Developing instruments for research


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Developing instruments for research

  1. 1. Carlo Magno, PhD. Lasallian Institute for Development and Educational Research College of Education, De La Salle University, Manila
  2. 2. Answer the following questions as a group.Your answers should reflect your current practices in assessing your students. Write your answers in a piece of paper. 1. List down the things that you do when preparing to write your test items? (procedure) 2. What are the things that you consider when writing your test items? (concepts) 3. What further steps do you do after you have scored and recorded the test papers? (procedure) 4. What other forms of assessment do you conduct aside from paper and pencil tests?
  3. 3.  PrepareTable of Specifications (TOS)  Use theTaxonomy of Cognitive skills (Bloom’s taxonomy)  Conduct Item review
  4. 4.  Learning objectives  Curriculum/national standards  Needs of students  Higher order thinking skills  Test length  Test instruction  Test layout  Scoring
  5. 5. Item analysis  Item difficulty  Item discrimination Distracter analysis Reliability analysis Validity analysis
  6. 6.  Alternative forms of assessment  Performance-based Assessment  Authentic assessment  Portfolio assessment
  7. 7.  Non-cognitive measures  Attitude  Beliefs  Interests  Values  Dispositions  Cognitive Measures  Tests (right and wrong answers)
  8. 8. 8  Decide what information should be sought  (1) No instruments are available to measure such construct  (2) All tests are foreign and it is not suitable for the stakeholders or sample that will take the measure  (3) Existing measures are not appropriate for the purpose of assessment  (4) The test developer intends to explore the underlying factors of a construct and eventually confirm it  Search for Content Domain:  Search for relevant literature reviews  Look for the appropriate definition  Explain the theory  Specify the underlying variables (deconstruction)
  9. 9. 9 Factor Subscale 1 Subscale 2 Subscale 3 Subscale 4 Subscale 5 Unidimensional (One-factor)
  10. 10. Factor 1 Subscale 1 Subscale 2 Subscale 3 Subscale 4 Subscale 5 Factor 2 Subscale 1 Subscale 2 Subscale 3 Subscale 4 Subscale 5 Unidimensional (One-factor)
  11. 11. 11  Write the first draft of items:  Items are created for each subscale as guided by the conceptual definition.  The number of items as planned in the Table of Specifications is also considered.  As much as possible, a large number of items are written to represent well the behavior being measured.  How to write Items:  Items are based on the definition of the subscales  Provide the manifestation of the construct  Descriptions from references  Ask experts to write sample items
  12. 12. Content Outline No. of items 1. Table of specifications 10 2. Test and Item characteristics 20 3. Test layout 5 4. Test instructions 5 5. Reproducing the test 5 6. Test length 5 7. Scoring the test 5 TOTAL 55 One-grid Table of SpecificationsOne-grid Table of Specifications One-gridTable of Specifications
  13. 13. Cognitive Domain Content Knowledge Comprehensio n Application I. II. III. Two gridTable of Specifications
  14. 14. Weight (Time Frame) Content Outline Knowledge 30% Comprehension 40% Applicatio n 30% No. of items by content area 35% 1. Table of specifications 1 4 4 9 30% 2. Test and Item characteristics 2 3 3 8 10% 3. Test layout 1 1 0 2 5% 4. Test instructions 0 1 0 1 5% 5. Reproducing the test 1 0 0 1 5% 6. Test length 1 0 1 2 10% 7. Scoring the test 2 1 0 3 8 10 8 26 Three gridTable of Specifications
  15. 15. 15 Good questionnaire items should: 1. Include a vocabulary that is simple, direct, and familiar to all respondents 2. Be clear and specific 3. Not involve leading, loaded or double barreled questions 4. Be as short as possible 5. Include all conditional information prior to the key ideas 6. Be edited for readability 7. Generalizable for a large sample. 8. Avoid time-bound situations.
  16. 16. 16  Example of bad items:  I am satisfied with my wages and hours at the place where I work. (Double Barreled)  I not in favor congress passing a law not allowing any employer to force any employee to retire  at any age. (Double Negative)  Most people favor death penalty. What do you think? (Leading Question)
  17. 17. 17  Select a Response Format:  After writing the items, the test developer decides on the appropriate response format to be used in the scale.  The most common response formats used:  Binary type  Multiple choice  Short answer  Essay  Develop directions for responding:  Directions or instructions for the target respondents be created as early as when the items are created.  Clear and concise.  Respondents should be informed how to answer.  When you intend to have a separate answer sheet, make sure to inform the respondents about it in the instructions.  Instructions should also include ways of changing answers, how to answer (encircle, check, or shade).  Inform the respondents in the instructions specifically what they need to do.
  18. 18. 18  Conduct a judgmental review of items  Have experts review your items.
  19. 19. 19  Reexamine and revise the questionnaire  Prepare a draft and gather preliminary pilot data:  Requires a layout of the test for the respondents.  Make the scale as easy as possible to use.  Each item can be identified with a number or a letter to facilitate scoring of responses later.  The items should be structured for readability and recording responses.  Whenever possible items with the same response formats are placed together.  Make the layout visually appealing to increase response rate.  Self-explanatory and the respondents can complete it in a short time.  Ordering of items: The first few questions set the tone for the rest of the items and determine how willingly and conscientiously respondents will work on subsequent questions.
  20. 20. 20  Analyze Pilot data:  The responses in the test should be recorded using a spreadsheet.  The numerical responses are then analyzed.  The analysis consists of determining whether the test is reliable or valid.  Revise the Instrument:  The instrument is then revised because items with low factor loadings (not significant in CFA) are removed  Items when removed will increase Cronbach’s alpha.
  21. 21. 21  Gather final pilot data  A large sample is again selected which is three times the number of items.  Conduct Additional Validity and Reliability Analysis  The validity and reliability is again analyzed using the new pilot data.  Edit the test and specify the procedures for its use  Items with low factor loadings are again removed resulting to less items.  A new form of the test with reduced items will be formed.  Prepare the Test Manual  The test manual indicates the purpose of the test, instructions in administering, procedure for scoring, interpreting the scores including the norms.
  22. 22.  The test must be of sufficiently length to yield reliable scores.  The longer the test, the more the reliable the results.This also targets the validity of the test because the test should be valid if it is reliable.  For the grade school, one must consider the stamina and attention span of the pupils  The test should be long enough to be adequately reliable and short enough to be administered
  23. 23.  It is the function of the test instructions to furnish the learning experiences needed in order to enable each examinee to understand clearly what he is being asked to do.  Instructions may be oral, a combination of written and oral instruction is probably desirable, except with very young children.  Clear concise and specific.
  24. 24.  The arrangement of the test items influences the speed and accuracy of the examinee  Utilize the space available while retaining readability.  Items of the same type should be grouped together  Arrange test items from easiest to most difficult as a means of reducing test anxiety.  The test should be ordered first by type then by content  Each item should be completed in the column and page in which it is started.  If the reference material is needed, it should occur on the same page as the item  If you are using numbers to identify items it is better to use letters for the options
  25. 25.  Reliability  Validity  Item discrimination/Item Difficulty
  26. 26.  Consistency of scores Obtained by the same person when retested with the identical test or with an equivalent form of the test
  27. 27.  Repeating the identical test on a second occasion  Temporal stability  When variables are stable ex: motor coordination, finger dexterity, aptitude, capacity to learn  Correlate the scores from the first test and second test.  The higher the correlation the more reliable
  28. 28.  Same person is tested with one form on the first occasion and with another equivalent form on the second  Equivalence;  Temporal stability and consistency of response  Used for personality and mental ability tests  Correlate scores on the first form and scores on the second form
  29. 29.  Two scores are obtained for each person by dividing the test into equivalent halves  Internal consistency;  Homogeneity of items  Used for personality and mental ability tests  The test should have many items  Correlate scores of the odd and even numbered items  Convert the obtained correlation coefficient into a coefficient estimate using Spearman Brown
  30. 30.  When computing for binary (e.g., true/false) items  Consistency of responses to all items  Used if there is a correct answer (right or wrong)  Use KR #20 or KR #21 formula
  31. 31.  The reliability that would result if all values for each item were standardized (z transformed)  Consistency of responses to all items  Homogeneity of items  Used for personality tests with multiple scored-items  Use the cronbach’s alpha formula
  32. 32.  Consistency of responses to all items  Homogeneity of items  Used for personality tests with multiple scored-items  Each item is correlated with every item in the test
  33. 33.  Having a sample of test papers independently scored by two examiners  To decrease examiner or scorer variance  Clinical instruments employed in intensive individual tests ex. projective tests  The two scores from the two raters obtained are correlated with each other
  34. 34.  Degree to which the test actually measures what it purports to measure
  35. 35.  Systematic examination of the test content to determine whether it covers a representative sample of the behavior domain to be measured.  More appropriate for achievement tests & teacher made tests  Items are based on instructional objectives, course syllabi & textbooks  Consultation with experts  Making test-specifications
  36. 36.  Prediction from the test to any criterion situation over time interval  Hiring job applicants, selecting students for admission to college, assigning military personnel to occupational training programs  Test scores are correlated with other criterion measures ex: mechanical aptitude and job performance as a machinist
  37. 37.  Tests are administered to a group on whom criterion data are already available  Diagnosing for existing status ex. entrance exam scores of students for college with their average grade for their senior year.  Correlate the test score with the other existing measure
  38. 38.  The extent to which the test may be said to measure a theoretical construct or trait.  Used for personality tests. Measures that are multidimensional  Correlate a new test with a similar earlier test as measured approximately the same general behavior  Factor analysis  Comparison of the upper and lower group  Point-biserial correlation (pass and fail with total test score)  Correlate subtest with the entire test
  39. 39.  The test should correlate significantly from variables it is related to  Commonly for personality measures  Multitrait-multidimensional matrix
  40. 40.  The test should not correlate significantly from variables from which it should differ  Commonly for personality measures  Multitrait-multidimensional matrix
  41. 41.  Item Difficulty –The percentage of respondents who answered an item correctly  Item Discrimination – Degree to which an item differentiates correctly among test takers in the behavior that the test is designed to measure.
  42. 42.  Difficulty Index Remark  .76 or higher Easy Item  .25 to .75 Average Item  .24 or lower Difficult Item
  43. 43.  .40 and above -Very good item  .30 - .39 - Good item  .20 - .29 - Reasonably Good item  .10 - .19 - Marginal item  Below .10 - Poor item
  44. 44.  Writing multiple choice items
  45. 45. 1. Salvador Dali is a. a famous Indian. b. important in international law. c. known for his surrealistic art. d. the author of many avant-garde plays. •It is recommended that the stem be a direct question. •The stem should pose a clear, define, explicit, and singular problem. Why is the item faulty?
  46. 46. IMPROVED:With which one of the fine arts is Salvador Dali associated? a. surrealistic painting b. avant-garde theatre c. polytonal symphonic music d. impressionistic poetry
  47. 47. 2. Milk can be pasteurized at home by a. heating it to a temperature of 130o b. Heating it to a temperature of 145o c. Heating it to a temperature of 160o d. Heating it to a temperature of 175o •Include in the stem any words that might otherwise be repeated in each response. Why is the item faulty?
  48. 48. IMPROVED:The minimum temperature that can be used to pasteurize milk at home is: a. 130o b. 145o c. 160o d. 175o
  49. 49. 3. Although the experimental research, particularly that by Hansmocker must be considered equivocal and assumptions viewed as too restrictive, most testing experts would recommend as the easiest method of significantly improving paper-and-pencil achievement test reliability to a. increase the size of the group being tested. b. increase the differential weighting of items. c. increase the objective of scoring. d. increase the number of items. e. increase the amount of testing time. Items should be stated simply and understandably, excluding all nonfunctional words from stem and alternatives. Why is the item faulty?
  50. 50. IMPROVED: Assume a 10-item, 10-minute paper- and-pencil multiple choice achievement test has a reliability of .40.The easiest way of increasing the reliability to .80 would be to increased a. group size b. scoring objectivity c. differential item scoring weights d. the number of items e. testing time
  51. 51. 4. None of the following cities is a state capital except a. Bangor b. Los Angeles c. Denver d. New Haven •Avoid negatively stated items Why is the item faulty?
  52. 52. IMPROVED:Which of the following cities is a state capital? a. Bangor b. Los Angeles c. Denver d. New Haven
  53. 53. 5. Who wrote Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire? a. J. K. Rowling b. Manny Paquiao c. Lea Salonga d. MarkTwain •If possible the alternatives should be presented in some logical, numerical, or systematic order. •Response alternatives should be mutually exclusive. Why is the item faulty?
  54. 54. IMPROVED:Who wrote Penrod? a. J. K. Rowling b. J. R. R.Tolkien c.V. Hugo d. L. Carrol
  55. 55. 6. Which of the following statements makes clear the meaning of the word “electron”? a.An electronic tool b. Neutral particles c. Negative particles d. A voting machine e.The nuclei of atoms •Make all responses plausible and attractive to the less knowledgeable and skillful student. Why is the item faulty?
  56. 56. IMPROVED:Which of the following phrases is a description of an “electron”? a. Neutral particle b. Negative particle c. Neutralized proton d. Radiated particle e. Atom nucleus
  57. 57. 7. What is the area of a right triangle whose sides adjacent to the right angle are 4 inches long respectively? a. 7 b. 12 c. 25 d. None of the above •The response alternative “None of the above” should be used with caution, if at all. Why is the item faulty?
  58. 58. IMPROVED:What is the area of a right triangle whose sides adjacent to the right angle are 4 inches and 3 inches respectively? a. 6 sq. inches b. 7 sq. inches c. 12 sq. inches d. 25 sq. inches e. None of the above
  59. 59. 8. As compared with the American factory worker in the early part of the 19th century, the American factory worker at the close of the century a. was working long hours b. received greater social security benefits c. was to receive lower money wages d. was less likely to belong to a labor union. e. became less likely to have personal contact with employers Make options grammatically parallel to each other and consistent with the stem. Why is the item faulty?
  60. 60. IMPROVED: As compared with the American factory worker in the early part of the century, the American factory worker at the close of the century a. worked longer hours. b. had more social security. c. received lower money wages. d. was less likely to belong to a labor union e. had less personal contact with his employer
  61. 61. 9. The “standard error of estimate’ refer to a. the objectivity of scoring. b. the percentage of reduced error variance. c. an absolute amount of possible error. d. the amount of error in estimating criterion scores. Avoid such irrelevant cues as “common elements” and “pat verbal associations.” Why is the item faulty?
  62. 62. IMPROVED:The “standard error of estimate” is most directly related to which of the following test characteristic? a. Objectivity b. Reliability c.Validity d. Usability e. Specificity
  63. 63. 10. What name is given to the group of complex organic compounds that occur in small quantities in natural foods that are essential to normal nutrition? a. Calorie b. Minerals c. Nutrients d.Vitamins In testing for understanding of a term or concept, it is generally preferable to present the term in the stem and alternative definitions in the options. Why is the item faulty?
  64. 64. IMPROVED:Which of the following statements is the best description of a vitamin?
  65. 65.  Work with your group and write the items for your test.  1 hour