Chapter1 sections 5-9

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  • Figure 1.7 Linnaean classification of five species that are related at different levels. Each species has been assigned to ever more inclusive groups, or taxa: in this case, from genus to domain
  • Figure 1.7 Linnaean classification of five species that are related at different levels. Each species has been assigned to ever more inclusive groups, or taxa: in this case, from genus to domain
  • Figure 1.7 Linnaean classification of five species that are related at different levels. Each species has been assigned to ever more inclusive groups, or taxa: in this case, from genus to domain
  • Figure 1.7 Linnaean classification of five species that are related at different levels. Each species has been assigned to ever more inclusive groups, or taxa: in this case, from genus to domain
  • Figure 1.7 Linnaean classification of five species that are related at different levels. Each species has been assigned to ever more inclusive groups, or taxa: in this case, from genus to domain
  • Figure 1.8 Two ways to see the big picture of life. Lines in such diagrams indicate evolutionary connections. Compare Figure 1.6.
  • Figure 1.8 Two ways to see the big picture of life. Lines in such diagrams indicate evolutionary connections. Compare Figure 1.6.
  • Figure 1.9 Four butterflies, two species: Which are which? Two forms of the species Heliconius melpomene are on the top row; two of H. erato are on the bottom row. These two species never cross-breed. Their alternate but similar patterns of coloration evolved as a shared warning signal to local birds that these butterflies taste terrible.
  • Figure 1.10 Scientists doing research. From left to right , surveying wildlife in New Guinea; sequencing the human genome; looking for fungi in atmospheric dust collected in Cape Verde; improving the efficiency of biofuel production from agricultural wastes; studying the benefits of weedy buffer zones on farms.
  • Figure 1.11 The steps in a scientific experiment to determine if Olestra causes cramps. A report of this study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in January 1998.
  • Figure 1.12 Peacock butterfly defenses against predatory birds. A With wings folded, a resting peacock butterfly looks a bit like a dead leaf. B When a bird approaches, the butterfly repeatedly flicks its wings open and closed, a behavior that exposes brilliant spots and produces hissing and clicking sounds. Researchers tested whether the butterfly’s behavior deters blue tits C . They painted over the spots of some butterflies, cut the sound-making part of the wings on other butterflies, and did both to a third group; then the biologists exposed each butterfly to a hungry bird. The results, listed in Table 1.3, support the hypotheses that peacock butterfly spots and sounds can deter predatory birds.
  • Figure 1.12 Peacock butterfly defenses against predatory birds. A With wings folded, a resting peacock butterfly looks a bit like a dead leaf. B When a bird approaches, the butterfly repeatedly flicks its wings open and closed, a behavior that exposes brilliant spots and produces hissing and clicking sounds. Researchers tested whether the butterfly’s behavior deters blue tits C . They painted over the spots of some butterflies, cut the sound-making part of the wings on other butterflies, and did both to a third group; then the biologists exposed each butterfly to a hungry bird. The results, listed in Table 1.3, support the hypotheses that peacock butterfly spots and sounds can deter predatory birds.
  • Figure 1.12 Peacock butterfly defenses against predatory birds. A With wings folded, a resting peacock butterfly looks a bit like a dead leaf. B When a bird approaches, the butterfly repeatedly flicks its wings open and closed, a behavior that exposes brilliant spots and produces hissing and clicking sounds. Researchers tested whether the butterfly’s behavior deters blue tits C . They painted over the spots of some butterflies, cut the sound-making part of the wings on other butterflies, and did both to a third group; then the biologists exposed each butterfly to a hungry bird. The results, listed in Table 1.3, support the hypotheses that peacock butterfly spots and sounds can deter predatory birds.
  • Figure 1.14 Example of error bars in a graph. This particular graph was adapted from the peacock butterfly research described in Section 1.7. The researchers recorded the number of times each butterfly flicked its wings in response to an attack by a bird. The squares represent average frequency of wing flicking for each sample set of butterflies. The error bars that extend above and below the squares indicate the range of values—the sampling error.
  • Chapter1 sections 5-9

    1. 1. Chapter 1 Invitation to Biology (Sections 1.5 - 1.9)
    2. 2. 1.5 Organizing Species Information <ul><li>Each type of organism has a unique, two-part name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first part is the genus name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When combined with the specific epithet , it designates a particular species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linnaean taxonomy (Carolus Linnaeus) sorts all species into taxa on the basis of shared traits </li></ul>
    3. 3. Key Terms <ul><li>species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A type of organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>genus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of species that share a unique set of traits; also the first part of a species name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>specific epithet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second part of a species name </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Key Terms <ul><li>taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of naming and classifying species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>taxon (taxa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A grouping of organisms </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Linnaean Classification
    6. 6. Fig. 1.7a, p. 10 COMMON NAME DOMAIN Eukarya KINGDOM Plantae Magnoliophyta CLASS Magnoliopsida ORDER Apiales FAMILY Apiaceae Daucus SPECIES carota carrot PHYLUM GENUS
    7. 7. Fig. 1.7b, p. 10 COMMON NAME DOMAIN Eukarya PHYLUM Magnoliophyta CLASS ORDER Rosales Magnoliopsida FAMILY Cannabaceae GENUS Cannabis SPECIES sativa marijuana KINGDOM Plantae
    8. 8. Fig. 1.7c, p. 10 COMMON NAME DOMAIN PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES KINGDOM Eukarya Magnoliophyta Rosales Magnoliopsida Rosaceae Malus domesticus apple Plantae
    9. 9. Fig. 1.7d, p. 10 COMMON NAME DOMAIN PHYLUM CLASS FAMILY GENUS SPECIES KINGDOM ORDER Eukarya Plantae Magnoliophyta Rosales Magnoliopsida Rosaceae Rosa acicularis arctic rose
    10. 10. Fig. 1.7e, p. 10 COMMON NAME DOMAIN PHYLUM CLASS FAMILY GENUS SPECIES KINGDOM ORDER dog rose canina Rosa Eukarya Plantae Magnoliophyta Rosales Magnoliopsida Rosaceae
    11. 11. 3 Domains or 6 Kingdoms
    12. 12. Fig. 1.8a, p. 11 Eukarya A three-domain system sorts all life into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The Eukarya domain includes all eukaryotes. Bacteria Archaea
    13. 13. Fig. 1.8b, p. 11 A six-kingdom classification system in which all eukaryotes have been sorted into one of four kindgoms: protists, plants, fungi, and animals. The protist kingdom includes the most ancient multi-celled and all single-celled eukaryotes. Animals Bacteria Archaea Protists Plants Fungi
    14. 14. The Three Domains
    15. 15. A Rose by Any Other Name… <ul><li>Individuals of a species share a unique set of traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Species can be hard to distinguish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ biological species concept” </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Four Butterflies, Two Species
    17. 17. 1.6 The Nature of Science <ul><li>Critical thinking is judging the quality of information before accepting it </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists make and test potentially falsifiable predictions about how the natural world works </li></ul><ul><li>Science addresses only what is observable </li></ul>
    18. 18. (1) Thinking About Thinking <ul><ul><li>Critical thinking , the self-directed act of judging the quality of information as one learns, is an important part of science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judging information before accepting it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic study of the observable world </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. (2) How Science Works <ul><li>Generally, a researcher observes something in nature, uses inductive reasoning to form a hypothesis for it, then uses deductive reasoning to make a prediction about what might occur if the hypothesis is not wrong </li></ul>
    20. 20. Key Terms <ul><li>hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testable explanation of a natural phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing a conclusion based on observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a general idea to make a conclusion about a specific case </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. (2) How Science Works (cont.) <ul><li>Predictions are tested with observations, experiments , or both </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments typically are performed on an experimental group as compared with a control group , and sometimes on models </li></ul>
    22. 22. Key Terms <ul><li>prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement, based on a hypothesis, about a condition that should exist if the hypothesis is correct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A test designed to support or falsify a prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous system used for testing hypotheses </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Key Terms <ul><li>experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an experiment, the group of individuals who are exposed to an independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>control group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an experiment, the group of individuals who are not exposed to the independent variable that is being tested </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. (2) How Science Works (cont.) <ul><li>Conclusions are drawn from experimental results, or data </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis that is not consistent with data is modified </li></ul><ul><li>Making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses is the scientific method </li></ul>
    25. 25. Key Terms <ul><li>data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>scientific method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. The Scientific Method
    27. 27. (2) How Science Works (cont.) <ul><li>Biological systems are usually influenced by many interacting variables </li></ul><ul><li>An independent variable influences a dependent variable </li></ul>
    28. 28. Key Terms <ul><li>variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an experiment, a characteristic or event that differs among individuals or over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>independent variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable that is controlled by an experimenter in order to explore its relationship to a dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dependent variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an experiment, the variable that is presumably affected by the independent variable that is being tested </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Research in Field and Lab
    30. 30. Key Concepts <ul><li>The Nature of Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science helps us be objective about our observations by addressing only the observable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It involves making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 1.7 Examples of Experiments <ul><li>Researchers use experiments to unravel complex natural processes by changing one variable at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments are designed in a consistent way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers change an independent variable, then observe effects of change on a dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps determine cause-and-effect relationship in a complex natural system </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Potato Chips and Stomachaches <ul><li>An experiment to determine if the artificial fat Olestra causes stomach cramps </li></ul>
    33. 33. Fig. 1.11, p. 14 Stepped Art Potato Chips and Stomachaches A Hypothesis Olestra® causes intestinal cramps. Prediction B People who eat potato chips made with Olestra will be more likely to get intestinal cramps than those who eat potato chips made without Olestra. Experiment C Eats regular potato chips Control Group Eats Olestra potato chips Experimental Group Conclusion E Percentages are about equal. People who eat potato chips made with Olestra are just as likely to get intestinal cramps as those who eat potato chips made without Olestra. These results do not support the hypothesis. Results D 93 of 529 people get cramps later (17.6%) 89 of 563 people get cramps later (15.8%)
    34. 34. Butterflies and Birds <ul><li>How do peacock butterflies defend themselves against predatory birds? </li></ul><ul><li>Observation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Wing-flicking shows wing spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Hissing and clicking sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predictions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Wing spots scare predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Sounds deter birds </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Butterflies and Birds
    36. 36. Fig. 1.12a, p. 15
    37. 37. Fig. 1.12b, p. 15
    38. 38. Fig. 1.12c, p. 15
    39. 39. Results of Butterfly Experiment
    40. 40. 1.8 Asking Useful Questions <ul><li>Small sample size increases potential for sampling error in experimental results – a subset may be tested that is not representative of the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers design experiments to minimize bias, and use probability rules to check statistical significance of results </li></ul><ul><li>Science is self-correcting because scientists check and test one another’s ideas </li></ul>
    41. 41. Key Terms <ul><li>sampling error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between results derived from testing an entire group of events or individuals, and results derived from testing a subset of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The chance that a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>statistically significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to a result that is statistically unlikely to have occurred by chance </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Sampling Error <ul><li>Jelly beans in a jar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 green (30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>280 black (70%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 green jelly bean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all jelly beans are green </li></ul></ul>Natalie, blindfolded, randomly plucks a jelly bean from a jar. There are 120 green and 280 black jelly beans in that jar, so 30 percent of the jelly beans in the jar are green, and 70 percent are black. 1
    43. 43. Sampling Error <ul><li>Sample: 50 jelly beans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 black </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% black </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger sample is closer to actual ratio </li></ul>Still blindfolded, Natalie randomly picks out 50 jelly beans from the jar. She ends up picking out 10 green and 40 black ones. 3
    44. 44. Error and Probability <ul><li>Error bars indicate sampling error – the range of values above and below average in the sample </li></ul>
    45. 45. Bothering With Bias <ul><li>Experimenters risk interpreting results in terms of what they want to find out </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments should be designed to yield data that can be counted or otherwise measured objectively </li></ul>
    46. 46. Key Concepts <ul><li>Experiments and Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers carefully design and carry out experiments in order to unravel cause-and effect relationships in complex natural systems </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. 1.9 Philosophy of Science <ul><li>Science helps us be objective about our observations because it is only concerned with testable ideas about observable aspects of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion and belief have value in human culture, but they are not addressed by science </li></ul>
    48. 48. About the Word “Theory” <ul><li>A scientific theory is a longstanding hypothesis that is useful for making predictions about other phenomena – it is our best way of describing reality </li></ul><ul><li>A law of nature describes something that occurs without fail, but for which we do not have a complete scientific explanation </li></ul>
    49. 49. Key Terms <ul><li>scientific theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis that has not been disproven after many years of rigorous testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>law of nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization that describes a consistent natural phenomenon for which there is incomplete scientific explanation </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Some Scientific Theories
    51. 51. Limits of Science <ul><li>Subjective values (moral, aesthetic or philosophical) can’t be tested by the scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Science doesn’t address the supernatural, or anything beyond nature </li></ul>
    52. 52. The Secret Life of Earth (revisited) <ul><li>We have discovered only a small fraction of the species that share Earth with us </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse lemur discovered in 2005 </li></ul>

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