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# Metacogntion seminar

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### Metacogntion seminar

1. 1. Developing Metacognitive Skills in Studying Carlo Magno Professor of Educational Psychology Counseling and Educational Psychology Department De La Salle University-Manila
2. 2. Case analysis Jane is a college student taking up her algebra class. Every time her teacher presents word problems that need to be solved she stumbles, stops, panics, and doesn’t know what to do.  For example the teacher writes on the board the problem: The period T (time in seconds for one complete cycle) of a simple pendulum is related to the length L (in feet) of the pendulum by the formulas 8T2 =π2 L. If a child is on a swing with a 10 – foot chain, then how long does it take to compete one cycle of the swing? It takes around 30 to 40 minutes for her to stare at the word problem and everytime she attempts to write something she suddenly stops and is uncertain in what she is doing.
3. 3. Case Analysis RJ whenever he is faced with mathematical word problems make himself relaxed. He thinks of the steps on how to solve the problem. He determines what is asked or required, extracts the given, translates the problem into an equation. He represents the unknown into ‘X’ or ‘?’. He proceeds to solve the problem. Checks his answer. He reviews his answer by rereading the problem and checking his computations.
4. 4. Objectives • Uncover the definition of metacognition • Indentify specific metacognitive processes • Use metacognition to control one’s learning (after the seminar) • Teach others to become aware and in control of their learning (after the seminar)
5. 5. Metacognition • “Thinking about thinking” or “awareness of one’s learning” • Metacognition is an executive system that enables top down control of information processing (Shimamura, 2000). • According to Winn and Snyder (1998), metacognition as a mental process consists of two simultaneous processes: (1) monitoring the progress in learning and (2) making changes and adapting one’s strategies if one perceives he is not doing well. • Schraw and Dennison (1994): knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition
6. 6. What is the benefit of metacognition? • Majority of studies in metacognition are related with outcome performance such as students’ achievement in different domains (i. e. Magno, 2005; Al Hilawani, 2003; Rock, 2005) • Metacognition is related with different sets of attitudinal variables such as self-efficacy (Narciss, 2004; Chu, 2001; Cintura, Okol, & Ong, 2001; Jinks & Morgan, 1999; Schunk, 1991)
7. 7. Model2: Effect of Metacognition (8 factors) on Critical Thinking 7.24* 7.91* 6.88* 9.25*7.07* 9.03* 6.27* 82.57 * 34.94 * 0.40*0.74*0.86*0.67* 3.57* EPSILON5 5.03*6.15*2.06*7.27* 5.19* 57.11 * 2.10* Planning Metacognition Critical Thinking Deduction Interpretation Evaluation of Arguments Inference Recognition of Assumption DELTA5DELTA4 ZETA1 EPSILON1 EPSILON2 EPSILON3 EPSILON4 Monitorin g Information Management Procedural Knowledge Conditional Knowledge 71.46 * DELTA3 100.43* DELTA2 88.10 * DELTA7 Declarative Knowledge Debugging Strategy Evaluation 71.92 * DELTA6 DELTA1 78.39* DELTA8 25.12* χ2 =1382, df=78, P<.05, RMSEA=.05 PGI=.95 1.00
8. 8. Metacognition as an outcome • Magno, C. (2010). Investigating the Effect of School Ability on Self- efficacy, Learning Approaches, and Metacognition. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 18(2), 233-244. 1.0 1.0 1.0 .30* .14* .17* .51* Self-efficacy Surface Approach Deep Approach Metacognition .28* 1.0 E 4 School Ability -.13* E 1 E 2 E 3
9. 9. Metacognition Other Models: • Ridley, Schutz, Glanz, & Weinstein (1992) recognize that metacognition is composed of multiple skills. • Ertmer and Newby (1996) specified that the multiple components of metacognition are characteristics of an expert learner. • Hacker (1997) made three general categories of metacognition: cognitive monitoring, cognitive regulation, and combination of monitoring and regulation.
10. 10. Two components of Metacognition • Knowledge of cognition is the reflective aspect of metacognition. It is the individuals’ awareness of their own knowledge, learning preferences, styles, strengths, and limitations, as well as their awareness of how to use this knowledge that can determine how well they can perform different tasks (de Carvalho, Magno, Lajom, Bunagan, & Regodon, 2005). • Regulation of cognition on the other hand is the control aspect of learning. It is the procedural aspect of knowledge that allows effective linking of actions needed to complete a given task (Carvalho & Yuzawa, 2001).
11. 11. Components of Metacogniton Knowledge of Cognition • (1) Declarative knowledge – knowledge about one’s skills, intellectual resources, and abilities as a learner. • (2) Procedural knowledge – knowledge about how to implement learning procedures (strategies) • (3) Conditional knowledge – knowledge about when and why to use learning procedures.
12. 12. Examples of knowledge of cognition • Declarative Knowledge – Knowing what is important to learn – Understanding ones intellectual strengths and weaknesses • Procedural knowledge – I am aware of what strategies I use when I study – I have a specific purpose of each strategy I use • Conditional knowledge – I learn best when I know something about the topic – I use different learning strategies depending on the situation
13. 13. Components of Metacogniton Regulation of cognition 1) Planning – planning, goal setting, and allocating resources prior to learning. (2) Information Management Strategies – skills and strategy sequences used on- line to process information more effectively (organizing, elaborating, summarizing, selective focusing). (3) Monitoring – Assessing one’s learning or strategy use. (4) Debugging Strategies – strategies used to correct comprehension and performance errors (5) Evaluation of learning – analysis of performance and strategy effectiveness after learning episodes.
14. 14. Examples of regulation of cognition • Planning • Pacing oneself when studying in order to have enough time • Thinking about what really needs to be earned before beginning a task • Information Management Strategies • Focusing attention to important information • Slowing down when important information is encountered • Monitoring • Considering alternatives to a problem before solving • Pause regularly to check for comprehension • Debugging Strategies • Ask help form others when one doesn’t understand • Stop and go over of it is not clear • Evaluation of learning • Summarize after learning • Find easier ways to do things
15. 15. Case Analysis RJ whenever he is faced with mathematical word problems makes himself relaxed. He thinks of the steps on how to solve the problem. He determines what is asked or required, extracts the given, translates the problem into an equation. He represents the unknown into ‘X’ or ‘?’. He proceeds to solve the problem. Checks his answer. He reviews his answer by rereading the problem and checking his computations.
16. 16. Results of MAI Assessment LS Antipolo Mean National Means Declarative Knowledge 75.54 59.44 Procedural Knowledge 74.48 61.02 Conditional Knowledge 77.45 59.37 Planning 73.71 59.84 Information Management 73.28 59.32 Monitoring 79.17 59.86 Debugging Strategy 78.61 62.17 Evaluation of learning 75.31 60.4