Types of Research StudiesResearch can be classified into twocategories:Basic research, which is done in a lab ora clinical setting andApplied research, which is done withreal subjects in real-world situations.
Animal StudyAn animal or in vivo study is a study inwhich animals are used as subjects. Acommon use of an animal study is witha clinical trial (see below) and as aprecursor to evaluating a medicalintervention on humans. However, it iscritical to recognize that results fromanimal studies should not beextrapolated to draw conclusions onwhat WILL happen in humans.
Case StudyA case study provides significant anddetailed information about a singleparticipant or a small group ofparticipants. ”Case studies are oftenreferred to interchangeably withethnography, field study, and participantobservation.” Unlike other studies whichrely heavily on statistical analysis, thecase study is often undertaken to identifyareas for additional research andexploration.
Clinical Trial StudyA clinical trial study is often used in the areas ofhealth and medical treatments that will presumablyyield a positive effect. Typically a small group ofpeople or animals are selected based upon thepresence of a specific medical condition. Thisgroup is used to evaluate the effectiveness of a newmedication or treatment, differing dosages, newapplications of existing treatments. Due to the riskinvolved with many new medical treatments, theinitial subjects in a clinical trial may be animals andnot humans. After positive outcomes are obtained,research then can proceed to a human study wherethe treatment is compared against results from theexisting standard of care.
CorrelationalStudyCorrelation studies evaluate therelationship between variables anddetermine if there is a positivecorrelation, a negative correlation, orno correlation. Please note, a positivecorrelation does not mean one thingcauses another. Correlation studiesare typically used in naturalisticobservations, surveys, and witharchival research.
Cross-sectional SurveyAlso know as the synchronicstudy, a cross-sectional surveycollects data at a single point intime but the questions asked of aparticipant may be about currentand past experiences. They areoften done to evaluate someaspect of public health policy.
Epidemiological StudyEpidemiological studies evaluate the factorsand associations linked to diseases. Types ofepidemiological studies include case seriesstudies, case control studies, cohort studies,longitudinal studies, and outbreakinvestigations. Epidemiological studies are oftenbeneficial in identifying areas for a morecontrol research evaluation; however all tooften, readers of epidemiological research mis-categorize links and associations as causes. Inaddition, a common problem withepidemiological studies is that they rely onmemory recall which can be quite unreliable.
Experimental StudyIn an experimental study, specific treatments areapplied to a sample or group and the results areobserved. It is otherwise called as True ResearchEg. Testing methods (use TV in classroom)Eg. Testing methods (invented a new phenomena)Eg. Testing methods (Is confidence develop from aSoap?)
Literature & ContentAnalysis Review StudyA literature review is anexhaustive search of all of therelevant literature related to aspecific research topic.Content analysis deals with theWrapper to Wrapper style, font,colour, binding, way of approachetc..,
Longitudinal StudyA specific type of epidemiological study, the longitudinal study follows subjects over a long period of time, asking a specific research question with repeated samples of data gathered across the duration of the study. These studies are often used as the basis for specific experimental studies. For example, the Heart Study
Meta-analysisA meta-analysis is a statistical process in which the results of multiple studies evaluating a similar research objective are collected and pooled together. They are often used to determine the effectiveness of healthcare interventions and experiments
INTRODUCTION- Statement of the problem- Objective(s) of the research- Statement of the research question(s)- Statement of the hypotheses- Research background/contextLITERATURE REVIEW- Orientation: comprehensive or selective? » Have a plan; outline it » Set the context of your research » Show relateness to your research » Review key points in your words; quote little » Summarize to conclude this mini-essayPLAN OF RESEARCH- Study/experimental design- Selection of cases/participants (sampling)- Setting- Data collection procedures and instruments- Data analysis- Outline or detailed description?PRESENTATION OF DATA AND DATA ANALYSIS- "A picture is worth…"INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF THEDATA (FINDINGS; WHAT IT ALL MEANS)CONCLUSION » Summary of the report » Limitations of the study » Future research needs
Eg. A Research Title Common Mistakes and Problems in Research Proposal Writing An Assessment of Proposals for Research Grants Submitted to Research on Poverty Alleviation REPOA (Tanzania) Martha A. S. Qorro
During the writing stage (Remove) Plagiarism Paraphrasing QuotationsPlagiarism means using the ideas ofsomeone else such as an author, critic,journalist, artist, composer, lecturer,or another student without giving themproper credit.
Format for Thesis Paper size and quality Font Textwidth Linespacing Paragraphs Margins Headings Figures and Tables Sequencing and Page numbers One Side vs. Two Side Printing
Structure of sentences Simple sentences Compound sentences Length of sentences Match of tense and person Punctuation Some Thumb Rules
REPORTOrganizing the reportIntroductionTheory and backgroundExperimental methodsSolution procedureResults & DiscussionConclusions & Suggestions References or Literature cited Nomenclature, Photos, Evidences Appendix-A, B,C,D, E…
E-journals – Types Print and online - Combines print subscription with site-wide online access to the title Online only – This entitles the customer to receive site wide online access only Print only – The customer receives a print copy of each issue of the title for the calendar year