Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
Salford City College
Eccles Sixth Form Centre
BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN
Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games
IG2 ...
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Jordan howcroft ig2 task 1 work sheet

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Jordan howcroft ig2 task 1 work sheet

  1. 1. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 1 Produce a glossary of terms specific to the methods and principles of sound design and production. Using a provided template, you must research and gather definitions specific to provided glossary terms. Any definitions must be referenced with the URL link of the website you have obtained the definition. You must also, where possible, provide specific details of how researched definitions relate to your own production practice.
  2. 2. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 2 Name: Jordan Howcroft RESEARCHED DEFINITION (provide short internet researched definition and URL link) DESCRIBE THE RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCHED TERM TO YOUR OWN PRODUCTION PRACTICE? SOUND DESIGN METHODOLOGY Foley Artistry Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film, video, and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality. These reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass. The best foley art is so well integrated into a film that it goes unnoticed by the audience.[2] It helps to create a sense of reality within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally quiet and uncomfortable. Foley artists recreate the realistic ambient sounds that the film portrays. The props and sets of a film do not react the same way acoustically as their real life counterparts.[2] Foley sounds are used to enhance the auditory experience of the movie. Foley can also be used to cover up unwanted sounds captured on the set of a movie during filming, such as overflying airplanes or passing traffic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foley_(filmmaking) Using recording equipment have recorded ever day sounds such as zippers, wind, water slashing, automated doors opening ad many more I have then used reaper to edit them to make them more crisp and perfect s they could then be added to film etc.. Sound Libraries A sample library is a collection of digital sound recordings, known as samples, for use by composers, arrangers, I have created my own sound library using sounds I have gne out and recorded myself so I can go back and us them at any time and
  3. 3. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 3 performers, and producers of music. The sound files are loaded into asampler - either hardware or computer-based - which is then used to create music. Sample libraries appear in a variety of forms:  As a tempo-based musical phrase that can be looped (repeated in tempo with the arrangement), or edited in a cut and paste collage fashion (often utilizing programs such asPropllerhead's Recycle).  Collections of note-by-note recordings of musical instruments for playback on a digital sampler, known as multi-samples. This method of sample playback is to construct a playable instrument, or emulation of another instrument, from a sampler or computer.  One-shot hits or stabs of non-tempo based audio. Particularly used for sound effects. The term sample library, when used in a commercial context, implies a collections of samples that have been produced and licensed for the purpose of being used as samples. Such a library, sometimes called a sample pack, can be distributed either physically (by CD or DVD), or over the internet. Some sampling websites, such as The Freesound Project, utilize user- generated sample libraries. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_library there all in one place.
  4. 4. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 4 SOUND FILE FORMATS Uncompressed Uncompressed video, also called Clean HDMI, is digital video information that has not been compressed, or was not processed with compression on it when the video was captured directly via video capture (e.g. from a digital camera). It stands for the related data stream or the file format used in the video capture process. The purpose is significantly higher quality compared tolossy compression,[1] allowing even resolution upscaling. This article over focuses on HDMI, the reality is uncompressed video can be carried over several data paths including SDI and other standards. The HDMI specification specifies several modes of uncompressed digital video. Although often HD video capable cameras include a HDMI interface for playback or even live preview, the image processor and the video processor of cameras usable for uncompressed video must be able to deliver the full image resolution at the specified frame rate in realtime without any missing frames causing judder. Therefore usable uncompressed video out of HDMI is often called "Clean HDMI". Currently uncompressed video is supported by Nikon DSLRs with the Expeed 3 (FR) and Expeed 4image/video processor (currently Nikon D4, D4S, D800/D800E, D600, D610, D7100, D5200 andD5300), To convert sound recordings in to .WAV files
  5. 5. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 5 the Canon EOS-1D C, the Canon 5D Mark III with firmware 1.2.1 and professional video cameras (see list of video cameras supporting a raw format), which use proprietary raw videoformats like CinemaDNG (open format) or ArriRaw with similarities to the raw image format. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncompressed_video .wav Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension) (rarely, Audio for Windows) is aMicrosoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. It is an application of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF)bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks", and thus is also close to the 8SVX and the AIFFformat used on Amiga and Macintosh computers, respectively. It is the main format used on Windowssystems for raw and typically uncompressed audio. The usual bitstream encoding is the linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) format. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAV I have saved most of my sounds as .wav files . .aiff Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data forpersonal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was developed by Apple Inc. in 1988 based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format (IFF, widely used on Amiga systems) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. The audio data in a standard AIFF file is uncompressed pulse- code modulation (PCM). There is also a compressed variant of This audio file is used on mac’s
  6. 6. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 6 AIFF known as AIFF-C or AIFC, with various defined compression codecs. Unlike the better-known lossy MP3 format, AIFF is uncompressed (which aids rapid streaming of multiple audio files from disk to the application), and is lossless. Like any uncompressed, lossless format, it uses much more disk space than MP3—about 10MB for one minute of stereo audio at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a bit depth of 16 bits. In addition to audio data, AIFF can include loop point data and the musical note of a sample, for use by hardware samplers and musical applications. The file extension for the standard AIFF format is .aiff or .aif. For the compressed variants it is supposed to be .aifc, but .aiff or .aif are accepted as well by audio applications supporting the format. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_Interchange_File_Format .au The Au file format is a simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems. The format was common on NeXT systems and on early Web pages. Originally it was headerless, being simply 8-bit µ-law-encoded data at an 8000 Hz sample rate. Hardware from other vendors often used sample rates as high as 8192 Hz, often integer factors of video clock signals. Newer files have a header that consists of sixunsigned 32-bit words, an optional information chunk and then the data (in big endian format). One of the basic audio files used
  7. 7. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Au_file_format .smp Simple way of soring auio data on a screen Lossy Compression In information technology, "lossy" compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations (or partial data discarding) for representing the content that has been encoded. Such compression techniques are used to reduce the amount of data that would otherwise be needed to store, handle, and/or transmit the represented content. The different versions of the photo of the dog at the right demonstrate how the approximation of an image becomes progressively coarser as more details of the data that made up the original image are removed. The amount of data reduction possible using lossy compression can often be much more substantial than what is possible with lossless data compression techniques. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossy_compression Lossy is a term used to make audio .mp3 MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III, more commonly referred to as MP3, is an encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as ade facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MP3 I have edited an MP3 sound track and then re saved it as an MP3. AUDIO LIMITATIONS Sound Processor Unit (SPU) A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound, as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation, education and entertainment (games) and video projection. The computer I have been using has a built in sound card the process’s the sounds I create
  8. 8. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_card Digital Sound Processor (DSP) Digital signal processing (DSP) is the mathematical manipulation of an information signal to modify or improve it in some way. It is characterized by the representation of discrete time, discrete frequency, or other discrete domain signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signal_processing I have changed sound by editing the speed/time at which it is played and the frequency of the sound. Random Access Memory (RAM) Random-access memory (RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read and written in roughly the same amount of time regardless of the order in which data items are accessed.In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement delays. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-access_memory The RAM in the computer I use process’s the sound data I create quickly so it plays at a speed that sounds normal with no latency. Mono Audio Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is single-channel. Typically there is only one microphone, one loudspeaker, or (in the case of headphones and multiple loudspeakers) channels are fed from a common signal path. In the case of multiple microphones the paths are mixed into a single signal path at some stage. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monaural I used microphones and headphones to record and listen to sounds that I needed to edit later on using reaper. Stereo Audio Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of directionality and audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a Using reaper I edited sounds I a way to make it sounds like I was n a rm and things where happening around me I did this by editing the sounds directinaly.
  9. 9. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 9 way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing.[1] Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is in the form of one channel, often centered in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). Stereo sound is now common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereophonic_sound Surround Sound Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels), providing sound from a 360° radius in the horizontal plane (2D) as opposed to "screen channels" (centre, [front] left, and [front] right) originating only from the listener's forward arc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surround_sound At home when I am watching a movie etc... and I use surround sound and it makes the listener feel more immersed into what they are doing. Direct Audio (Pulse Code Modulation – PCM) DirectSound is a software component of the Microsoft DirectX library for the Windows operating system. DirectSound provides a low-latency interface to the sound card driver and can handle the mixing and recording of multiple audio streams. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DirectSound At home I game and when im playing a war gam or instance there are alo of sounds multiple layered and Direct sound/DirectX allows the sounds to sync so they don’t have delays/stutter. AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEMS Analogue Analog (or analogue) recording (Greek, ana is "according to" and logos "relationship") is a technique used for the recording of analog signals which among many possibilities include audio frequency, analog audio and analog video information for later playback. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_recording Analogue is another way to record audio. Digital Mini Disc The MiniDisc (MD) is an obsolete magneto-opticaldisc- This is a type of data storage not commonly used today.
  10. 10. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 10 based data storage device for 74 minutes and, later, 80 minutes, of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte ofHi-MD data. The Sony brand audio players were on the market from September 1992 until March 2013.[1] MiniDisc was announced by Sony in September 1992 and released that November for sale in Japan and in December for the USA and Europe.[2] The music format was originally based exclusively on ATRACaudio data compression, but the option of linear PCMdigital recording was later introduced to attain audio quality comparable to that of a compact disc. MiniDiscs were very popular in Japan but made a limited impact elsewhere http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MiniDisc Compact Disc (CD) Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. The format was originally developed to store and play back sound recordings only (CD-DA), but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD- i, and Enhanced Music CD. Audio CDs and audio CD players have been commercially available since October 1982. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and The current and most popular way to store data.
  11. 11. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 11 can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or 700 MiB (actually about 703 MiB or 737 MB) of data. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio or delivering device drivers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_disc Digital Audio Tape (DAT) Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987.[1] In appearance it is similar to a Compact Cassette, using 4 mm magnetic tape enclosed in a protective shell, but is roughly half the size at 73 mm × 54 mm × 10.5 mm. As the name suggests, the recording is digital rather than analog. DAT has the ability to record at higher, equal or lower sampling rates than a CD (48, 44.1 or 32 kHzsampling rate respectively) at 16 bits quantization. If a digital source is copied then the DAT will produce an exact clone, unlike other digital media such as Digital Compact Cassette or non-Hi-MD MiniDisc, both of which use a lossy data reduction system. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Audio_Tape Another type of data storage used not to long ago MIDI MIDI (/ˈmɪdi/; short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another. A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI The way a digital interface works with your system Software Sequencers A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device A type of software used to edit
  12. 12. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 12 or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typicallyMIDI or CV/Gate, and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_sequencer sound recordings. Software Plug-ins In computing, a plug-in (or plugin,extension, or add- on / addon) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing software application. When an application supports plug-ins, it enables customization. The common examples are the plug-ins used in web browsers to add new features such as search-engines, virus scanners, or the ability to utilize a new file type such as a new video format. Well- known browser plug-ins include the Adobe Flash Player, the QuickTime Player, and the Java plug-in, which can launch a user-activatedJava applet on a web page to its execution a local Java virtual machine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_(computing) A type of add-n that allows you to edit sounds in more ways. MIDI Keyboard Instruments A MIDI keyboard is typically a piano-style user interfacekeyboard device used for sending MIDI signals or commands over a USB or MIDI cable to other devices connected and operating on the same MIDI protocol interface. This could also be a personal computer running software such as a digital audio workstation (DAW) that listens to and sends MIDI information to other MIDI devices connected by cable or running internal to the personal computer system. The basic MIDI keyboard does not produce sound. Instead, MIDI information is sent to an electronic module capable of reproducing an array of digital sounds or samples that resemble traditional analog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI_keyboard This is a digitally produced instrument such as a keyboard. AUDIO SAMPLING File Size Constraints - Bit- depth it depth is the number of bits used to carry the data in each sample Used to read data information audio samples
  13. 13. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 13 of audio. The bit depth chosen for recording limits the dynamic range of the recording. (Other factors in the audio chain may also limit this, so more bits often will not produce a better recording.) http://wiki.audacityteam.org/wiki/Bit_Depth File Size Constraints - Sample Rate Sample rate is the number of samples of audio carried per second, measured in Hz or kHz (one kHz being 1 000 Hz). For example, 44 100 samples per second can be expressed as either 44 100 Hz, or 44.1 kHz. http://wiki.audacityteam.org/wiki/Sample_Rates A measurement In an audio sample.
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