21st century assessment

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21st century assessment

  1. 1. ASSESSMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY Dr. Carlo Magno Associate Professor of Educational Psychology De La Salle University, Manila
  2. 2. Answer the worksheet: Activity #1
  3. 3. ADVANCE ORGANIZER  21st century skills  Assessment competencies of teachers  Shifts in assessment trends  “Assessment for learning” and “assessment of learning”  Alternative forms of assessment
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF ASSESSMENT (AFT, NCME, NEA, 1990)  Assessment is defined as a process of obtaining information that is used to make educational decisions about students, to give feedback to students about his or her progress, strengths and weaknesses, to judge instructional effectiveness and curricular adequacy, and to inform policy.
  5. 5. 21ST CENTURY SKILLS  Learning and innovation skills  Creativity and Innovation  Critical Thinking and Problem Solving  Communication and Collaboration  Information, media, and technology skills  Information Literacy  Media Literacy  ICT (Information, Communications and Technology) Literacy  Life and career skills  Flexibility and Adaptability  Initiative and Self-Direction  Social and Cross-Cultural Skills  Productivity and Accountability  Leadership and Responsibility Partnership for the 21st century skills
  6. 6. ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS  Constructed by the AFT, NCME, NEA:  Teachers should be skilled in: 1. choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. 2. Administering, scoring, and interpreting the results of both externally produced and teacher produced assessment methods. 3. Using assessment results when making decisions about individual students, planning teaching, and developing curriculum and school improvement. American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement and Evaluation, and National Education Association in the United States of America.
  7. 7. ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS 4. Developing valid pupil grading procedures that use pupil assessment. 5. Communicating assessment results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators. 6. Recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment information.
  8. 8. SHIFTS IN ASSESSMENT  Testing Alternative assessment  Paper and pencil Performance assessment  Multiple choice Supply  Single correct answer Many correct answer  Summative Formative  Outcome only Process and Outcome  Skill focused Task-based  Isolated facts Application of knowledge  Decontextualized task Contextualized task
  9. 9.  Watch Rick Stiggins Video
  10. 10. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Crucial Distinction Assessment of Learning How much have students learned as of a particular point in time? Assessment for Learning How can we use assessment to help students learn more?
  11. 11. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Effect of Previous Practices: rank students on achievement by graduation New Expectation: Assure competence in Math, Reading, Writing, etc.  Implications? Assessment and grading procedures should help students succeed.
  12. 12. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING  We need to close the gap between standards and students competencies  Risk: our society will be unable to productively evolve in social and economic sense.  Assessment is a tool to ensure student mastery of essential standards.
  13. 13. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING  Mistaken beliefs about how to use assessment to support school improvement: 1. High-stakes tests are good for all students because they motivate learning 2. If I threaten to fail you, it will cause you to try harder 3. If a little intimidation doesn’t work, use a lot of intimidation
  14. 14. MISTAKEN BELIEFS 4. The way to maximize learning is to maximize anxiety 5. It is the adults who use assessment results to make the most important instructional decision.
  15. 15. MISTAKEN BELIEFS PROFOUND MISTAKE Teachers and leaders don’t need to understand sound assessment practices – the testing people will take care of us. COUNTER BELIEF They do need to understand sound assessment practices.
  16. 16. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF ASSESSMENT  Performance based assessment  Authentic assessment  Portfolio assessment
  17. 17. OBJECTIVES  1. Distinguish performance-based assessment with the traditional paper and pencil tests.  2. Construct tasks that are performance based.  Design a rubric to assess a performance based task
  18. 18. TERMS  Authentic assessment  Direct assessment  Alternative assessment  Performance testing  Performance assessment  Changes are taking place in assessment
  19. 19. METHOD  Assessment should measure what is really important in the curriculum.  Assessment should look more like instructional activities than like tests.  Educational assessment should approximate the learning tasks of interest, so that, when students practice for the assessment, some useful learning takes place.
  20. 20. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT?  Testing that requires a student to create an answer or a product that demonstrates his/her knowledge or skills (Rudner & Boston, 1991).
  21. 21. FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT  Intended to assess what it is that students know and can do with the emphasis on doing.  Have a high degree of realism about them.  Involve: (a) activities for which there is no correct answer, (b) assessing groups rather than individuals, (c) testing that would continue over an extended period of time, (d) self-evaluation of performances.  Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at assessing higher level cognitive skills.
  22. 22. PUSH ON PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT  Bring testing methods more in line with instruction.  Assessment should approximate closely what it is students should know and be able to do.
  23. 23. EMPHASIS OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT  Should assess higher level cognitive skills rather than narrow and lower level discreet skills.  Direct measures of skills of interest.
  24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT  Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do something.  Deep understanding and/or reasoning skills are needed and assessed.  Involves sustained work, often days and weeks.  Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend.  Performance is directly observable.  Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance.  Relies on trained assessor’s judgments for scoring  Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and public  There is no single correct answer.  If authentic, the performance is grounded in real world contexts and constraints.
  25. 25. VARIATION OF AUTHENTICITY Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic Authentic Indicate which parts of a garden design are accurate Design a garden Create a garden Write a paper on zoning Write a proposal to change fictitious zoning laws Write a proposal to present to city council to change zoning laws Explain what would you teach to students learning basketball Show how to perform basketball skills in practice Play a basketball game.
  26. 26.  Answer worksheet 2
  27. 27. CONSTRUCTING PERFORMANCE BASED TASKS 1. Identify the performance task in which students will be engaged 2. Develop descriptions of the task and the context in which the performance is to be conducted. 3. Write the specific question, prompt, or problem that the student will receive. • Structure: Individual or group? • Content: Specific or integrated? • Complexity: Restricted or extended?
  28. 28. COMPLEXITY OF TASK  Restricted-type task  Narrowly defined and require brief responses  Task is structured and specific  Ex:  Construct a bar graph from data provided  Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is on a menu  Read an article from the newspaper and answer questions  Flip a coin ten times. Predict what the next ten flips of the coin will be, and explain why.  Listen to the evening news on television and explain if you believe the stories are biased.  Construct a circle, square, and triangle from provided materials that have the same circumference.
  29. 29.  Extended-type task  Complex, elaborate, and time-consuming.  Often include collaborative work with small group of students.  Requires the use of a variety of information  Examples:  Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and labor  Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and itinerary, and justify why you want to visit certain places  Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial of ERAP)  Diagnose and repair a car problem  Design an advertising campaign for a new or existing product
  30. 30. IDENTIFYING PERFORMANCE TASK DESCRIPTION  Prepare a task description  Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if criteria are met  Includes the ff.:  Content and skill targets to be assessed  Description of student activities  Group or individual  Help allowed  Resources needed  Teacher role  Administrative process  Scoring procedures
  31. 31. PERFORMANCE-BASED TASK QUESTION PROMPT  Task prompts and questions will be based on the task descriptions.  Clearly identifies the outcomes, outlines what the students are encourage dot do, explains criteria for judgment.
  32. 32. EXAMPLE OF A TASK PROMPT:
  33. 33. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA  What you look for in student responses to evaluate their progress toward meeting the learning target.  Dimensions of traits in performance that are used to illustrate understanding, reasoning, and proficiency.  Start with identifying the most important dimensions of the performance  What distinguishes an adequate to an inadequate demonstration of the target?
  34. 34. EXAMPLE OF CRITERIA  Learning target:  Students will be able to write a persuasive paper to encourage the reader to accept a specific course of action or point of view.  Criteria:  Appropriateness of language for the audience  Plausibility and relevance of supporting arguments.  Level of detail presented  Evidence of creative, innovative thinking  Clarity of expression  Organization of ideas
  35. 35.  Watch video of Cody Green
  36. 36. RATING SCALES  Indicate the degree to which a particular dimension is present.  Three kinds: Numerical, qualitative, combined qualitative/quantitative
  37. 37.  Numerical Scale  Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level of proficiency in terms of frequency or quality Example: No Understanding 1 2 3 4 5 Complete understanding No organization 1 2 3 4 5 Clear organization Emergent reader 1 2 3 4 5 Fluent reader
  38. 38.  Qualitative scale  Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student performance.  Provides a way to check the whether each dimension was evidenced.  Type A: Indicate different gradations of the dimension  Type B: Checklist
  39. 39.  Example of Type A:  Minimal, partial, complete  Never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, always  Consistent, sporadically, rarely  None, some, complete  Novice, intermediate, advance, superior  Inadequate, needs improvement, good excellent  Excellent, proficient, needs improvement  Absent, developing, adequate, fully developed  Limited, partial, thorough  Emerging, developing, achieving  Not there yet, shows growth, proficient  Excellent, good, fair, poor
  40. 40.  Example of Type A: Checklist
  41. 41.  Holistic scale  The category of the scale contains several criteria, yielding a single score that gives an overall impression or rating Example level 4: Sophisticated understanding of text indicated with constructed meaning level 3: Solid understanding of text indicated with some constructed meaning level 2: Partial understanding of text indicated with tenuous constructed meaning level 1: superficial understanding of text with little or no constructed meaning
  42. 42. EXAMPLE HOLISTIC SCALE
  43. 43.  Analytic Scale  One in which each criterion receives a separate score. Example Criteria Outstanding 5 4 Competent 3 Marginal 2 1 Creative ideas Logical organization Relevance of detail Variety in words and sentences Vivid images
  44. 44. RUBRICS  When scoring criteria are combined with a rating scale, a complete scoring guideline is produced or rubric.  A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate between levels of student proficiency.
  45. 45. EXAMPLE OF A RUBRIC
  46. 46. GUIDELINES IN CREATING A RUBRIC 1. Be sure the criteria focus on important aspects of the performance 2. Match the type of rating with the purpose of the assessment 3. The descriptions of the criteria should be directly observable 4. The criteria should be written so that students, parents, and others understand them. 5. The characteristics and traits used in the scale should be clearly and specifically defined. 6. Take appropriate steps to minimize scoring frame
  47. 47. PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT: EXPLORATION  Have you ever done a portfolio?  Tell me about this experience. Did you enjoy it?  What elements did you include in your portfolio?  Are the materials placed in the portfolio required?  Watch video on Portfolio
  48. 48. WHAT ARE PORTFOLIOS?  Purposeful, systematic process of collecting and evaluating student products to document progress toward the attainment of learning targets or show evidence that a learning target has been achieved.  Includes student participation in the selection and student self-reflection.  “A collection of artifacts accompanied by a reflective narrative that not only helps the learner to understand and extend learning, but invites the reader of the portfolio to gain insight about learning and the learner (Porter & Cleland, 1995)
  49. 49. CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT  Clearly defined purpose and learning targets  Systematic and organized collection of student products  Preestablished guidelines for what will be included  Student selection of some works that will be included  Student self-reflection and self-evaluation  Progress documented with specific products and/or evaluations  Portfolio conferences between students and teachers
  50. 50. PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIO  Showcase portfolio: Selection of best works. Student chooses work, profile are accomplishments and individual profile emerges.  Documentation portfolio: Like a scrapbook of information and examples. Includes observations, tests, checklists, and rating scales.  Evaluation portfolio: More standardized. Assess student learning with self-reflection. Examples are selected by teachers and predetermined.
  51. 51. ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO  Students are actively involved in self-evaluation and self-reflection  Involves collaborative assessment  Ongoing process where students demonstrate performance, evaluate , revise , and produce quality work.  Focus on self-improvement rather than comparison with others  Students become more engaged in learning because both instruction and assessment shift from teacher controlled to mix of internal and external control.  Products help teachers diagnose learning difficulties  clarify reasons for evaluation  Flexible
  52. 52.  Final Workshop  crlmgn@yahoo.com

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