (palsy) on one side of the face
      Eye burning, itching, and discharge
      Decreased tearing
      Other Symptoms
      Enlarged lymph glands (armpit lump)
      Enlarged liver
      Enlarged spleen
      Dry mouth
      Nosebleed
    • Treatment
      Patients are given Corticosteroids
      prednisone or methylprednisolone
      Immunosupressive drugs are administered in combination with Corticosteroids
      methotrexate, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide
    • Complications
      Osteoporosis and other complications of taking corticosteroids for longer periods of time.
      Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
      Pulmonary hypertension
      Fungal lung infection
      Glaucoma and blindness (rare)
      Cardiac arrhythmias
      Cranial or peripheral nerve palsies
      High calcium levels
      Kidney stones
      Organ failure, leading to the need for a transplant