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Kitzur Shuljan Aruj
Kitzur Shuljan Aruj
Kitzur Shuljan Aruj
Kitzur Shuljan Aruj
Kitzur Shuljan Aruj
Kitzur Shuljan Aruj
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Kitzur Shuljan Aruj

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  • 1. KITZUR SHULCHAN ARUCH C 1 , ‫י‬ T T ‫״‬ , 1 ‫לאינטרנט‬ ‫והוכנס‬ ‫הועתק‬ Shulchan HaMalach www.hebrewbooks.org ‫תשס״ט‬ ‫חיים‬ ‫ע״י‬ Part Two Selected and gathered by a pure and holy soul, one of the leading Rabbis and Torah scholars of Aram-Zoba (Haleb) of the previous generations, Maharan Harav Shmuel Laniado z"al from his holy writings, and printed in the year 1923 with a supplement containing miscellanious other laws collected from the Shulchan Aruch and the works of other Achronim relevant to our age, named Al HaShulchan by Ezra Basri shlitah Chief Justice, District Court, Jerusalem TRANSLATED BY SHLOMO CARMEL Published by haktav institute Jerusalem, 1992
  • 2. ‫שמורות‬ ‫הזכויות‬ ‫כל‬ ,‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ד‬ ‫לעניני‬ ‫המשרד‬ ‫בסיוע‬ ‫לאור‬ ‫יוצא‬ .‫לישיבות‬ ‫ת‬‫ק‬‫ל‬‫ח‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ,‫תורה‬ ‫ומוסדות‬ ‫ארגונים‬ ‫אגף‬ of ay^nuscRjocs ^nd p*Qnced woRks — i fax 972-2-894317 ‫ס‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ r02-280S5‫טל7־‬ :
  • 3. ‫ע״י‬ ‫ם‬‫ר‬‫ת‬‫נ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫ט‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ם‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ולעלוי‬ ‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫א‬ ‫ע״ה‬ ‫ט‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ר‬‫ם‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫הזו‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫ג‬‫ת‬ ‫ה‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫מ‬‫י‬ ‫וה׳‬ THIS KISSUR S H U L H A N A R O U K H IS D E D I C A T E D B Y M R . MRS. DAVID S A R G O N AINSWORTH I N M E M O R Y OF THEIR BELOVED FATHER AND FATHER IN LAW JOSEPH SARGON AINSWORTH
  • 4. 1 Foreword We are privileged to publish the second volume of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, 'Shulchan Hamalech' , composed by one of the unique Torah Gedolim of Aram-Zoba, The Most Honorable Harav Shmuel Toledano zatzal. To this we added the supplement called 'Al HaShulchan', which is an addendum containing laws relevant to the period following that of the book's author up to our present era. This appendix is similar to what was done in the first volume. This present volume, however, deals with all the laws of Shabbat. The merit of our master, the author, has brought about that the first volume should be favorably received, with many readers establishing classes for it's study, as well as it being taught and studied as a subject in schools. So much so, that within a short span of time we have had to bow to requests to print a second edition. In addition, many appeals have been made to have the book translated into various languages. Special mention is made of the dear sons and daughters of Avraham Zfatiya zatzal, who have merited to contribute to the publishing of this book. And as they have aided and assisted from the beginning, so may they continue demonstrating their love and joy in their ongoing assitance. May the merit of Torah and that of this precious mitzvah stand by their side and that of their offspring, and may Hashem fulfill all their wishes; may they also merit the founding of a generation of righteous children, amidst health, satisfaction, happiness, joy, wealth, and abundance. I hope and pray that we shall be able to continue and complete the third and last volume of this work, which will include all laws of daily behavior, as well as going on to print other worthy
  • 5. publications. Not as much in my own merit, but that of my famous and holy forefathers, such as Our Master and The Exilarch of Babylonia, Harav Yosef Chaim, who was my grandmother's uncle, and his father, Rabbeinu Eliyahu, who was the grandfather of my grandmother. Also, that of my grandfather, the Gaon and Holy Kabbalist, the Most Honorable Rav Yehudah Padiah, author of the book Beth Lecham Yehudah and other voumles, my other grandfather, the Most Honorable Ezra Abadi Dahab zatzal and his father, the Holy Kabbalist Harav Yitzchak Dahab, the Most Honorable Abdallah Somech, and my master Harav David Naweh, as well as other great and mighty figures whose merit no doubt will come to the assistance of their descendants. May their merit stand by all that aid and support the Mechon HaKtav, for by their assistance we have been able to reach the stage where, up to the; present, we have succeeded in publishing close to one hundred important books embracing all aspects of Judaism, written by Torah leaders of all epochs. For many are those that profoundly wish to become familiar with their works, saying, "Who will show us good", 'good' being Torah. For additional details on the book, see foreword of the first volume. Deserving of blessing as well are the workers and assistants of the Machon, each one of which has a share in all the holy books which have been published; may the merit of their authors stand by them, that they may be blessed in whatever they undertake
  • 6. 3 Table of Contents Chapter One The laws of a Jew having a non-Jewish partner, or renting and loaning to a non-Jew as concerns Shabbat, and if he did work for a Jew on Shabbat. Also, how to deal with mail on Erev Shabbat and Shabbat. Chapter Two The law of one traveling by caravan on Shabbat, and laws concerning behavior on Erev Shabbat. Chapter Three The laws of preparing the Shabbat meal, and the prohibition against performing work after the time of mincha on Friday afternoon. Chapter Four Work which may and may not be begun on Erev Shabbat, if it will be completed afterward automatically. Chapter Five Candle-lighting time on Erev Shabbat, and if one erred on a overcast day. Chapter Six The law of someone on the road at sunset. Chapter Seven If one errs in the Shabbat prayers. Chapter Eight The laws of kiddush, and which wine is to be used; the requirement of having the meal immediately following kiddush , and the cutting of the challah. Chapter Nine Which activities are forbidden to be carried out by the aid of the candle-light, and the law of a candle lit by a non-Jew on Shabbat.
  • 7. Chapter Ten Moving the candle on Shabbat. Chapter Eleven Several of the laws concerning the haftorah and it's blessings, the obligation to read the weekly Torah portion twice, once with the targum, and the laws of the Shabbat musaph prayer. Chapter Twelve Accepting a tdanit yechid comforting the bereaved, and visiting the ill on Shabbat. Chapter Thirteen The morning meal and the seudah shlishit of Shabbat. Chapter Fourteen havdalah of the Evening Prayer, and the laws of havdalah on wine, candles, and spices. Chapter Fifteen That one may not eat or perform any work before making havdalah; the melavah malka. Chapter Sixteen Which subjects may be discussed on Shabbat. Chapter Seventeen Objects that may and not be handled on Shabbat. Chapter Eighteen Under which conditions a muktzah object may be moved on Shabbat, and the laws of muktzah. Chapter Nineteen The laws of handling a corpse on Shabbat; certain laws concerning one wishing to relieve himself on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty The moving of a door, window, or door bolt on Shabbat, and the laws concerning those actions which are forbidden on Shabbat because of building or demolishing. Chapter Twenty-One Actions which are forbidden on Shabbat because of their similarity to constructing a tent.
  • 8. Chapter Twenty-Two Which forms of trapping are permitted on Shabbat and which not; causing a wound on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty-Three The laws of forming a knot on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty-Four Cooking on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty-Five The laws of sifting and squeezing on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty-Six The laws of plucking, grinding, and preparing food on Shabbat. In addition, how to deal with food processing on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty-Seven The laws of borrowing or buying for the Shabbat, and rinsing, repairing, and immersing utensils on Shabbat. Chapter Twenty-eight The preparing of animal feed on Shabbat, and if a non-Jew performed work for a Jew. Chapter Twenty-Nine Washing and anointing on Shabbat. Chapter Thirty The laws pertaining to an ill person on Shabbat, and when the Shabbat may be violated for his sake. Chapter Thirty-One The laws pertaining to an expectant mother and the newly-born infant on Shabbat. Chapter Thirty-Two The laws of dealing with a fire on Shabbat, and how to rectify an act of Shabbat desecration. Chapter Thirty-Three Making use of a tree and walking on grass on Shabbat.
  • 9. Chapter Thirty-Four The laws of cleaning the house, and what to do after performing an unintentional melachah . Chapter Thirty-Five Actions which are forbidden on Shabbat because of creating a sound. Chapter Thirty-Six Various laws pertinent to Shabbat, and actions which are similar to Shabbat toldot. Chapter Thirty-Seven The law of annulling vows on Shabbat. Chapter Thirty-Eight Actions which may be performed during bein hasmoshot, despite the Rabbinical prohibition. Chapter Thirty-Nine The laws of making an eruv on a Yom- Tov falling on Erev Shabbat, and what may be done during bein hasmoshat for creating the eruv. Chapter Forty The laws of carrying on Shabbat. Chapter Forty-One The cleaning and folding of clothes on Shabbat. Chapter Forty-Two Additional laws concerning clothes and shoes on Shabbat. Chapter Forty-Three Playing games on Shabbat and Yom-Tov. Chapter Forty-Four The Shabbat obligations of a minor. Chapter Forty-Five Various Shabbat laws which are relevant mainly to women. Chapter Forty-Six Various laws which deal with books on Shabbat.
  • 10. Chapter One 1 Part Two of Hilchot Shabbat Chapter One What a Jew having a non-Jewish partner must do for Shabbat, and the laws of renting and loaning to a non-Jew and if he did work for a Jew on Shabbat. Also, how to deal with mail delivered on either Erev Shabbat or Shabbat. 1. A Jew who is partner to a non-Jew in a store open all days of the week, should do as follows to prevent chillul shabbat: when they first enter into negotiations for setting up the partnership, an understanding should be reached with the non-Jew where all profits grossed on Shabbat will be his, whatever they amount to, and in return the Jew will receive all the profits of any other week-day. If this stipulation was not initially made, the non-Jew is then to receive the total profits of all the Shabbatot, with the remainder divided evenly between the partners. If the Shabbat earnings are unknown, the non-Jew takes one-seventh of the total profits, leaving the remainder for an even division. (Shulcan Aruch, 245)
  • 11. 2 Chapter One 2. If the two partners had at first reached an agreement where the Shabbat profits will be solely the non-Jew's, and the non-Jew then wishes to share the Shabbat profits equally, the Jew may assent to receiving them. 3. If the two partners never reached an agreement which would have solved the problem of chillul shabbat, and the Jew later wishes to make such an agreement, the solution is to first dissolve the partnership completely, then begin anew in accordance with the above-mentioned stipultation. 4. A Jew may give a non-Jew money for business purposes, knowing full-well that he will make use it of it on the Shabbat, with the Jew afterward sharing in the profits. The reason being, that since the non-Jew is not a shaliach of the Jew, whereby it can be said that he is doing the Jew's work for him, and any profits earned cannot be directly linked to the Jew, no violation of Shabbat is taking place. 5. A Jew is permitted to give merchandise to a non-Jew to be sold by him for a fixed wage, on the condition that he doesn't tell him to specifically sell it on Shabbat. 6. If a Jew received a non-Jew's bakery as security for a loan, the agreement being that it's earnings would go toward repayment of the loan, the bakery may be left open on Shabbat since it is in the non-Jews possession. The Jew plays no part in it's operation, neither does he request the non-Jew to keep it open for business on Shabbat; if the non-Jew chooses to do so in order to pay off the loan, that's his own personal decision, and has no bearing on the Jew.
  • 12. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 3 ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫וגוי‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫לגוי‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ,‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ( ‫ה‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ה‬‫י‬‫׳‬‫מ‬‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬
  • 13. 4 Chapter One 7. A Jew may not rent or loan his animal to a non-Jew on Shabbat for it to be used then, for a Jew is commanded to allow his animals to rest on Shabbat. If he rented or loaned him the animal on the condition that the animal would be returned before Shabbat, and due to unforeseen circumstances it wasn't returned, the Jew must either declare before the onset of Shabbat that he is relinquishing ownership of his animal, or let the non-Jew know it now belongs to him (Magen Avraham). By this, he is preventing himself from violating the Torah transgression against allowing one's beast to labor on the Shabbat. The Magen Avraham also states that this law applies to Yom Tov as well. 8. If a Jew rented his animal to a non-Jew for labor purposes, with the non-Jew accepting all responsibilities and liabilities the animal may possibly entail, since the non-Jew may still not sell it, the animal is considered as still belonging to the Jew. 9. A Jew who has part ownership of an animal together with a non-Jew , may allow him to use the animal on Shabbat after first agreeing, at the time of the animal's purchase, that profits earned on Shabbat will go to the non-Jew only, with the Jew receiving the entire earnings of an other day (after which they may then agree to combine and divide them equally - Magen Avraham). If they never stipulated at the time of the animal's purchase, they may not make a provision for Shabbat use afterward. Should the animal be loaned to the non-Jewish partner under conditions which would allow him to sell it without the Jew's consent, he may then work the animal on Shabbat. 10. An other opinion would allow the non-Jew partner to work the animal on Shabbat even if he does not have the right to sell it; but, only by means of a loan designed to make the animal serve as collateral for the Jew. In other words, the non-Jew would first borrow the Jew's half-share in the animal, with his share of the animal then serving as the Jew's security (according to one opinion, should the non-Jew then default, full ownership reverts
  • 14. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 5 , ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ב‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ,‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ו‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ,‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫ג‬‫מ‬) (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫מר׳ין‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ,‫א‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ר‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ) ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫א‬‫״‬‫ג‬‫מ‬ .‫ה‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ך‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬
  • 15. 6 Chapter One to the Jew only at the time of the actual default, not retroactively from the date of the loan). An other opinion would permit the non- Jew to use the animal on Shabbat, after the Jew first warning him not to work it on that day. This notification would then be officially registered in court. The implication being, that should the non-Jew then use the animal on Shabbat against the Jew's wishes, all liabilities incurred by the animal would automatically revert to the non-Jew, making him in fact the sole owner. (Note: All the above-mentioned possibilities are permissible, and any one of them can be used, even if the animal is the sole property of the Jew). Al HaShulhan 1. Anything a Jew is forbidden to do on Shabbat, he may not request that a non-Jew do for him instead. Furthermore, even if the Jew does not explicitly make the request, but the non-Jew voluntarily performed the work for him, the Jew may not derive any benefit from it on Shabbat. That is, he must wait until after havdalah, and allow the amount of time to elapse which would have sufficed for carrying out the work from start to finish. 2. Despite the fact that one may not allow a non-Jew to do work for a Jew on Shabbat, whether gratis or in return for pay, (e.g., a salaried worker who performs the work routinely without need of the express command of a Jew), he may, under certain conditions, do work for a Jew. If he was contracted to carry out a particular job in return for a pre-determined fee to be paid on completion, irrespective of when or where the non-Jew does it, he may continue working on Shabbat, on condition that the Jew does not make a request that he work then.
  • 16. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 7 , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ף‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ) .(‫)שם‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ .‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ (‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫׳‬‫פ‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ .‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ; ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬
  • 17. 8 The laws of a Jew having a non-Jewish partner In addition, the Jew may present him with the task on Erev Shabbat immediately before sunset, knowing full-well that he will begin working on Shabbat. This is true too when the Jew is interested in him completing it as soon as possible, even working through Shabbat. This is permitted since the non- Jew is interested in completing the job as quickly as possible so as to be paid for it all the sooner, while the Jew never requested explicitly that he work on the Shabbat. However, care should be taken that the non-Jew doesn't work in the Jew's home, where people, not knowing that the non-Jew is a contracted worker, may get the wrong impression. To sum up, there are three conditions to be fulfilled before a Jew requests a non-Jew to perform work for him on Shabbat: 1) The non-Jew is a contracted worker with a fixed fee to be paid on completion, 2) He should not be expressly told to work on Shabbat, 3) The non-Jew does not work in the home of the Jew. 3. The law mentioned in the above paragraph applies only when the work done by the non-Jew is performed on materials detached from the ground, where the non-Jew can take them home and complete the job there. However, as concerns work performed to attached materials, such as harvesting crops or building a house, it is forbidden even by means of a contractor. Since the work is obviously being carried out for a Jew, suspicion might arise that he is a hired worker, not a contractor. Even work performed on detached materials, if it is well-known and manifest to all that a Jew stands behind it, and the work is being done in an publicly visible area (such as a ship tied up at dock), it is forbidden lest an erroneous impression be created.
  • 18. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 9 ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ת‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ •.‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ .‫ן‬‫ל‬‫ב‬‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ .‫א‬ :‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ .‫ג‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ .‫ב‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ (‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ל‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ה‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫ן‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ,‫ל‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ג‬‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ ,‫ן‬‫ל‬‫ב‬‫ק‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ל‬‫ב‬‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ,‫ם‬‫ס‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ .‫ן‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬
  • 19. 10 The laws of a Jew having a non-Jewish partner However, contractual work which a non-Jew does at his own home, as long as it isn't common knowledge that the specific job he is working on is being done for a Jew, the Rabbis did not forbid it. 4. If one built a house and left a mound of waste before it, and then, after contracting a non-Jew to remove it, he arrived on Shabbat to begin work, the Jew need not tell the non-Jew to desist from working and return the following day; in spite of the fact that all know that is the Jew's waste, it is also common knowledge that such material is normally removed by contracted labor. 5. Despite the above-mentioned law (para. 3) that a non-Jew may perform work for a Jew on detached materials if done on a contractual basis and at the non-Jew's home, this refers only to those materials which will not be attached aftterward. Otherwise, as for example, stone or wood carving, carpentry work done on house panels, etc., which all are to eventually become part of the house, they are to be treated no differently than any other attached object. The non-Jew therefore cannot do the work in his own home, even if isn't evident that the work is being done for the Jew. Should the Jew becomes aware of the fact that the non-Jew is doing work for him at his home, he should protest and cause him to cease. If the non-Jew succeeded in carrying out the job at home, and no one made an attempt to stop him, ex post facto, the work is permissible for the Jew's use since the non-Jew did it at home, and under contract as well (since there are Halachic opinions that permit contractual work even on attached materials, we may rely on this opinion in the above situation).
  • 20. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 11 ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ .‫ד‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫גזרו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫י‬ (‫ג‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ .‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ,‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ,‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ביון‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ (‫ד‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫זה‬
  • 21. 12 The laws of a Jew having a non-Jewish partner 6. If a house is being constructed by non-Jewish wage-earner for a Jew on Shabbat, despite the Jew's explicit request that he refrain from working on Shabbat, the stringent view is to be followed. That is, if the non-Jew intended completing the house as soon as possible for the Jew's benefit, a Jew may never reside in that house. Otherwise, if his sole intention was self-interest, e.g., to prove his ability and diligence in getting the job done in the least possible time, the Jew who hired him may dwell there afterward. This, since initially the Jew expressly stipulated with the worker that he would not work on Shabbat. 7. On an empty, vacaant lot, owned by a Jew in the Land of Israel, on which effort was expended in obtaining a permit from the authorities to build on, the non-Jewish builders may be allowed to continue constructing on Shabbat. This applies to all aspects of the prohibition, and even if it is done full public view; we fear that the building franchise may be rescinded, leaving the area desolate once again. All Halachic opinions concur that the mitzvahoi rebuilding and settling in Israel overrules the Rabbinical ordinance against telling a non-Jew to perform work for a Jew on Shabbat. And so did our Master order to do in the Holy City of Jerusalim (Kaf HaHaim, chap. 244, 10). 8. If a Jew owns a factory jointly with a non-Jew, or even independently, and wishes to find a permissible method that would allow him to have the non-Jewish plant workers continue working on Shabbat, he should first consult with a Rav who is well-versed in the laws of Shabbat, lest he transgress the grave sin of chillul shabbat. 9. On Erev Shabbat, even immediately before candle lighting, one may post a letter in the mail-box. This is certainly true of Israel where there is no mail delivery on the Shabbat, as well as other lands where there is (this applies even in areas
  • 22. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 13 ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ .‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫נ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ת‬‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫מ‬ ,‫בו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫צ‬‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ת‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ .‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ד‬ , ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫־‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫־‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ (‫י׳‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) .‫ת״ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ .‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ .‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬
  • 23. 14 The laws of a Jew having a non-Jewish partner largely populated by Jews). Since the mailman isn't being paid directly by the sender, but merely performing his duty to his employer, he is not considered as looking after the sender's interests, but his own. In which case, even if the letter will reach it's destination on Shabbat, it is still permissible to mail it on Erev Shabbat, since the Jew is not requesting the mailman to deliver it on the following day (see Shulchan Aruch, 247, 1, and Mishnah Brurah, ibid). 10. Sending an express, special delivery letter, or a telegram on Erev Shabbat is forbidden, since it will reach it's destination within twenty-four hours. Here, the Jew is considered as telling the non-Jew explicitly to deliver it on Shabbat, which is forbidden. Others follow a more lenient view which permits sending it in instances of great need, such as for the performance of a mitzvah, or if not sending it would cause great monetary loss (see ibid, ...vyash makilin, and Shmirat Shabbat Kichalta, 31, 20, and the sources mentioned there). 11. It is forbidden to give a letter to a non-Jew on Shabbat in order that he should deliver it, even if he is going in the same direction, or if the non-Jew was being paid on a contractual basis for delivering mail for the Jew. In addition, one may not drop a letter in the mailbox on Shabbat even if there is an eruv, or by means of a non-Jew. If not sending off the letter immediately would entail great financial loss, a lenient opinion which allows the use of a non-Jew in such an instance (since it would only be a double shvui), may be followed. 12. One receiving a closed letter on Shabbat may ask a non-Jew to to open it for him. However, this must be done in such a manner that he never directly asks that he open it, only hinting at his request by silently handing him the letter. If the non-Jew still does not grasp the hint, an other opinion would allow the
  • 24. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 15 ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ץ‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫א‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫מ‬ ‫ועיין‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫ס‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ) .‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ (‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ .‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ף‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ , ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫)עיין‬ . ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬‫מ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫כ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫עיין‬ . ( ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ .‫יא‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬‫צ‬‫ק‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ .‫גוי‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ) . ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ .‫יב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫א‬ ‫״אין‬ :‫לו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ה‬
  • 25. 16 Chapter One Jew to say, I can't open this letter on Shabbat, thus making the hint more obvious; this is the ruling we follow (Ben Ish Chai, vayislach, 13). 13. If one receives a telegram on Shabbat, and the messenger insists that he sign the receipt before handing him the telegram, the Jew should prepare (before Shabbat) a slip of paper bearing his signature, which he then silently places before the non-Jew. The non- Jew will then grasp the Jew's intention, take the slip, and sign the receipt himself. 14. A letter which has been read once may not be read again on Shabbat, for it has become muktzah. However, a letter which has arrived on Shabbat (in the method mentioned in para. 12), may be opened by the non-Jew, since it may contain vital information. If the letter only contains bills, he should not read them at all. In addition, whenever he may open and read a letter on Shabbat, he should read it in silence. Our custom is not to receive the mail directly from the mailman's hand, but to tell him to place it on the table. The reason being, that if the Jew takes the mail directly from his hands, before the mailman lias made an hanachah, the Jew will violate the law against carrying on Shabbat. This is actually a Rabbinical form of carrying, which is prohibited even nowadays when some claim that there no longer exists a true public domain. 15. A package delivered by parcel post on Shabbat which contains foodstuffs, may be opened and eaten immediately, even if the parcel was delivered from outside the t'chum shabbat, or passed through areas having no eruv. If the package was delivered by other means, see later (Shmirath Shabbat Khilchata, 28, 52).
  • 26. ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 17 ‫׳‬‫פ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫נ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ח‬‫ת‬‫פ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫יבין‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫״‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ (‫יג‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .‫יג‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ,‫כן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ת‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יבין‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ (‫יב‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫צ‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ה‬‫צ‬‫ק‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ .‫יד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫בו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ .‫ף‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫בו‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ה‬‫ב‬ ‫יעיין‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ .‫בעין‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ש‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ז‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ .‫טו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ב‬‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬‫״‬‫ש‬‫ש‬) .‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ק‬‫ל‬ ‫עיין‬
  • 27. 18 Chapter Two Chapter Two The law of one traveling in a caravan on Shabbat, and other laws concerning Erev Shabbat 1. One going on a long desert voyage which will continue throughout the week, under conditions which do not allow for halting on Shabbat, may not set out on the journey any later than Tuesday. If afterward circumstances should dictate performing an act of chillul Shabbat, he may do whatever is necessary for self- preservation. However, if one wishes to set out on a trip to Israel, and has an opportunity to begin traveling on Erev Shabbat, he may do so since the goal of the trip is for the performance of a mitzvah. The only condition being, that arrangements should be made to see that the caravan is halted for the Shabbat. If in mid-voyage they should decide not to make the Shabbat stopover, he may continue along with them, since it would be dangerous to for him to remain stranded alone in the desert. If he was forced to travel on Shabbat along with his co-travelers, and they then stopped to rest in a city, he may walk about anywhere he wishes within the city. Even if they set him down outside the city limits, and he should wish to walk over and enter it, he may do so; as the motive behind the trip was a mitzvah, he is given a 2,000 amot radius within which to move freely about (Shulchan Aruch, 248). Some are of the opinion that any journey taken for business purposes or to visit a friend is considered a mitzvah as well. The only truly non-mitzvah trips are those taken for pure pleasure or recreation. Therefore, there are those who follow the lenient opinion which allows embarking on a sea-voyage or other long journey under the three-day limit mentioned earlier, whenever they can be regarded as undertaken in the performance a mitzvah. Those wishing to follow the above opinion have grounds on which to base their decision on (ibid).
  • 28. ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ח‬ ‫ן‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ש‬‫פ‬‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .(‫ח‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ר‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ .‫ל‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬
  • 29. 20 Chapter Two 2. On Erev Shabbat it is forbidden to eat beyond the weekday norm, even for celebrations such as an engagement party, et al. This is in order that one should have an appetite left for the Shabbat Eve meal; and the prohibition extends to the entire Friday. As for everyday eating and drinking, he may certainly do so, but the more meritorious custom is to avoid having any meal after the ninth hour. Ramah - it is peremitted to prepare a festive meal on the occasion of the performance of a mitzvah, such as a brit or pityon ha'ben, and such is common custom. 3. If one accepted upon himself to perform a fast on Erev Shabbat, he must continue fasting until nightfall, unless he explicitly stipulated at the time he accepted the fast that it should not continue beyond the time of public prayer. As concerns public fasts, no stipulations can avail, and he must complete the fast at nightfall along with the tzibur (ibid). If one accepts upon himself a la nit chalom, he too must complete it at nightfall. 4. If one wishes to accept a tdanii yachid, he is to recite the following at the end of amidah before beginning to step back: "Master of the World, I wish to perform a tdanit yachid stipulating that if I wish to discontinue it, when I shall say, mizmor Vdavid, Hashem ro'ie 10 achsar, I will be allowed to cease fasting, and it will not be reckoned as a sin. But may it be thy will, Hashem, our Lord and Lord of our fathers, that You shall grant me health so that I will merit fasting tomorrow. Accept me in love and favor, allow me to merit repenting wholeheartedly, answer my supplication, and hear my prayer; for You hear the prayers of all mouths: blessed be He who hears prayers' (Morah B'azbah, 3).
  • 30. ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 21 ‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מיצוה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬) (‫ט‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) .‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ :‫ר‬‫מ‬‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ר‬ '‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫׳‬‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫עון‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ (, ‫ג‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬
  • 31. 22 The laws of one traveling on Shabbat Al HaShulchan 1. A Bar-Mitzvah feast, when performed on the actual birthday, may be celebrated on Erev Shabbat, the same applying to a wedding banquet scheduled for that day (Ben Ish Hai, lack I'cha, 21). As for an engagement party, some claim that it is not considered a mitzvah, and it is prohibited to arrange one on Erev Shabbat. However, the refreshments served after the signing of the t'naim may be eaten, since they are not considered as making up a real feast (Kaf Hachaim 249, 10). But, if there are Rabbanim present who expound on the Torah, it is considered a seudat mitzvah. Likewise, any banquet performed not as a mere social, gathering or party, but as an act of thanksgiving to Hashem for the performance of a miracle, is also considered as a seudat mitzvah (Havat Ya'ir, 70).
  • 32. ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 23 ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ - ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ - ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ .‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ובן‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫בא‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫יום‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫י׳‬ ‫ט‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫׳‬‫׳‬‫ה‬‫ב‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫זו‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ .‫ה‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ,‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ )
  • 33. 24 Chapter Three Chapter Three The laws of preparing the Shabbat meals, and the prohibition against performing work after the time of minchah on Friday afternoon 1. One should arise early on Friday morning to begin the Shabbat preparations. Even if he has many servants to assist him, he should make an effort to prepare at least one of the Shabbat chores in it's honor; the Sage Rabbi Hisda, for example, was in the habit of cutting up the beets, Rabah and Rabbi Yosef chopped wood, Rabbi Zeirah kindled the fire, and Rabbi Nahman would clean the house. The point being, that no man has the right to claim that he cannot suffer the ignominy of performing menial tasks, for by honoring the Shabbat, he is in fact honoring himself (the same principle applies to all mitzvot, where it is preferred that he perform them personally and not by shaliach- Be'ar Haytav). Ramah - one should sharpen the knife on Erev Shabbat, for that too is done as a form of honor for Shabbat. He should also augment the quantities of meat, wine, and refreshments to the best of his ability. 2. One who performs work on Erev Shabbat from the time of minchah and upward, will not see any blessing from his efforts. Some opinions establish that this refers to the time of minchah gedolah, while others claim that the referance is to minchah k'tanah (chap. 251), with the Taz and Grah siding with the latter view. Hagah ‫־‬ this applies to doing work routinely at this hour, not to a temporary task which demands one's immediate attention. Therefore, one may write letters and the like at that time (ibid). Likewise, one may write notes, etc., for his own personal use, or perform repairs to those clothes or utensils necessary for Shabbat wear or use (but one may not write for profit; and if he wishes to buy something for Shabbat, and will not be able
  • 34. ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 25 ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫׳‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ו‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ .(‫ב‬‫ט‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ר״ן‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ויין‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬‫״‬‫ט‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ס‬‫פ‬‫ו‬) ,(‫א‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .(‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ט‬‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ר‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫)שם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ט‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫ב‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬
  • 35. 26 The laws of preparing the Shabbat meal to find it after the minchah Service, he may buy it earlier (Be'ar Haytav, 251). 3. The Be'ar Haytav adds that this law applies to actual manual labor, not to businesses or commercial enterprises (ibid). Al HaShulchan 1. Any shopping requiring much preparation should not be left for Friday, but done earlier. Also, on whatever foods or articles one obtains for Shabbat use, he should recite, "For the sake of Shabbat'', since that will bestow the sanctity of Shabbat on the object. In addition, let one not be concerned of over-taxing himself, since sweating while engaged in Shabbat preparations has the effect of having Hashem erase one's sins, much the same as tears shed in repentance: therefore, one should exert himself all the more for the sake of honoring the Shabbat (Kaf Hachaim, 250, 2, 3, 5) 2. One who is in the habit of buying his challot in the store, should make the effort of baking them at home and enabling his wife to separate challah from the dough. There are women who have the custom of giving a coin for tzadakah before separating challah, lighting Shabbat candles, and going to the mikvah, since these three mitzvot are solely in the woman's province of performance. 3. One should prepare no less than two courses for each meal in honor of the Shabbat. If his usual weekday habit is to eat two courses, he should then add a third dish to his Shabbat meals; a fish course, for example, is considered as a significant supplement. It is also considered meritorious to taste all food
  • 36. ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 27 .‫י‬‫ר‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ג‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ .‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ / , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫כ‬‫ל‬‫״‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫כן‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫י‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ה׳‬ ‫ג׳‬ ‫ב׳‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ,‫ק‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ .‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ (‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ן‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬
  • 37. 28 Chapter Three before Shabbat to check if they require any additional seasoning or other preparation. (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 7). 4. It is also fitting to perform some form of verbal spiritual preparation on Friday, such as reading through the entire weekly parshah twice, and reading the targum once (on completion of reading the parshah, he then repeats the last verse once more). This is followed by a reading of the haftorah. If Shabbat should be one of Rosh Hodesh or Shabbat Shekalim, etc., he reads the haftorah of the week's parshah, and not that relating to Rosh Hodesh, etc.. If he was unable to read the parshah on Friday, he may still read it on Shabbat morning after Morning Services, or before kiddush (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 11). 5. Even Halachic opinions which allow engaging in commerce on Friday afternoon, still require one to close shop early enough to enable himself to wash, go to the mikvah, and change his clothes so that he should be able to welcome the Shabbat in purity and dressed in neat, clean, clothes. There is even a Halachic ruling that obligates one to spend less time studying Torah on Friday so as to have enough time left to prepare for Shabbat; if so, we are then certainly obligated to reduce the amount of time spent on business we do on that day. "...and those that trust in Hashem will be encompassed in lovekindness". 6. Despite the fact that one is obligated to trim his hair daily, care should taken to do so before noon, whether on Erev Shabbat or any other weekday. Care should also be taken to trim one's finger and toenails every Friday. If they do not require to be trimmed that often, then at least every second Erev Shabbat. The nail parings should not be simply tossed away, but buried, thrown in the trash can, or flushed down the toilet (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 14).
  • 38. ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 29 ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫י‬‫ש‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ .‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ר‬‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ח‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ,‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ,‫י‬‫ש‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ (‫יא‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ .‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫א‬‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫׳‬‫ה‬‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ו‬ .‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ג‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ‫ידיו‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫צ‬ ‫ץ‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ץ‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ט‬‫ק‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ק‬‫ר‬‫ז‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ז‬‫פ‬‫ת‬‫י‬ (‫יד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬)
  • 39. 30 The laws of preparing the Shabbat meal 7. It is a mitzvah to wash one's face and feet in warm water every Erev Shabbat, using liquid soap as our ancestors did. And how pleasant it is (according to Kabbalistic sources), to immerse in the mikvah on Erev Shabbat, and on Shabbat morning too on condition that he avoids transgressing the prohibition of 'squeezing' on Shabbat, or other related prohibitions. Otherwise, any merit he gains would then be lost through his sins, God forbid (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 15, 16. See there, "...on condition that, etc.", which is borne out by what I have witnessed of those who unknowingly violate those sins which I shall later expound on. All wishing to follow this pious practice should first be well-versed in the laws pertaining to the subject of bathing on Shabbat, lest he be punished for the immersion instead of earning merit through it). 8. One should take pains to prepare a set of neat, clean, clothes in honor of Shabbat. He should not wear black-colored or his weekday clothes on Shabbat, even if he is within the first year of mourning. Deserving of meritorious mention is the custom of our most respected grandfather, Rabbi Elijahu Haim, who would change his clothes for the Shabbat and Yom-Tov during the first year of mourning for his parents. The Gaon Rabbi Yosef Haim too changed his clothes, not even wearing his usual Shabbat clothes, but instead had himself made a new set of Sabbath clothes in that year. However, there is no need to set aside a pair of shoes for Sabbath wear (Ben Ish Hai, ibid 18, "...and shoes", Rav Pe'alim part four, 13). The more pious custom is to have both a pair of shoes and a hat set aside for Shabbat wear (Kaf Hahaim, 262, 25).
  • 40. ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 31 ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ג‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ .‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ,‫ר‬‫ק‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫חי׳ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ .‫טז‬ ‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫׳‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ד‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ .(‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬ .‫ח‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬‫״‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬‫״‬‫ט‬‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר׳‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר׳‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י״ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ) ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג״כ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫יג‬ ‫ד‬‫״‬‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ,‫י״ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ( ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬
  • 41. 32 Chapter Four Chapter Four Work which may and may not be begun on Erev Shabbat if they are to be completed automatically during Shabbat. 1. It is permitted to begin malachot on Erev Shabbat just before sundown, in spite of the fact that they cannot be concluded before the onset of Shabbat, and will be completed later without human intervention. Examples are, placing ink and dyes in water and leaving them to soak throughout Shabbat, and spreading traps and nets to snare animals, birds, and fishes, which will be entrapped on Shabbat. In addition, one may sell an article to a non-Jew immediately before sunset, but only on condition that he leave the Jew's house before nightfall. 2. One may open the faucet operating the garden sprinkler, allowing it to continue watering the garden throughout Shabbat, or place medication on his eyes which will have a gradual therapeutic effect during Shabbat. He may also place heavy beams on his olives and grapes lying in the press; the oil and juice which will begin flowing on Shabbat are permitted for use after Shabbat. The same applies to wheat grains placed in a water-mill, or unripe grapes crushed before Shabbat (ibid). Al Hashulchan 1. One is permitted to give his dirty clothes to a non-Jewish laundry even shortly before Shabbat, on condition that, first, the non-Jew is not hired by him but being paid a fixed fee for his services, or else doing the Jew a favor; and second,
  • 42. ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 33 ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ב‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫יום‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ( ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ) ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ .‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬
  • 43. 34 Work which may be begun on Erev Shabbat that the laundry is being done in his own home, not the Jew's. On the other hand, the Jew may not specifically request that the laundry be done on Shabbat. If it was common knowledge that the dirty laundry was the Jew's, and in addition, it will be washed in a publicly visible area, is then best to be more stringent, and avoid giving it to be cleaned immediately before Shabbat (Shulchan Aruch, ibid, 2,3). 2. It is permissible to set an alarm clock before Shabbat which will ring on Shabbat loudly enough to be heard by others, since all realize that the clock was set before Shabbat (ibid, Ramah, 4). Likewise, he may set a time clock before Shabbat to turn the lights on and off on Shabbat (Electricity and Shabbat, chapter 3)• 3. It is forbidden to run a home washing-machine on Erev Shabbat which will complete the wash during Shabbat (Sha'rei Ezra, part two, 21). However, if he wishes to leave his coin-operated washing-machine available for public use on Shabbat, and the users are non-Jews, he is permitted as long as there is no Jew standing nearby waiting to use the machine on Shabbat. This does not hold true for Israel, where the customers are mainly Jewish, and he will be enabling them to sin. If one is a Laundromat owner, he may not keep it open for business on Shabbat (Electricity and Shabbat, chap. 18). 4. If a Jew is the owner of a vending machine selling candy and the like, and 1) if the machine is not on his property and it's owner is unknown to the customers 2) he will not be tending it on Shabbat 3) the owner declares before Shabbat that anyone making a purchase on Shabbat will be considered as retroactively having made the purchase before Shabbat and he does not wish to acquire the money until motzai Shabbat, then he may leave the machine operating on Shabbat if the customers are chiefly non-Jews (ibid).
  • 44. ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 35 ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ) ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ג‬ ‫ב׳‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ .‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .(‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ג׳‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ .‫ג‬ (‫א‬‫״‬‫כ‬ ‫ח׳יב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ע‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫־‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ - ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ) . ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ .‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ - ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬
  • 45. 36 Chapter Four 5. One may not operate a Shabbat-clock to turn on his radio, television, cassette player, or any other electric or electronic appliance, to either play or record, in Israel or elsewhere. The same applies to leaving these appliances turned on from Erev Shabbat for Shabbat listening or watching. Leaving a notice on the outside of his house door, or writing 'Shabbat5 on the dials of the radio or television, will not affect the prohibition. Watching television, even during the week, is not advised for the God-fearing, since it may lead to serious transgressions (Electricity and Shabbat, chapters 14 and 15). If one happened to spend the Shabbat in the company of Shabbat desecrators, and cannot leave the room (for example, a soldier in the Israeli Army), and the radio or television is turned on against his protests, he may not derive any pleasure from the radio or any other appliance. What he should then do is, in the instance of a television, shut his eyes or look elsewhere; concerning a radio or cassette player, if he can stop his ears with cotton wool, good and well. Otherwise, he should make an effort to leave the room, demonstrating his aversion over the desecration of the sanctity of the Shabbat. In areas (such as in the Israeli Army) where the law prohibits publicaly violating the Shabbat, he must lodge a complaint with his senior officers to avoid future Shabbat desecrations (so it seems to me). 6. Whoever prepares a telegram before Shabbat, which he wishes to have sent on Shabbat by means of non-Jews to a country outside of Israel, is forbidden to do so (Electricity and Shabbat, chap. 14). 7. On Shabbat, it is forbidden to make use of a microphone or loudspeaker, even if turned on before Shabbat. However, the hard of hearing may use their hearing aids on Shabbat.
  • 46. ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 37 ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ .‫ה‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫בין‬ ,‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫פ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ט‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫״‬‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ש‬‫״‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ,‫ק‬‫ח‬‫ר‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ט‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ (‫וט״ז‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ח‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫בו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫פ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ט‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ט‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ט‬‫ב‬ ?‫ה‬‫ש‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫פ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫כן‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ז‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫״‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫נ‬ ‫)כן‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫־‬‫ץ‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ .‫ו‬ (‫י״ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ) .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ .‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ז‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ (‫טו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬
  • 47. 38 Work which may be begun on Erev Shabbat 8. One is forbidden to make use of a telephone answering machine for receiving messages for himself or his business on Shabbat, for that would be a grave sign of disrespect for the sanctity of the Shabbat. It is, however, permissible to arrange to have the (non-Jewish) telephone company link up an answering machine to his line for the purpose of giving a recorded reply to callers, since that isn't being done by his own machine. Needless to say, he may not speak on the phone, even for matters involving a mitzvah, and even if a non-Jew picks up the phone for him (ibid, chap. 13). For the use of doctors, or anyone else who normally receives emergency telephone calls on Shabbat, there are new inventions which lessen the violation of Shabbat. All God-fearing doctors should see fit to acquire such a device, as was done by the Shaari Zadek hospital in Jerusalem. 9. Arranging a Shabbat-clock to operate a fan on Shabbat is permitted. Some Halachic opinions even permit having a non- Jew turn it on during Shabbat in situations of great heat and suffering (Electricity and Shabbat, chap. 10). 10. Use of a thermostat is permitted on Shabbat, despite the fact that opening the entrance door will allow cold or hot air to flow into the house; this is only considered as a grama, not a psik raisha, and furthermore, is done unintentionally. However, one may not not change the thermostat setting on Shabbat in either direction (ibid). As concerns a preset clock operating an automatic milking machine which was set on Erev Shabbat, a Rabbi should be consulted to find a method to permit it's use on Shabbat; only one familiar with the conditions which allow it's use on Shabbat may issue instructions on how it is to be done.
  • 48. ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 39 ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ .‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ל‬‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ס‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ז‬‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫עי׳י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ .‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ל‬‫ט‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ .(‫יג‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ) ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬‫ר‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ - ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ,‫בו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬ (‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ל‬‫ט‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ו‬) ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ .‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ (‫י׳‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ .‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫ק‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫ה‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫״‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ .‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬
  • 49. 40 Chapter Four In this chapter we have discussed the subject of electricity as concerns devices whose operation was begun on Erev Shabbat. Later, the subject of electricity on Shabbat itself will be dealt with. 11. In those areas having no eruv, all are obligated to check their pockets on Erev Shabbat before sunset, and inspect if they have any objects in them. Even where there is one, they should still be checked to see if they contain muktzah articles (Shulchan Aruch and Kaf Hachaim, 252,7). 12. As sunset approaches, one should gently inquire of his household members if they have separated masarot and challah, and then order them to light the Sabbath candles and cease from all work (Shulchan Aruch 260, 2, and Kaf Hachaim 260, 4).
  • 50. ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 41 ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ובין‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫בין‬ !‫מצוד‬ .‫יא‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ץ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬‫א‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) .‫ה‬‫צ‬‫ק‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫כ‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ע‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ? ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ל‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ .‫יב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ? ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬
  • 51. 42 Candle-lighting time Chapter Five Candle-lighting time on Erev Shabbat, and if one erred on an overcast day 1. Twilight is the time of bein hasmashot, the eighteen minute interval before nightfall. This is reckoned by first taking the seventy-two minute period beginning from when the sun is no longer visible, until actual nightfall. The first fifty-four minutes are still definitely day, while the remaining eighteen minutes are bein hashmoshot, i.e., an interval when doubt exists whether night has fallen yet or not. Those fifty-four minutes are to be added from the weekday to Shabbat, either wholly but at least partly, to enable a period which is definitely day to be added to the Shabbat. (Al Hashulchan): this follows the opinion of Rabbeinu Tarn, and those wishing to abide by it on motzai Shabbat are to be blessed. However, the majority view is that bein hasmoshot begins immediately at sunset, and therefore, candles are to be lit one half-hour before sunset, when all work must cease. This has been the custom of Jews everywhere, as mentioned in the book Eretz Haim (see Ben Ish Hai on vayarah, and Kaf Hahaim, 261, 10)). Once the time of bein hasmoshot has arrived, no work, including immersing new utensils in the mikvah or lighting candles, may be done. However, covering chamin and making an eruvai chazarot may still be performed, and one can still request of a non-Jew to kindle a light for Shabbat use. Likewise, he may be requested to perform any form of work bearing a mitzvah purpose, or whatever else the Jew requires urgently (Shulchan Aruch, 261). Ramah - should he wish to accept Shabbat from the time of plag mincha, he may feel free to do so (ibid). 2. Whoever is unfamiliar with these prescribed times, should light candles when the sun is at tree-top level; on an overcast day,
  • 52. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 43 ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ׳יד‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫יום‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫״‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ת‬‫״‬‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ :‫ן‬‫ח‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ) ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫נ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ועיין‬ .‫זצ״ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ .(‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .(‫א‬‫״‬‫ם‬‫ר‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) .‫ה‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ז‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬
  • 53. 44 Chapter Five at the time chickens begin roosting. And if he should be out in the field away from home, when he sees ravens settling on the ground during the late afternoon hours ibid). 3. After reciting borchu, even while it is still day, one may not perform any further work whatsoever, including covering the chamin or making an eruv, since he has already accepted Shabbat. The reciting of mizmor shir Yyom hashabbat has the same significance as the recital of borchu. 4. The above applies only if the majority of the community is present in the synagogue at the time. However, in a city where the greater part of the community is still at home when mizmor shir is being recited, there is no reason why one must be compelled to follow the minority that has accepted Shabbat earlier. The same holds true in large cities where there are many synagogues, some of which begin accepting Shabbat before others (Knesset Hagdolah, ch. 263 in the hagoat of the Beit Yosef). 5. One should make efforts to prepare attractive candles for Shabbat, preferably making use of two candles, one for zachor, the other for shamor. Both men and women are obligated to light candles in honor of Shabbat. Even those so needy that they lack money for food are required to beg alms to buy candles; for candlelight is one principle means of creating oneg Shabbat (ch. 263). 6. The Magen Avraham comments on the previous law by stating that if one is truly destitute, procuring food certainly takes precedence over purchasing candles. If, however, he does have enough at least for bread, the acquiring of candles come before the obtaining of other foodstuffs (ibid). 7. If he should only have sufficient means to buy either candles or wine for kiddush and havdalah, Shabbat candles take precedence over the purchasing of wine (Magen Avraham - one candle is sufficient to fulfill the mitzvah of candle-lighting, as is true too of Chanukah lights). Similarly, if he had only enough money for
  • 54. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 45 . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫יום‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ע‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ג‬ ‫׳‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ) ( ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ) .‫י‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ב״י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ג‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫פ‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) .‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬
  • 55. 46 Candle-lighting time acquiring only one candle to be used for either Channukah or Shabbat, the candle is to be used for Shabbat. Since household peace and tranquility cannot be attained without light at the Shabbat table, it takes precedence over the mitzvah of Channukah (ibid, 263). 8. It is preferred not to light Shabbat candles while many hours still remain until nightfall, when it would not be at all obvious that he is lighting them in honor of Shabbat. If he does wish to light candles and accept Shabbat early, he may certainly do so as long as it is done after plag mincha, i.e., no earlier than one and a quarter hours before sunset (Shulchan Aruch, ibid). Ramah -if the candles had been lit too early, they should be extinguished and then relit later. 9. Upon lighting the candles, the blessing, Vhadlik ner shel Shabbat is pronounced, be it man or woman who lights them. On Yom-Tov, the blessing, Vhadlik ner shel Yom-Tov is made. As for Yom Kippurim, one opinion takes the view that unless Shabbat is on the same day too, there is no need to pronounce any blessing whatsoever (ibid). 10. Concerning whether the blessing is to be pronounced before or after lighting the candles, the Machzik Bracha, ch. 263, concurs that the blessing should be pronounced after lighting them. However, on Yom-Tov the blessing should be made before lighting candles. 11. If two or more families are dinning in the same room, some opinions still obligate each family to pronounce a blessing over it's candles, while other opinions are unsure if there is need for a blessing other than that of the first family to lights candles. To avoid pronouncing an unnecessary blessing, only one of the families should pronounce a blessing (ibid); and so the Birkat Yosef agrees, despite the view of others who contend that each family should pronounce a blessing over it's own candles. 12. Accepting Shabbat as regards forbidding the performance of
  • 56. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 47 ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ויין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ .(‫מג׳יא‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ) . ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ (‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫גר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ .(‫ל‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫)עיין‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ .‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ , ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ש‬‫״‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ , ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ .‫א‬‫״‬‫ק‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫״‬‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬
  • 57. 48 Chapter Five additional work is not dependent on lighting candles, but on mizmor shir Vyom hashabbat being recited in the synagogue. Even the custom mentioned by the Ramah of considering a woman that lights candles as automatically accepting Shabbat, does not hold true if she should make a stipulation (even an unspoken one), not to accept Shabbat then. If she does accept Shabbat, the other members of the household are still not bound by her acceptance; such is the opinion of the Shulchan Aruch and Ramah (ch. 263). 13. If the congregation has not yet prayed the Evening Service and an individual decides to do so while still day, he in fact is accepting the sanctity of Shabbat. He may then do no further melachot even if he expressly states that he does not yet wish to accept Shabbat (ibid). However, if the majority of the congregation has already accepted Shabbat, the minority has no choice but comply with their acceptance (ch. 265). 14. If someone walks into town on Friday after the townsfolk have already accepted Shabbat, despite the fact that it is yet day, he must drop at once whatever money or other muktzah articles he is bearing, since it is now Shabbat for all those now in town (ibid). 15. If, on an overcast day, the congregation erroneously thought that the time had come to light candles and pray the Evening Service of Shabbat, and afterward the clouds parted and the sun broke through one more, they need not repeat the Evening Service again. This, however, is true only if they prayed after the time of plag mincha; otherwise, they must repeat the Evening Service once more. The above applies only when dealing with an entire congregation that had prayed the Evening Service afterplag mincha, when we do not wish them to make the effort of repeating the tfilah once again. As concerns an individual making the same error, he is required to repeat the Evening Service even if he prayed after plag mincha. In spite of the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch (ch. 235), that if one prayed the Evening Service after plag mincha he has
  • 58. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 49 ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ .‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫״‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬ .‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) (‫ה‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ט‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ , ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫א‬‫״‬‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫״‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫סי׳‬ ‫ע‬ ‫״‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬
  • 59. 50 Candle-lighting time fulfilled his obligation, that is only true if he did so intentionally, not when done erroneously. The same opinion is expressed by Birkat Yosef in the chapter dealing with Morning Service, and the same ruling applies to all weekday tfillot (ch. 263, Elyahu Rabbah, ibid). As for performing melachot in the above-mentioned instance of a premature acceptance of Shabbat, they ruling is that they may do so (ibid). Some opinions assert that those that have already lit candles are themselves prohibited from working, while the other members of the household are permitted. Other opinions also state that one may not touch or handle the candle that was lit, even if it was extinguished before the onset of true Shabbat. 16. If one delayed in praying mincha on Friday afternoon until the congregation had already accepted Shabbat, he should leave the synagogue and pray mincha elsewhere. However, if he answered amen and accepted Shabbat along with them, he can no longer pray a weekday service, and must repeat the Evening amidah twice (ibid). 17. If one arrived in the synagogue shortly before the congregation accepted Shabbat, and began praying mincha, despite the fact that the congregation is accepting Shabbat while he is praying, he need not halt, since at the time he began the Service it was not Shabbat yet. 18. A certain Halachic opinion states, that if one accepted Shabbat before sundown, he may request of his fellow-Jew to perform a melachah for him. (Ramah - and one can then derive benefit from that melachah). Likewise, if one delayed in praying the Evening Service on motzai Shabbat, he may ask his fellow-Jew who has already prayed and and performed havdalah, to turn on the light, cook for him, etc., and then derive benefit from that work (Shulchan Aruch, ibid).
  • 60. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 51 ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ך‬‫ל‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫יז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) . ( ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬
  • 61. 52 Chapter Five Al HaShulchan 1. One that travels a long-distance journey by jet, and in the process arrives at his destination after twenty-four hours of flight at the same day and hour that he began his flight, or vice-versa if he traveled in the opposite direction and lost an entire day, now faces the problem of which Shabbat to keep; the one of his present location, or the Shabbat of where his flight began. The problem has been dealt with by various Halachic authorities, who have reached the conclusion that he must keep the Shabbat of his present locale. An allusion to this solution is to be found in the verse, "...in all your residences'5 , taken to mean that one is always to follow the Shabbat of the site that one is at; the same ruling applies to Holidays. 2. Nowadays when we possess accurate watches, we can depend on them to inform us of sunset time even on overcast days. Should one have a watch which is unreliable, candles are not to be lit unless he is certain that the sun has not yet set, and if in doubt, he should light candles by means of a non-Jew. That uncertain interval is the true period of bein hashmoshat, in accordance with the Gaonic opinion which was earlier mentioned as the accepted time by all for lighting candles. Conversely, to kindle a fire after the sun has disappeared from view could make one liable for the death penalty, if darkness had truly fallen. Obviously, if the time of bein hasmoshat has come and passed (lasting approximately between thirteen to eighteen minutes), one may not request of a non-Jew to light candles (see Kaf HaChaim, 261, 24). 3. One should set the table, make the beds, and tend to all necessary arrangements to ensue that on return from synagogue, everything should be ready and prepared in honor of the Shabbat (Shulchan Aruch 262, 1). As said Rabbai Josi, son of
  • 62. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 53 ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ .‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫ך‬‫פ‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫יום‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ .‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ן‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫א‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ ‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ל‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫יום‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ,‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫213ו‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ) ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫)עיין‬ .‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ,(‫ל‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ד‬‫״‬‫כ‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ח‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬
  • 63. 54 Candle-lighting time Yehuda, "On Erev Shabbat, two angels escort a person home from synagogue, one good, the other evil. If upon arriving home they find the candles lit, the table set, and the bed made, the good angel then says, 'May it be Thy will that the same shall be on the following Shabbat', and the angel of evil must perforce answer amen; if not, the angel of evil then prays, 'May it be Thy will that the same shall be on the following Shabbat', and the angel of good must reply amen (Tractate Shabbat, 119). 4. The time before Mincha on Erev Shabbat is a time of danger and of controversy, where sharp words are likely to be exchanged between the household members; one where the Evil One makes efforts to foster dispute. A God-fearing person should bend his Evil Inclination so that he will not be the cause of strife by making exaggerated demands - on the contrary, he should strive to seek peace and harmony. One should be aware of the fact that every person bringing about discord and argument between himself and his children, is always certain that he is in the right. But in truth, anyone with some sense would realize that if they have done anything wrong, it isn't actually their fault, but Satan's. He causes quarrel and strife at that time; and if the members of one's household have to cope with Satan, who can blame them for not withstanding him? Therefore, upon witnessing error and shortcoming on the part of his family, one should not blame them, but reflect instead on what we have mentioned. This should prevent him from giving in to his temper, and he will then benefit in this world and in the World-To-Come. In the Tractate of Nedarim, 66, the story is related of a Babylonian Jew who immigrated to Israel, where he later married a simple-minded woman who frequently misunderstood her husband's requests. Normal human nature would have
  • 64. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 55 , ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬‫״‬‫ב‬ ‫יוסי‬ ‫ר׳‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ .(‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫)שו״ע‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ,‫ק‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ד‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ך‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ך‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ך‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ך‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ך‬‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ך‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ (‫קיט‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ) .‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ .‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ובין‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ף‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ב‬‫י‬‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫א‬ .‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ,(‫ם‬‫ה‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬) ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יבין‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫א‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫שטן‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫ר‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫ח‬‫צ‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ !?‫ו‬‫ח‬‫צ‬‫נ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ס‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬‫א‬‫ו‬ .‫א‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ . ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ב‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫׳‬‫ס‬‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬
  • 65. 56 Chapter Five demanded of him to rage and drive her out of his house for her stupidity, yet, he bore her behavior on silence and never lost his temper. The story was mentioned by the Sages of the Talmud to illustrate the extant to which one must be patient concerning matters in which his household members have erred inadvertently. A well-known tale is mentioned in the Talmud of a couple that was given to constantly bicker and quarrel on Friday evenings, caused by the intervention of Satan. That is, until the day they took in as a guest Rabbi Meir for three Shabbatot, who succeeded in restoring peace between husband and wife. One day, he overheard Satan wailing, "Woe, for Rabbi Meir has driven me from this house". In conclusion, one that is intolerant and finds cause to be incensed at others is supporting Satan; while one who overlooks the faults of others lends strength to Israel. 5. Even if there is sufficient light, Shabbat candles are to be lit with a blessing pronounced over them. Aside for the simple reason for their serving to increase peace and harmony in the house, a Kabbalistic rationale exists as well to justify the lighting of Shabbat candles. The preffered site to place them is in the dinning room, and there is where the woman is to light and pronounce the blessing over them. Nevertheless, our Sages have told us to leave a candle burning in the kitchen as well as in other rooms which are to be utilized, but without need to pronounce a blessing over them. In our electric age, a light left on in the rooms is sufficient, with candles saved for the dinning room (Ben Ish Chai, 58, 1,4, and the supplement). 6. Both husband and wife are enjoined to light Shabbat candles, save that the wife is more explicitly obligated to do so and
  • 66. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 57 ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ,‫ן‬‫ל‬‫ב‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬‫ז‬‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ .‫ן‬‫ל‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫״‬‫מ‬ ‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫וי‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ט‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ (‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫מ‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ .‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ,‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ .‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ( ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ובין‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫בין‬ .‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬
  • 67. 58 Candle-lighting time pronounce the blessing over them, even if she is blind. She has first preference over her husband in fulfilling this mitzvah, that is, should the husband desire to light candles instead, she has full right to refuse to allow him. The husband, however, may light a candle in his room without a blessing. The husband should make whatever preparations are necessary to arrange the candles for lighting, such as pouring oil or readying the wicks, as stated in the Ari Zal's Sefer Hakavanot. And so we have had the custom in our own home of readying the candles ourselves (following the habit of the niece of Rabbi Chaim Yosef, our grandfather). It is also best not to either light too early, or to delay; the preferred custom is to light the candles one half-hour before sunset, and such is our custom at home (Ben Ish Chai, 58, 5,6,7,12). 7. It is proper to light the candles after changing into Shabbat clothes, but if time was short, and the woman fears that if she should first change clothes, it may then be too late to light candles, she may light candles in her weekday clothes and change them afterward. If the woman wishes to pray mincha, she should do so before lighting candles, as after lighting them she has already accepted Shabbat: afterward, she prays the Evening Service (Ben Ish Chai, 58, 9). 8. If two or more families are sharing the same dinning-room, each one lighting candles at it's own table, one of them should pronounce the blessing for all, having intent to enable them all to fulfill the mitzvah through her. The others then light candles without pronouncing a blessing, relying on the blessing of the first one. If the blessing was pronounced in an undertone, and the others did not hear it, they then pronounce a blessing and omit shem and malchut, merely intending silently to do so. The reason for this is the existance of a dispute among
  • 68. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 59 ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬‫א‬‫ו‬ .‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ .‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ) .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ת‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ז‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ (‫יב‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫נ‬ .‫ז‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ .‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ,‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬
  • 69. 60 Chapter Five Halachic authorities whether or not they are required to make a new blessing, and when in doubt over blessings, the lenient view is taken and no blessing is pronounced. The above holds true in those instances where all the company eats and sleeps in the same room. However, if they only eat there but sleep elsewhere, each family should then light it's candles in their own bedroom and pronounce a blessing there, after ensuring that the candles will continue burning until bedtime. If a daughter-in-law is a guest at her mother-in-law's home, the mother-in-law lights the candles on the table, leaving the daughter-in-law to light candles in her bedroom. Here too, she should make certain that the candles will continue remaining alight until bedtime. If the daughter-in-law should wish to light the candles at the table, she does not pronounce a blessing over them, since her mother-in-law has already done so over her candles (ibid, 11). 9. The candles should be lit at the site that they are meant to be remain afterward, not at another location and then brought to the table by a non-Jew; doing so would imply that initially, they were not lit in honor of Shabbat. They certainly cannot be lit while the servant is holding them, or outdoors and then brought into the house. Even if the wife is ill, the candles must always be lit at the location that they are intended to remain afterward (ibid, 14). 10. Word has reached me of hospitals where a tray bearing candles is brought to each woman, who then lights two candle and pronounces a blessing, the tray and candles immediately being taken away elsewhere. Some hospitals later extinguish the candles, others place the tray in the dinning room, and still others set them down in a special room. The woman should be cautioned not to pronounce a blessing over the candles in any
  • 70. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 61 ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ,‫ו‬‫מ‬‫צ‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ו‬ .‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ (‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ .‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ (‫יד‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ .‫י‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫״‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ .‫ד‬‫ח‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ .‫ל‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ל‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫כ‬ ‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬) .‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬
  • 71. Candle-lighting time of the above instances, unless the candles are to be left in the room she will later sleep in. If they are removed to the dinning room and will remain there, only one woman pronounces a blessing over them, intending to include the others in her blessing. However, if the candles will be placed in an unused room, or extinguished immediately afterward, no blessing is to be pronounced at all; candle-lighting is not a mere ceremonial act, with no importance attached to what is later done to the candles. The story is related of a religious hospital, when Hag Shavuot occurred on a Sunday. The candles of Yom-Tov were brought to the woman a half-hour before sunset while still Shabbat, and many women then proceeded to light candles and desecrate the Shabbat. The custom among Jews is for parents and Rabbis to bless their children on Shabbat Eve, either after Evening services, on entering the house, or after kiddush and before n'tilat yedaim. The time is then seen as most propitious to bestow of the spirit that we are laden with onto our children. This is especially true when they are too young to generate holiness by their own actions; but older children are not to be excluded from being blessed as well. By kissing the hand of a Sage, great merit is achieved, commiserate with the great holiness abiding on their hands. Since they use their hand for writing words of Torah, the spirit of Hashem rests upon. When kissing the hands of his parents, the son should recite, 'Vshem yichud, I am about to perform the mitzvah of honoring one's father and mother by kissing their hand, etc' Likewise, when kissing the hand of a Sage, one should recite the prayer, 'I'shem yichud, I am about to perform the mitzvah of honoring Torah Sages by kissing their hand, and rectifying the source of this mitzvah on High, etc' (Kaf HaChaim, 262, 17).
  • 72. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 63 ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫בן‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ .‫זה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ .‫יא‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬) ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ,(‫ה‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫ב‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ ‫ד‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ (‫יז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ף‬‫כ‬) .‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬
  • 73. 64 Chapter Five 12. One should don his best clothes, and rejoice on the arrival of Shabbat as one about to welcome a king, or one going forth to greet a bride and groom (Shulcan Aruch, 262, 3). Whoever makes efforts to honor Shabbat by either his body, clothes, or food and drink, is worthy of being blessed (Kaf HaChaim, 36). 13. It is fitting for a woman to pray at the time that she lights the candles of Shabbat, that Hashem may grant her sons that will light the world with their Torah, for at the time of performance of a mitzvah, prayers are more readily accepted. And in the merit of the light of Shabbat, may she merit sons great in Torah, as is said, "...for a mitzvah is as a candle, and Torah is as a light". It is also fitting that she donate a coin.for charity. A segulah for a woman having difficulties raising children, or one unable to have them, is to read the haftorah of the first day of Rosh Hashanna after lighting candles, reciting it with great devotion (Kaf HaChaim, 263, 34). 14. The preferred mitzvah is to light the Shabbat lights by means of olive oil (Shulcan Aruch, 264, 6). Since the merit of lighting candles is conducive to having sons who will be Torah scholars, olive oil, which is likened to Torah, is favored over wax candles (Kaf HaChaim, ibid, 38). One should not use a wick for the oil, as our Rabbis have forbidden it's use, as described in the Shulchan Aruch. As for using an electric light instead of candles, there is some controversy among Halachic authorities if it is considered satisfactory. Therefore, if electricity is used, at least one candle should be lit as well. If there are no candles available, a blessing is not to be pronounced over the electric light, since whenever
  • 74. ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 65 ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ .‫יב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) .‫ה‬‫ל‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫ב‬) . ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ .‫יג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ה׳‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ .(‫ד‬‫ל‬ ‫ג‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) .‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ,(‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫״‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ) ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ .‫יד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫הויין‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ .(‫ח‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫׳‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ) .‫זית‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ך‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫-בנר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬
  • 75. 66 Chapter Six in doubt over the necessity of a blessing, the lenient view is taken and one is not pronounced (see sources mentioned in the book Electricity and Halacha, part 1, chapter 1, and Sh'arei Ezra, part 1, ch. 18). Chapter Six The law of someone on the road at sunset 1. If one was bearing a burden on his shoulder at sunset on Friday afternoon, he should put it under his armpit, and run home as quickly as possible. If he were to continue casually walking home, our concern is that he may halt momentarily, thereby performing an act of 'carrying' (accomplished at the moment he performs an akirah and hanachah, the lifting and setting down of a burden). Upon reaching home, he then rids himself of the load in an irregular manner, e.g., by letting it slip off his shoulder. Again, care must be taken not to stand even momentarily while bearing the load, as that would be considered as carrying on the public domain. Letting it slip off is not reckoned as a proper act of hanachah, and is not a Torah prohibition (Shulchan Aruch, ch. 266). 2. Other Halahic opinions follow the view that the license to carry a burden in such a manner on Shabbat does not extend to small objects he may have in his pockets. Since one does not normally run while bearing a heavy burden (as opposed to when bearing small ones), the carrying of the first is an irregular act, as opposed to that of the second; and an irregular 'carrying' is technically, not forbidden by the Torah (ibid).
  • 76. ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 67 ‫)עיין‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ,‫אי‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫׳‬‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ר‬‫ז‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ . ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫״‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) , ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫ס‬‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬
  • 77. 68 Candle-lighting time 3. The Knesset Hagdolah (ibid) remarks in a annotation concerning the above law, that the Smag, Mordechai, and Sefer Hatrumot have noted that if one fears that his wallet may be stolen if he should leave it at the site where he is standing (or within a four amot radius of his position), he may take it along and run home, taking care not to stand at any time. Upon arriving home, he is to deposit it offhandedly before coming to a rest. Since he began running before sundown, and the akirah didn't take place on Shabbat, he never violated the prohibition of carrying. The Shiltai Geborim adds, that in the above instance, even those who otherwise forbid the carrying of wallets under any circumstances, would admit that there is no problem now for there never was a true akirah. As concerns us, since nowadays the reality of a "public domain" does not exist, one may run even after nightfall. Al HaShulchan 1. There are those that wait until late afternoon before closing shop on Fridays, allowing themselves barely enough time to arrive home before the onset of Shabbat. Nevertheless, there are times when plans go awry, and due to a road accident, traffic is held up, or some other mishap occurs which may lead to the possibility of chillul Shabbat. Therefore, one should take pains to leave for home as soon as possible on Erev Shabbat, depending on the distance he must travel, and leave himself some leeway for the unexpected. Air travel is definitely to be avoided, since it is notorious for it's schedule delays (so it appears to me). 2. All earlier-mentioned allowances to carry money on Shabbat were citedned only in connection with one's own money, to
  • 78. ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 69 ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ,‫ל‬‫״‬‫ז‬ ‫כ״י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ץ‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ , ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ .‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ,‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ס‬‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ט‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח״ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ח״ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ) ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח״ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ (,‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫י‬ (‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬ ‫ד‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ל‬‫נ‬) .‫ח‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ .‫ב‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬
  • 79. 70 If one errs in the Shabbat prayers which he feels more attached to and for who's safety he is more concerned. However, if one were to find a wallet on Shabbat, he may not pick it up since it is mukzah, even if he fears that some other person may take it instead (Shulchan Aruch, 264, 13). Opinions differ over whether he may request a non-Jew to take it for him; if the need should be great, there are those that permit asking him. If he forgot a wallet in his own courtyard, he may not handle it, since he can sit there and guard it. And if he did pick it up and bring it indoors, he is not to be reproved (Kaf HaCaim, chapters 65, 66, 67). Chapter Seven Al HaShulchan The law of one that errs in the Shabbat Service prayers 1. If one erroneously began praying the weekday amidah on Shabbat, and reminded himself of his error mid-way through, he should complete the b'racha that he has already begun, and then begin reciting the Shabbat amidah from that point onward. If he reminded himself of his error when he should have been reading the musaph Service, he immediately ceases reading the weekday service, and begins the the Shabbat one (Shulchan Aruch, 268, 2).
  • 80. ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 71 ‫רס׳יו‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ח‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ח‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫יג‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ג‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ (‫סז‬ ‫ו‬‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬‫׳‬‫ה‬‫ב‬) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ .‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ (‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫)שו״ע‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬
  • 81. 72 Chapter Seven 2. If one read a weekday amidah to it's conclusion without making any mention of Shabbat within it, his amidah is invalid. If he did make mention of Shabbat, despite the fact that it still is not a true Shabbat amidah, he has fulfilled his obligation, (ibid, 4)• 3. If he erred and read the entire weekday amidah without making any mention of Shabbat whatsoever, and he has begun to step back, he must recite the Shabbat amidah from it's beginning, as mentioned. Otherwise, if he completed the entire weekday amidah but did not begin stepping back, he need not read the amidah again from the beginning (ibid, 5). 4. If one completed the amidah, and is doubt over whether he read a weekday or a Shabbat one, he need not repeat the amidah again; it can be assumed that due to the importance of the day, he could not have forgotten which amidah he was to read (Ben Ish Chai, toldot, 12). 5. One that erred while reading the amidah of Shabbat, and read the wrong Shabbat amidah, is not required to recite the correct amidah afterward. However, there is an opinion that requires him to repeat the amidah if he switched the musaph amidah for any other one, or vice-versa (ibid, par. 6). Others are of the opinion that since there are actually conflicting views over whether he need repeat the amidah of musaph or not, he should listen carefully to the cantor's repetition, and intend to fulfill his obligation through the other's reading (Kaf HaHaim, 28, 30). 6. If he read the musaph amidah along with the congregation, and is uncertain if he had erred and read the morning amidah instead, or missed reading the amidah entirely, he need not repeat musaph once again, even as a voluntary prayer. The reason
  • 82. ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 73 ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ .‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ (‫ד‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ג‬‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ג‬‫ר‬ (‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ .‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ (‫יב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫בזו‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ה‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ס״ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ויכוין‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ (‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) .‫ה‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬
  • 83. 74 The laws of Kiddush being, that in the former instance, it can be assumed that since he began the amidah along with the congregation, he did not err, and secondly (this applies to the latter instance as well), there are no voluntary tephilot on Shabbat, nor can there ever be a voluntary tephilot musaph either (ibid, 31,32). Chapter Eight The laws of kiddush^ which wine is to be used, that kiddush should take place at the site of the meal, and laws concerning the challah. 1. Women are obligated to hear kiddush in spite of the mitzvah being one time-generated (from which they are usually exempt). The reason is, that being that the shamor aspect of Shabbat is linked to the zachor aspect, and since women are obligated to fulfill the "shamor, ‫י‬ component, they are then obligated to abide by the other, zachor, element as well. They therefore may also pronounce the kiddush blessing, and intend to help men fulfill their obligation (Shulchan Aruch, 271). 2. If two sat down at the table to drink wine, and one of them then said, "Let us now make kiddush", they may not drink further until kiddush is made. If they should wish to drink before making kiddush, despite the fact that they are not permitted to do so, they must first repeat the blessing over wine once more before continuing to drink. (The same applies if they were drinking beer,
  • 84. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 75 ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ (‫ב‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) ,‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ (‫א‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ '‫סי‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ו‬) .‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬
  • 85. 76 Chapter Eight or if they weren't drinking at all but merely said, "Let us make kiddush"; they may not eat or drink before doing so; - so it seems to appear to me from the words of Rabbi Yosef Caro (ibid). 3. If Shabbat commenced after he completed his meal, but before he said birkat ha'mazon (if Purim was on a Friday, for example), he then says birkat ha'mazon over a cup of wine, making mention of Shabbat in the blessing despite the fact that he has not made kiddush yet. Afterward, he pronounces kiddush over a second cup of wine. Despite the ruling mentioned earlier in chap. 188, that if as one was still eating seuda shlishit as Shabbat came to a close, and the following day was Rosh Hodash, Hanukah, or Purim, he should make mention of Shabbat alone in the birkat ha'mazon (since the meal's beginning determines the nature of the birkat ha'mazon), here, however, the law is different. The situation is comparable to one that did not pray the mincha service before Shabbat, which then requires him to pray the Shabbat service twice, as Rabbi Yosef Karo wrote in the Beth Yosef, quoting the Rosh, see there (chap . 271). 4. If one didn't make kiddush at night, unintentionally or otherwise, he can recompense the following day by saying it then. (Ramah ‫־‬ he then pronounces the entire kiddush of the evening, save for vayechulu (ibid)). 5. Kiddush is pronounced over a cup of wine which has not been tasted from previously; and all requirements of wine drunk at birkat ha'mazon must be met, with the soie difference being that kiddush is to be recited while standing (ibid). 6. If he has only one cup of wine for the entire Shabbat, he pronounces kiddush over it at night without tasting the wine so as not to 'mar' it. He then pours off some wine into a second cup and tastes from it, saving the remaining wine of the first cup for the kiddush of the day. If all he had in the first cup was an
  • 86. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 77 ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .(‫מר״ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ש‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ער׳יא‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ע‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫״‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .(‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬
  • 87. 78 The laws of Kiddush exact reve'it of wine, he can make up for the necessary amount of wine he will need for the day's kiddush by adding water to the wine. However, if he does not have another cup of wine for havdalah, it is preferred that he pronounce the kiddush of the night and day over the challot, and save the wine for havdalah. Should he have two cups of wine, one is to be used for the evening kiddush, and the other for havdalah.(ibid). 7. Adds the author ‫־‬ as I was copying this paragraph, I had cause to wonder over the ruling of, quote, 'if he had only a scant reve'it of wine, he saves the remainder after kiddush and adds water to it for the day'. Whereas, in the following paragraph he states that one must drink at least a mouthful of wine for kiddush, which is the greater part of a revi'it. If so, after consuming the best part of the revi'it, how can he add water to the remainder and make still make kiddush over it? On the other hand, if he simply sipped some wine at the night's kiddush, how does he fulfill his obligation on such a small amount? Then, I found a solution in the words of HaRav Benbenishti, author of the Knesset Hagdolah (she'eri orach haim), who was faced with the same problem. His question was based on the words of the Talmud in the tractate of Pesachim: "...Rav Huna said, 'One that makes kiddush and then drinks a mouthful, fulfills his obligation; otherwise, not...'" The reply of the Knesset Hagadolah is, that even if the greater part of a reve'it was drunk and water added to compensate for the missing amount, it is fit for the morrow's kiddush. This applies to our present-day wines as well, despite the fact that they are not as strong as the wines of old. His second reply was, "...the law which requires one to drink at least a mouthful of wine for kiddush, applies only to one who has sufficient wine for the day. Otherwise, he should simply taste it, and let it suffice; better that, than to make the kiddush of the day over bread. So I infer from the words of the Jerusalem
  • 88. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 79 ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ף‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ , ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ג‬‫ז‬‫מ‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ (‫ג‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ב‬) ‫י‬‫״‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ע‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ .‫י‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ .‫י‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬ ‫י‬‫א‬‫״‬ :‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫׳‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ד‬ ,‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫׳‬‫ר‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫״‬‫כ‬‫ע‬ ,‫״‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬
  • 89. Chapter Eight Talmud, where it is stated, 'Rav Mona tasted, and restored it...,' implying that mere tasting was adequate'1 I, however, in all due respect, did not grasp his response, in particular his words, "...despite the fact that our wines are not as strong as the wines of old, they are still fit for kiddush after water being added to them." Rabbi Yosef Karo states (chap. 204), that mixing wine with water and still calling it wine depends on local custom. However, we have never yet heard of our wines being diluted with water and still retaining the status of wine; on the contrary, most of our wines are drunk without being diluted at all. If that being the case, how can we pronounce a blessing of wine over such a mixture? His second reply is even more difficult, for he himself quotes the tractate of Pesachim, which states that unless one drinks a full mouthful, he does not fulfill his obligation of kiddush. Rav Huna never makes mention of the fact that under certain circumstances, tasting is sufficient. Furthermore, why add, "...better that, than to make the kiddush of the day over bread", the implication being that the daytime kiddush is to be preferred over the night one; Rabbi Yosef Karo himself refutes that assumption by his statement, "Whoever has but two cups of wine, should make the kiddush of the night, and save the second cup for havdalah". In other words, in his opinion the daytime kiddush takes a lower priority than havdalah. In addition, the quote from the Jerusalem Talmud concerning Rav Mona is also problematical. It would seem that the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian are in disagreement, since Rav Huna's statement clashes with that of Rav Mona. If so, are we to assume that the Shulchan Aruch opted for the ruling of the Jerusalem Talmud over that of the Babylonian? What to me seems to be the solution is to be found by asking two other text questions. The first, on the middle statement of Rabbi Yosef Karo in chapter 6 concerning one that has only a bare
  • 90. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫״‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫יינו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ן‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ .‫י‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫נ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫א‬‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ .‫י‬‫פ‬‫ט‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬
  • 91. The laws of Kiddush revi'it of wine, plus another cup of wine for havdala. The question that rises is, why bother at all saving wine from the evening's kiddush for the day kiddush? For in the last part of the paragraph dealing with one having only two cups of wine, Rabbi Yosef Karo states that one cup should be saved for the evening, and the second for havdala ‫־‬ and no mention is made of the day kidddush. Last of all, the middle and third sections of the chapter both deal with the same situation, i.e., what to do when having only two cups of wine. Isn't one of these two rulings superfluous? Nevertheless, after careful perusal of the words of Rabbi Yosef Karo, one can see that his words fit together in logical order. To begin, the entire chapter is first to be divided into three distinct sections, with the first dealing with a situation of one having a cup containing more than a revi'it of undiluted wine. After minimal dilution, it will be transformed into two revi'ot of diluted wine, but still suitable for kiddush. At night, the first revi'et will be used for the evening kiddush, and the other saved for the day. It can be assumed that there is also a third cup left for over for havdalah, as explicitly stated afterward. The middle section deals with an instance of one having a cup containing the scant minimum of a revi'et (approx. 86 grams) of wine. At night, he adds to this a quantity of 6 grams of water, and drinks an amount equivelant to a 'mouthful' (approx. 24 grams). leaving himself a total of 68 grams of wine, to which he adds 18 grams of water the following day. At this stage, the wine is still fit for kiddush. Lastly, the third section deals with with one having exactly two revi'ot of wine which have already been diluted to their permissible limit, with no possibility of adding more water to them. Then, he should pronounce the evening kiddush over the first cup, and make the morning kiddush over the challot. The second cup is saved for havdalah, since the use of wine for it is preferred over that of using it for the morning kiddush.
  • 92. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ן‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ,‫ן‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ .‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ .‫ן‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ב‬‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫פז‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫׳‬‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬
  • 93. Chapter Eight The ruling of the Shulchan Aruch in the following chapter that one must drink a mouthful of the revi'et of wine, is therefore an obligatory one, since he favors the view of Rav Huna over that of Rav Mona (so notes the Be'ar Hagolah, Pesachim, 106) . When Rav Benbenishti then draws a proof from the Jerusalem Talmud, implying that a mere sip of the wine is sufficient, what he is actually intending to prove is that sipping the wine does not 'mar' it, i.e., make it unsuitable for further use, since it can be restored and reused for kiddush by adding some wine or water to it. As Rabbi Yosef Karo states in chapterph 182, "...a 'marred' cup can be restored by adding some wine or water", see there. That is precisely the intention of the passage quoted from the Jerusalem Talmud; the two Talmuds are therefore not in disagreement, but are discussing two entirely different aspects of the kiddush.
  • 94. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ן‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫ל‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫יש‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫ש‬‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫ת‬‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫י‬ ‫ז‬‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ד‬ ‫ל‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ף‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫ד‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ .‫ב‬‫ט‬‫ה‬ ‫ודו״ק‬ ‫ד‬‫״‬‫ג‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ .‫ועיקש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ,‫זה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫ך‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫ח‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ב‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כן‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ידי‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ק‬‫ס‬‫פ‬‫ו‬ ‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ,‫ק״ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ס‬‫פ‬ ,‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ציין‬ ‫החבי׳יב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫ם‬‫ג‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫א‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ,‫א‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫מ‬ ‫הייגו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ט‬ ‫ה‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫פ‬ ,‫עליו‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫פ‬ ‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫ל‬ ‫יכולין‬ ,‫וז׳ל‬ ‫קפ׳יב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ב‬ ‫מר׳ין‬ ‫ק‬‫ס‬‫פ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫שיוסיפו‬ ‫ידי‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫יין‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫שיוסיפו‬ ‫ידי‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ .‫שם‬ ‫עיין‬ ,‫ן‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ .‫עליו‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫שם‬ ‫עיין‬ ‫ע״פ‬ ‫ק‬‫ר‬‫פ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ס‬‫פ‬‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫דין‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ציין‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫מ‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ,‫ת‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫פ‬‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬‫ע‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫פליגי‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫יש‬ ,‫ב‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ק‬ ‫סימן‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫פ‬‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ .‫י‬‫מ‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫יש‬ ‫וכן‬ .‫בכך‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫ל‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫פ‬ ‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ף‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ל‬ ,‫ה‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫ד‬ ‫יוגה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ך‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫ומר׳ין‬ ‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫בו‬ ‫ן‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫פ‬ .‫עכ״ל‬ ,‫כן‬ ‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫ח‬‫מ‬‫ל‬ ‫ד‬‫ע‬
  • 95. 86 Chapter Eight 8. If the one that made kiddush did not taste of the wine, allowing someone else to drink a mouthful of it, he has fulfilled his obligation. The opinion of the Geonim is that the one that made the kiddush must take at least take a sip of it, and their ruling is to be followed. The drinking by both each of half a mouthful, however, does not combine to create a whole mouthful. In addition, all participants in the kiddush should sip some of the wine. This ruling of the obligation of the one that made kiddush to sip of the wine, applies only to the wine of kiddush, not to other occasions requiring the drinking of wine, when another may drink it instead (chap. 271). 9. If one made kiddush, and before tasting of the wine, made an interruption by speaking, he must repeat the blessing of borai pri hagafan, but not the entire kiddush. The same applies if the wine spilled before he drank of it, when a second cup of wine is to be brought to replace it; again, only the blessing over drinking wine is to be repeated (ibid). 10. The Be'ar Haytav states, quoting the Ari Zal (chap. 115), that if one took a cup of water or beer which he erroneously thought was filled with wine, and made kiddush and pronounced a blessing of borai pri hagefan over it before discovering his mistake, he must repeat both the blessing and the entire kiddush over a cup of wine - this ruling has the support of the Taz (ibid). 11. Kiddush is not to be made over wine possessing a foul odor, even though it still has a wine taste and smell. Also, wine which was left uncapped and exposed for any duration is not to be used, to which the Ramah adds that if it was left exposed for only a short time, there is no reason to disqualify it (chap. 272). 12. If, on Erev Shabbat, one happened to be in a locale where wine was available, but knew that on Shabbat Eve he would be an area having none, he may make kiddush on Friday using the wine in
  • 96. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 87 ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ .‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ (‫א‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ (‫א‬‫׳‬‫׳‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) . ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫״‬‫ט‬‫ק‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫״‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫׳‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫יין‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ז‬‫״‬‫ט‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ,‫יין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫י‬ .‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ב‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ ‫)סי׳‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ,‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬
  • 97. 88 The laws of Kiddush his first location, and afterward cease from all work (Shalah, quoting the Magen Avraham, Be'ar Haytav (ibid). 13. Wine straight from the wine-press may be used for kiddush; likewise, one may hand-squeeze grapes for the same purpose, providing of course that he does so before Shabbat (ibid). 14. Wine skimmed off the top of the barrel may be used for kiddush even if it is slightly moldy, the same applying to wine which has lost it's smell but retaines it's taste. However, if the wine has lost it's taste and retained only it's smell, it may not be used. At any rate, the preferred manner to perform the mitzvah of kiddush is to select a fine wine (ibid). 15. Wine sediment or grape seeds which were soaked in water until they have become fit to be drunk and the blessing of borai pri hagafan pronounced over them, are also suitable for kiddush (ibid). 16. Raisin wine may be used for kiddush, provided that the raisins were moist before they were soaked in water (ibid). 17. In a locale where wine is unavailable, kiddush may not be made over beer or other beverages, and certainly not on water. The Rosh states that in such a situation, the advised procedure is to pronounce the evening kiddush over the challot, and the the morning one over the beer, enabling him to pronounce the sh'hakol blessing over it before the ha'motzi on the bread. This will preserve some form of distinction for the morning kiddush, which otherwise has no nusach kiddush of it's own to make it unique, as opposed to the evening kiddush; and his words make eminent sense (ibid). 18. By pronouncing the blessing over wine at kiddush, one is thereafter exempt from making any further blessings on wine or other beverages drunk during the meal, neither does he pronounce a brachah achronah on the wine or beverages since the birkat
  • 98. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 89 ‫ה‬ ‫״‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ט‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ג‬‫י‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫מ‬‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫יין‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫יין‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ט‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ה‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ז‬‫ט‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ש‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫יז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫״‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ם‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ט‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ף‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ,‫ה‬‫״‬‫א‬) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ .‫ן‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ש‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬
  • 99. 90 The laws of Kiddush ha'mazon takes it's place (whether birkat ha'mazon is being made using a cup of wine or not). Says the author, that is only if he began eating immediately after making kiddush, such as by partaking of cakes or other light refreshment, as is our custom. The brachah achronah on wine will also exempt him from making one over the other beverages. However, if one pronounced a brachah achronah before sitting down to eat the main meal, he is obligated to pronounce a blessing over wine drunk during the meal since the blessing made for kiddush no longer can exempt him. The only time the blessing pronounced over kiddush exempts him from need of pronouncing further blessings over wine or other beverages, is if he began eating immediately afterwards. As for weekday meals where bread is eaten, here too one need not pronounce a blessing over any beverages drunk during the meal, save for wine (Shulchan Aruch, 272). 19. Kiddush is to be made only on the site where he will later have his meal. Within the same house, even one of large proportions, he may make kiddush in one corner of the house and have the meal in an other without need to repeat kiddush once more (chap. 273). 20. If one made kiddush in one location, intending to have his meal there, and then changed his mind and decided to have it elsewhere, he must repeat the kiddush in the new location; and if he never ate after the first kiddush, he never fulfilled his kiddush obligation altogether. (Ramah - one must always eat something immediately after making kiddush (chap. 273)). 21. A person may make kiddush and help others fulfill their obligation, despite the fact that he himself is eating elsewhere, for this is the location of their meal. Although one cannot help others fulfill their blessing obligation over food or drink unless he too is participating in the eating and drinking, here, since the wine blessing is an
  • 100. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 91 ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ש‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ט‬‫ו‬‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ף‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ש‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ב‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) .(‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ט‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫זו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ג‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי״‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬) .‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ .‫ם‬‫ש‬ (‫ג‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ( ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬
  • 101. 92 The laws of Kiddush integral part of the kiddush, he can relate to it as he does to the kiddush itself, and need not drink the wine afterward. This, however, may only be done when the others do not know how to pronounce kiddush by themselves. In addition, unless he actually includes himself in the kiddush, he may not partake of any food, or even eat along with those he made kiddush for, since he may not eat until he makes kiddush at the site of his own meal (ibid). 22. The Gaonim state that in order to fulfill one's obligation of having kiddush at the site of his meal, it suffices to eat or drink even a small quantity of food or beverage, as long as he is now required to pronounce a brachah achronah afterward. Later, he may have his main meal elsewhere without need of repeating the kiddush. However, this is true only if he ate bread (or cakes of any of the five grains) or drank wine, and not merely fruits (Shulchan Aruch and Magen Avraham, ibid). 23. If one made kiddush at home and his neighbor overheard him, if 1) the neighbor's table was set for eating, 2) the one that made kiddush intended to help the other fulfill his obligation, and 3) the neighbor also intended to fulfill his own obligation through the other's kiddush, only then can he too fulfill his kiddush obligation through the other (ibid). 24. Some opinions claim that kiddush may only be made in the vicinity of the Shabbat candles, while others state that kiddush is not linked in any way to the candles. If he should prefer to eat outdoors and enjoy the cool air, he may make kiddush and eat there as well without having to see the candles at all, since they are intended to cause pleasure, not distress; and the second opinion is the more acceptable one (ibid).
  • 102. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 93 ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ד‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫כ‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫יודעים‬ ‫ם‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ה‬‫נ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ,‫ם‬‫ה‬‫מ‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫צ‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫עדיין‬ (‫)שם‬ .‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ט‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ,‫ה‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫עליו‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ש‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ט‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ידי‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ,‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ח‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ק‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ח‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ס‬ ‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫מ‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ר‬‫ת‬ ‫מיני‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ .‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫יין‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ (‫שם‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫ג‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫)שו״ע‬ .‫יצא‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫כ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ח‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ע‬‫מ‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ג‬‫כ‬ ‫ע‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ת‬‫ג‬‫ש‬ ‫וכגון‬ .‫ה‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫הוי‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ש‬‫ד‬ ‫בו‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬ (‫)שם‬ .‫א‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ל‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ש‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ויש‬ .‫הגר‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫יש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ח‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫נ‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ת‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ח‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫ע‬‫צ‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫נצטוו‬ ‫ג‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ,‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫א‬‫ו‬‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ (‫)שם‬ . ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬
  • 103. 94 Chapter Eight Al HaShulchan 1. Once the time arrives to make kiddush, i.e., ben hasmoshot, and even if he hasn't prayed the Evening Service yet, he may not eat, drink, or even sip water (Ben Ish Chai, beraishit, 17). However, if he has been fasting until now, he may rinse his mouth with water before kiddush. Nowadays, the time of sunset noted on the calendar is also the time that he must make kiddush before eating or drinking. 2. Despite the fact that one may not eat before making kiddush, if he did eat, he must still make kiddush at the first opportunity (Shulchan Aruch, 271, 7). Similarly, if he forgot to make kiddush and began eating his meal, or even if he had already completed it, he must halt and make kiddush whenever he reminds himself of his oversight (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 19). 3. The household members who are giving ear to the reading of kiddush by the head of the family, should pay close attention to the words of the entire blessing from start to finish. If one is hard of hearing, or if the reader stutters and the hearers have difficulty following him (and they cannot make kiddush themselves afterward), they should focus their attention on the wine cup in the hand of the reader, and repeat the kiddush silently after him. Since they are in no position to pronounce the kiddush themselves, epso facto, they can still fulfill their obligation in this fashion (ibid, 15). 4. One may not use tea, coffee, or other juices and soft drinks for making kiddush or havdalah since they are not considered as chamar medina (chamar medina is whatever beverage, aside from water, is drunk by the general populace as a substitute for wine when it is unavailable). Whoever does use them for kiddush or
  • 104. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 95 ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ .‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫עדיין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ,‫ה‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ .(‫יז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ .‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) . ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ .‫ב‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ובן‬ .(‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ק‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ (‫יט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ש‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ז‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ .‫סוף‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫זקן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ , ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ל‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫מ‬‫א‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫י‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫כיון‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ (‫טו‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫צ‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫צ‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ .‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬
  • 105. 96 The laws of Kiddush havdalah is pronouncing the name of God in vain (Yabia Omer, Part 3, 19). Therefore, nowadays, with wine being so plentiful in Israel, beer may not be used there either. In other countries where wine is less common and beer is normally drunk by the local populace, it is considered as chamr medina and may be used for kiddush (Sha'arei Ezra, part one, 12). 5. Daytime kiddush is linked to the prayer service, and as long as one hasn't prayed the Morning Service, he has no obligation to make kiddush either. This applies to men only; the kiddush obligation of women, who have a Torah obligation to pray, but none to have a formal prayer service or a fixed time for praying, begins from sunrise. Therefore, their kiddush obligation is not dependent on prayer, and if they do not wish to wait for their husband's return from Synagogue, they must make kiddush themselves first before taking even a sip of water (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 18). 6. The basic obligation of the one that makes kiddush is to drink at least a mouthful of wine, and most preferably, a revi'it. Epso facto, if the reciter did not drink the wine and someone else drank a mouthful of it instead, all have fulfilled their obligation ‫־‬ and it is also preferred that all participants sip of the wine. Nowadays, we don't avoid drinking from the wine cup used by our friend to make kiddush, and have no fear of catching a disease (ibid, 23). Nevertheless, should there be any suspicion of illness, the one making the kiddush should first pour off some of the wine into another cup, and let the others drink from it. He can also add wine to the second cup so that there will be enough wine for all, as long as the second cup contains some of the wine over which kiddush was made.
  • 106. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 97 ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫יט‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬‫ד‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫י‬) ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ץ‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ .‫ה‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ש‬‫נ‬‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫מ‬ (‫יב‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ע‬‫ש‬) .‫ה‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ .‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫נ‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ת‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ .‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ת‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ .‫ם‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .(‫כג‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ק‬‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ( ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬) .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ד‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬) .‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫מ‬
  • 107. 98 Chapter Eight 7. If no wine is at hand, one may make kiddush over the challah. At night the procedure to be followed is to first wash hands, and recite vayehulu over the still-covered challah. Next, he uncovers the challah and pronounces hamotzi without slicing them, and finally, recites the blessing of kiddush while his two hands are resting on them. At day, since there is no distinction within the blessing of hamotzi which will single it out from any other weekday blessing, he should make efforts not to have the kiddush pronounced over the challot. If he has any chamar medinah available such as beer, he should use that for kiddush; he first washes his hands, pronounces a blessing of she'hakol, and drinks a mouthful, followed by a blessing of hamotzi on the challah. If has no chamar medinah either, or finds it too strong for his taste, he may recite the appropriate verses or piutim normally recited at kiddush, and then pronounce a blessing of hamotzi on the challot. 8. After kiddush, one should immediately wash his hands, and pronounce the blessing of hamotzi on two whole loaves, which are meant to symbolize the Manna. This applies to each one of the three Shabbat meals. Women too, if they are eating alone, must make use of two whole loaves. The Kabbalistic procedure is to arrange twelve loaves of bread on the tablecloth, over which a second tablecloth is spread. When the housewife sets the table, she recites the verse,"vaydabar alay, za hashulchan asher lifnai Hashem", for by this recital, holiness will rest on the table (Ben Ish Chai, vayera, 15, 17). 9. The weight of a k'ziat is 29 grams, and the weight of a k'baitzah is 58 grams. After eating a k'ziat of the bread, one should eat some more of it to complete the equivalent of a k'baitzah. One should also make an effort, if he is able, to eat at least slightly more than a k'ziat of bread at each of the Shabbat meals. Only one that is ill and incapable of eating much bread may be fulfill
  • 108. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 99 ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ,‫ך‬‫כ‬ ‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫נ‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ .‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ל‬‫ג‬‫י‬ ‫ך‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ז‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ע‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ה‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬) ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ,‫א‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ח‬‫כ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ע‬‫צ‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ד‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ .‫ח‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ח‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫״‬ ‫ק‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ה״״‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ (‫יז‬ ‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫א‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫ר‬‫ג‬ 29) ‫ם‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ .‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ , ‫ך‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ .(‫ם‬‫ר‬‫ג‬ 58) ‫ם‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י״ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ק‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬
  • 109. 100 his obligation by eating no more than a k'ziat (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 16. My grandmother received from her uncle, the Gaon Rav Yosef Chaim zt"l, the Ben Ish Chai's special, precise, weights for measuring the weights of k'ziat and k'baitzah, and did not follow the view of the Noda Beyehuda who increased their weights). 10. There is a mitzvah to eat fish at the three meals of Shabbat. If one could not, for some reason, eat the evening meal, he should compensate by eating three meals during the day (ibid, 18, 19). 11. An underage minor cannot help anyone, even a woman, fulfill their obligation of making kiddush (Kaf HaChaim, 9). 12. One can fulfill the obligation of two Shabbot loaves even if one of them is frozen (Sha'arei Ezra, Orach Chaim, part two, in manuscript).
  • 110. ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 101 ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬‫״‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ .‫כדז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫בן‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ , , ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ב‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫צ‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ .‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ (‫יט‬ ‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ (‫ט‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫ב‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ד‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ט‬‫ק‬ .‫יא‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫ע‬‫ש‬) .‫ה‬‫א‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ .‫יב‬ (‫י‬‫״‬‫ת‬‫כ‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ח‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ע‬
  • 111. 102 Chapter Nine Chapter Nine Which activities are forbidden to be performed by candle-light, and the law of a candle lit by a non-Jew 1. Clothes may not be deloused by candle-light. Likewise, one may not do similar activities which require close scrutiny, such as reading by aid of their light; our fear is that he may inadvertently move the lamp or bend the wick to provide better lighting. In which case, the Rabbis did not differentiate between a wick which one can easily reach and bend, or one inaccessible to the user. For that reason, an oil lamp provided with a glass chimney, or a wax candle, are also forbidden for use in any of the forementioned activities. This, however, is only when one person is reading before it's light, or even two, but who are each reading different material. If they are reading together from the same book, and one can stop the other from thoughtlessly reaching out and attempting to improve the lighting, they are permitted to read by it's light (Shulchan Aruch, chap. 275). 2. The above prohibition does not apply if the reader requests of another, such as his wife (who may not necessarily be reading by the lamplight too), to watch that he makes no effort to tamper with the light. 3. Before a large flame, such as a bonfire, any number of readers surrounding it will not remove the prohibition against reading by candle-light. Since they stand at a certain distance from each other, and in addition, pieces of wood are readily available to be inadvertanly tossed into the blaze, they will not immediately notice someone poking the burning cinders or throwing wood chips into the fire (ibid). 4. If a non-Jew lit a candle or flame for a Jew's use, all are forbidden to derive any benefit from it, including those for whom the non-
  • 112. ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 103 ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫גוי‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ודין‬ .‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫פ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ .‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ע‬‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ה‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫ע‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ט‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬
  • 113. 104 Activities forbidden to be done by candle-light Jew never intended to gratify. However, if the non-Jew's action was motivated by selfish reasons, or if he did it to aid an ill person (even one not in danger), all may enjoy its light. Other opinions, however, differentiate between a simple candle and a flame, where if the non-Jew added fuel to increase the blaze for the Jew, he may enjoy its light (ibid, chap. 276). 5. If Jews and non-Jews were dining at the same table, and a non- Jew lit a candle, if most of the diners are non-Jews, the Jews may derive benefit from the candle; if not, or if they were equal in number, they may not. However, if it was unmistakably lit by the non-Jew for his own use, then even if most of the company are Jews, they may derive benefit from the light (ibid). It is also permissible to instruct a non-Jew at bein hashmoshet to kindle a light for Shabbat use, or any other work necessary in the performance of a mitzvah (chap. 261). 6. If a candle was alit in the Jew's home, and a non-Jew then lit a second candle alongside it, the Jew may continue deriving benefit from the candlelight as long as the first candle is still burning. After it is extinguished, however, the Jew may not make use of the second light. Similarly, if the non-Jew added oil to a burning lamp, the Jew may continue using its light until the quantity of oil that he originally placed in it is gone; thereafter, he may not (chap. 276). 7. In cold lands, a non-Jew may kindle a fire for the benefit of small children, and afterward adults too may warm themselves by it's heat. If the cold is great enough to endanger the health of adults as well, the non-Jew may be instructed to kindle a fire specifically for them. However, this liberty is not to be abused when the cold does not justify it (ibid).
  • 114. ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 105 ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ג‬‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫גוי‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫גוי‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ג‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ( ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫ג‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ג‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫בו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬
  • 115. 106 Chapter Nine Al HaShulchan 1. It is permissible to read under an electric light, since the fear that he may adjust the wick obviously does not exist. Nor were the Rabbis fearful that he may turn the light on or off, as the real suspicion was that may absent-mindly follow his usual weekday habit of adjusting the wick to improve it's light while reading, which can't be done with an electric lamp. We ourselves are witness to the fact that owing to the conciousness of Shabbat, rare are the chances of one forgetting and turning the light on or off. However, in certain areas at home where one habitually turns the light on and off unthinkingly, such as in the bathroom, and one fears that he or a member of his household may unwittingly turn it on, it is advisable to place (on Erev Shabbat), some form of reminder on the light switch. 2. The custom in synagogues of having a non-Jew turn the lights on or off before and after tfilot on Shabbat, since it is done for a mitzvah purpose, i.e., since it enables the congregation to pray from the siddurim, and mitzvot are not intended to be a source of pleasure, is permitted. Furthermore, since the non-Jew is receiving a fixed wage for his efforts, and in addition, at least one other source of light will always remain alit in the synagogue (the ner tamid), so that in actuality he is only increasing light, not creating it, their is no reason to forbid use of the light (Rav Pa'alim, part two, Kaf HaChaim, 8). 3. Utensils which are similar in appearanc and require intensive examination to tell them apart, or even a watch with small numerals, may not be inspected under the light of the candle, unless one is merely checking utensils for cleanliness, which is permitted for hygienic and safety reasons (Ben Ish Chai, 58, 21).
  • 116. ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 107 ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ,‫ה‬‫ט‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ביון‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ .‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ז‬‫ח‬ ‫ק‬‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ש‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫גזרו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ט‬‫ק‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ט‬‫ס‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬) ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ,‫ו‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ז‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ד‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ל‬‫נ‬‫כ‬) . ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ .‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ ,‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬ ‫ידי‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כיון‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫ק‬‫ב‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫בין‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ך‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬‫ג‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ) ( ‫ח‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬‫״‬‫ח‬ ‫)ר״פ‬ .‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ף‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ . ( ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫עיון‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ובן‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫עיון‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ ,‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫עיון‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ .(‫א‬‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬
  • 117. 108 Moving the candle on Shabbat Chapter T e n Moving a candle on Shabbat 1. A candle may be extinguished for a person dangerously ill (Shulchan Aruch, 278). Adds the author, it seems to me that this may only be done if there is no other room available to place the candle in, when it is preferred to take the candle and set it down there instead. Ramah - this is also true if the candle does not greatly disturb the ill person; then, it is to be removed from the room, not put out. 2. A candle which was lit for Shabbat may not be handled even after it burns out, with the same applying to any oil left after the lamp extinguishes itself; they both may not be used at all for remainder of the day (chap. 279). 3. The above-mentioned candle may not be moved for any reason, even if only for use of the site it is resting on, or for use of the candle or oil itself. If, however, he stipulated before Shabbat that he would wish to move it after the candle went out, he may do so (ibid). 4. A candle which was lit on Shabbat for those for whom it may be lit, such as an ill person or a woman after childbirth (see chap. 329 and 330), or if it was lit accidently, may be moved after they are extinguished regardless of whether the ill person recovered, or the woman regained her strength afterward. The reason is, that since the candle did not become muktzah at the time of sunset on Erev Shabbat, it cannot become muktzah on Shabbat. The Magen Avraham adds, that a candle which was lit in violation of Shabbat and went out may be moved as well (ibid).
  • 118. ‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 109 ‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ,‫ה‬‫״‬‫א‬ .(‫ח‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫א‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ .(‫)ד״ע‬ . ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ט‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ג‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫מ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ,‫ל‬‫״‬‫ש‬‫ו‬ ‫ט‬‫״‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ג‬‫ג‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬
  • 119. 110 Chapter Eleven 5. A lamp which wasn't lit, even one of clay which has become filthy with use, may be handled since muktzah machmat meus may be moved on Shabbat (ibid). However, it may only be moved if the site upon which it is standing is desired for use, or if the lamp itself is needed to fill a need (Be'ar Halacha, ibid), but not in order to prevent it's theft (chap. 308). 6. A candlestick, large or small, if formed by pieces which are joined together, may not be handled on Shabbat out of fear that it may fall and become dismantled; since if he then puts it together again he violates the prohibition of forming a utensil on Shabbat. This applies too to a candlestick having grooves, which give it the appearance of being dismantable as well (Shulchan Aruch, chap. 279). Chapter Eleven Several laws concerning the haftorah and it's blessings, and the obligation to read the weekly Torah portion twice, once with the targum; the laws of the Shabbat musaph Service 1. If the Torah reader erred, and completed the reading by saying kaddish after the sixth aliyah, he need not read further. All he must now do is repeat the sixth parshah for the maftir's aliya, for the law is that the allya of the maftir can be counted as the seventh aliyot of the Shabbat Torah readings (Shulchan Aruch, 282). 2. If Rosh Chodash should occur on a Shabbat, the maftir does not read the Rosh Chodash Torah portion, and such is our custom (chap. 284).
  • 120. ‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 111 ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ , ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫פ‬‫ו‬‫ג‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫״‬‫ב‬) .‫ס״ג‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ש‬‫״‬‫מ‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ (‫ח‬‫׳‬‫ש‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫ג‬‫ג‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫ל‬‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ (‫ט‬‫״‬‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ .(‫ב‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ד‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬
  • 121. 112 Laws concerning the Haftorah 3. By paying close attention and having intent to all the blessings pronounced over the Torah and haftorah, one can add them to the 100 blessings that one must utter daily (ibid). A minor can be the maftir, and when two parashot are linked together, the haftorah of the second parshah is the one to be read for the haftorah (ibid). 4. Despite the fact that everyone hears the Torah publicly read on Shabbat, he is obligated to read to himself the parshah of that week, twice Scripture and once targum. This applies even to those verses where the Scripture and the targum are identical, i.e., he is actually reading the same words three times (ibid). 5. Reading Rashi's commentary is equivalent to reading the targum on the parshah, and the truly God-fearing read both Rashi and targum. One may begin reading the new weekly Torah portion from the time of mincha on Shabbat and onward, and the preferred mitzvah is to complete the reading before sitting down to eat on Shabbat morning (ibid). If he did not succeed in completing the reading before beginning the Shabbat morning meal, he should try to do so before mincha of Shabbat, and if not then, no later than Wednesday of the following week. Others claim that he has until Shemini Azerath to complete whatever he has missed throughout the year, as that is when the yearly cycle of the public Torah readings is concluded (ibid). 6. One may read the Scripture twice and the targum as the Torah is being publicly read; and there is no need to read the Torah portion read publicaly on Yom-Tov (ibid). 7. The time for praying the musaph Service is immediately after completing the Morning Service, up until the end of the seventh hour of the day. It is considered sinful to delay any later, though one who prays the musaph Service then has still fulfilled his obligation, since ex post facto, it's time is all day. If he forgot and did not pray musaph at all during the day, he cannot compensate by repeating the Evening Service twice.
  • 122. ‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 113 ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ה‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ( ‫ה‬ , ‫׳‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ש‬‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫״‬‫ש‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬‫״‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) .‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬
  • 123. 114 Chapter Eleven 8. One may taste food before the musaph Service, e.g., fruits or even cake to satisfy his hunger, but a full meal is forbidden (ibid). The Birkat Yosef states that those desiring to taste food before musaph should first make kiddush before having a light snack of fruit or cake. After musaph, they should make kiddush once again before the main meal to satisfy all Halachic authorities (Responsa Sha'arei Yeoshua). (Adds the author), it seems to me that one ought not to drink a full revi'it of wine when making kiddush before musaph, since then he will be unable to pray the Service, as stated in chap. 92. If he did drink a revi'it of wine, he must then wait until the effects of the wine dissipate before commencing the Service (see there). Al HaShulchan 1. In the synagogue, a sefer torah is taken out, and at least seven people receive aliyot. If additional aliyot are allotted, the Reader may repeat what has already been read, and each olah 1'torah pronounces a blessing (Shulchan Aruch, chap. 61, 2, see Beit Dino Shel Shlomo, Orach Chaim). 2. When the ark is opened, the custom is to say, br'ich shmei, etc., and when the sefer torah is removed from the ark, it is opened wide and displayed before the congregation. All should then bow to the sefer, even women and children, and say, "This is the Torah that Moshe presented before, etc....God is true, Moshe is true, and His Torah is true". It is fitting that one find a word on the open scroll whose first letter is similar to the first letter of his name. It is also recommended that one look at the letters of the sefer torah, for by looking closely at them and being actually
  • 124. ‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ , ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ו‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ב‬‫ר‬‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ .(‫)שם‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ .‫ה‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬ . ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ט‬‫״‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫״‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ .‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ,‫יינו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫י‬‫צ‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫פ‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬‫א‬‫ו‬ .‫ף‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ף‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬‫״‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ועיין‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫אין‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ (‫ח‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬‫א‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫״‬ :‫ו‬‫ר‬‫מ‬‫א‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ף‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫״‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫״‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬
  • 125. 116 Laws concerning the Haftorah able to read the letters, a great light is drawn to him. And one should sit during the reading of the Torah (Ben Ish Chai, Toldoth, 15). 3. This is the Kabbalistic significance beyond the qualities of each aliyah: the sixth allyah is considered the greatest, since it is equivalent to yisod; the next in rank is the third aliyah, equivalent to tifereth; third in rank is the Cohen, equivalent to chesed; fourth is Levi, equivalent to g'vura; after him, the fourth, equivalent to nezach; the fifth aliyah is equivalent to hod; and lastly the seventh aliyah, equivalent to malchut. Therefore, a minor can only receive the seventh aliyah (Ben Ish Chai, ibid, 17). 4. The one receiving the aliyah should first note the place that he is about the begin reading from, and see the first verse that he will read. Next, he covers the script with the cloth, and pronounces the first blessing on the Torah. Uncovering the cloth, he then proceeds to read, and when done, covers the script once more and pronounces the final blessing on the Torah. Care should be taken at the time the blessings are being pronounced to grasp the sefer torah by means of the cloth, and not by the casing. The obligation to grasp the sefer torah by use of the cloth is only at the time of the public Torah reading, when the Heavenly Lights are revealed; at other times, such as when having to repair the sefer, etc., there is no need to grasp it by means of the cloth (ibid, 18). 5. If one has begun reading the sh'ma, and he was called to the Torah, he should not go up even if he was called by name, unless he knows that he will be able to complete reading kriat sh'ma while walking up to the Torah. But if he was reading the blessings of kriat sh'ma, he may receive an aliyah.
  • 126. ‫א‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 117 ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ (‫טז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ,‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ח‬‫צ‬‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ח‬‫א‬ ,‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ג‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫ט‬‫ק‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ (‫יז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) .‫א‬‫ק‬‫ו‬‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע״י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫א‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬‫י‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ז‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ק‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫ב‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ח‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ק‬‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ .‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬‫ד‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫צ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ (‫יט‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬
  • 127. 118 Chapter Eleven 6. The one who has received the aliyah, as well as the Reader should not lean on anything, but stand erect. Nowadays, when the Reader does the reading of the Torah, the olah should repeat silently after the Reader so that he does not overhear the olah and get confused. He should make efforts to receive an aliyah at least once each month. When going up to the Torah, he should take the shortest route possible to the bimah, and when returning to his place, take the longer one. The congregation is forbidden to walk out and leave the sefer torah uncovered, even between two aliyot (ibid, 20). 7. Within the twelve month period after the passing of either one of his parents, an aliyah for maftir is more beneficial than an aliyah to complete the count of seven; and certainly so if the maftir is one of the musaph Sacrifices; and even more so if the maftir is the one of the Torah sections of parashat parah or zichor, whose reading, following some opinions, is a Torah obligation (ibid, 21). 8. It is forbidden to quarrel over an aliyah for any reason whatsoever. By his silence, greater satisfaction will be caused to his parent in the other world than by gaining an aliyah through altercation (Kaf HaChaim, beginning of chap. 4, 6). Anyone causing discord in the synagogue, despite his belief that he is contending over a mitzvah, is likely to nevertheless transgress serious Torah violations such as, "Do not hate your brother", "Do not spread gossip", and, "You shall love your brother as yourself ‫.י‬ This in turn can lead to acts of vengeance and grudge-bearing, and to the grave offense of anger (so that in the conclusion, very serious sins are brought about by one believing that he is actually performing a mitzvah). Therefore, the gabai, whose task it is to allocate aliyot, should make pains not to cause anyone to feel slighted. Even if the other has offended him, let him be enumerated among those that, "...are
  • 128. ‫יא‬ ‫סימן‬ 119 ‫החזן‬ ‫וכן‬ ,‫תיבה‬ ‫או‬ ‫א‬‫ס‬‫כ‬ ‫או‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫יסמוך‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ .‫ו‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬‫ז‬‫ה‬ ‫ובזמן‬ .‫ישר‬ ‫ד‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ,‫בכך‬ ‫יזהר‬ ‫הקורא‬ .‫לאזניו‬ ‫ע‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ש‬‫ח‬‫ל‬‫ב‬ ‫החזן‬ ‫ם‬‫ע‬ ‫לקרוא‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫יזהר‬ ‫קורא‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫וכל‬ ,‫בחדש‬ ‫ת‬‫ח‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ע‬‫פ‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫פ‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ד‬‫ת‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ולהניח‬ ‫ת‬‫א‬‫צ‬‫ל‬ ‫ואסור‬ ,‫בארוכה‬ ‫וירד‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫ק‬ ‫בדרך‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫ל‬ (‫כ‬ ‫)שם‬ .‫לגברא‬ ‫גברא‬ ‫בין‬ ‫אפילו‬ ‫ח‬‫ו‬‫ת‬‫פ‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ת‬ ‫ספר‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ו‬‫ת‬ ,‫אמו‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫או‬ ‫אביו‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ש‬‫ד‬‫ח‬ ‫ר‬‫ש‬‫ע‬ ‫שנים‬ ‫בתוך‬ ‫ל‬‫ב‬‫א‬ .‫ז‬ ‫מפטיר‬ ‫א‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬ ‫שכן‬ ‫וכל‬ .‫המשלים‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫מ‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫למפטיר‬ ‫הבן‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫פ‬ ‫או‬ ‫זכור‬ ‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫מפטיר‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬ ‫שכן‬ ‫וכל‬ .‫המוספים‬ ‫בקרבנות‬ (‫כא‬ ‫)שם‬ .‫מדאורייתא‬ ‫ם‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫אומרים‬ ‫שיש‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫יהיה‬ ‫ה‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ת‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ ‫ידי‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ ,‫עליה‬ ‫שום‬ ‫עבור‬ ‫ט‬‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫ה‬‫ל‬ ‫אסור‬ .‫ח‬ .‫לתורה‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ע‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫יתקוטט‬ ‫ר‬‫ש‬‫א‬‫מ‬ ‫העליון‬ ‫בעולם‬ ‫לאביו‬ ‫רוח‬ ‫ת‬‫ח‬‫נ‬ ‫ט‬‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ש‬ ‫אעפ״י‬ ‫ט‬‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫וכל‬ .(‫ו‬ ‫רפ״ד‬ ‫)כה״ח‬ ,‫לאוין‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫לעבור‬ ‫דאורייתא‬ ‫לאיסורי‬ ‫לבוא‬ ‫יכול‬ ‫ה‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬‫ל‬ ‫ויבוא‬ ,‫כמוך‬ ‫לרעך‬ ‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ה‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ,‫רכיל‬ ‫ך‬‫ל‬‫ת‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬ ,‫אחיך‬ ‫ת‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫נ‬‫ש‬‫ת‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ע‬‫ה‬‫ש‬ ‫)נמצא‬ .‫כעס‬ ‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫חמור‬ ‫ולאיסור‬ ‫ולנטירה‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ק‬‫נ‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬‫ד‬‫ס‬‫מ‬‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫א‬‫ב‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ (.‫למצוה‬ ‫ט‬‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫וחושב‬ ‫ד‬‫א‬‫מ‬ ‫גדולות‬
  • 129. 120 Visiting the ill on Shabbat insulted and do not insult in turn", for his Heavenly reward is then very great. 9. A Cohen or Levi make receive the maftir, since the gabai makes mention of the fact that he is being given the aliyah despite his being a Cohen (Kaf HaChaim, beginning of chap. 4, 24). Chapter Twelve Accepting a tdanit yechid, comforting the bereaved, and visiting the sick on Shabbat 1. One is forbidden to refrain from eating after the sixth hour from sunrise on Shabbat morning. Ramah - or even to study Torah or pray at that time (Shulchan Aruch, 288). 2. One may fast on a evil dream, hoping that by doing so the Heavenly decree will be nullified. However, he must then fast again on Sunday and beg forgiveness for having neglected the pleasure of Shabbat. If he is too weak and cannot fast two consecutive days, he may fast on another day instead (ibid). 3. Ramah ‫־‬ and certainly so if Sunday was either Chanukah, Rosh Chodash, Purim, or Yom Tov (even if only the second day of goliyot), when he is prohibited from fasting until after the chag. Other opinions state that if he dreamt his evil dream during the Shabbat afternoon nap, he may begin his fast then, continuing it until midnight. Then he makes havdalah and continues his fast on Sunday, when it will be reckoned as if he had fasted on all of Shabbat (ibid, 288).
  • 130. ‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 121 ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫לו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ (‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫כ‬) .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ביון‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫ה‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ .‫ט‬ (‫ד‬‫״‬‫כ‬ ‫ד‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) .‫ן‬‫ה‬‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ (‫ח‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬ ‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ג‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ג‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ך‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫יו״ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ש‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ .‫ך‬‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ח‬‫״‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬
  • 131. 122 Chapter Twelve 4. Some are of the opinion that one may not fast on Shabbat for a evil dream unless it re-occurred three times. Others claim that nowadays, one may not fast at all for a dream on Shabbat, since we are no longer qualified to establish which dreams are good and which evil. Common opinion has it, that it was discovered in ancient sefarim that there are three types of dreams for which one may fast even on Shabbat, and they are as following: if one saw a sefer torah being burnt; a dream of the neilah prayer of Yom Kippur; a house beam collapsing, or his teeth falling out. Others add that if he dreamt of Yom Kippur, even if it was not during the Neilah prayer; still others claim, that if he saw himself reading the Torah; and others add, if he saw himself marrying a women. What was previously mentioned concerning dreaming of one's teeth falling out, pertains particularly to teeth, not to the sinking of cheeks; seeing one's cheeks sink is actually a good dream, for it portends the demise of his foes. It seems to me, that included among the dreams for which one may fast on Shabbat are those mentioned in the chapter of haroah. 5. One who fasts on Shabbat should say aneinu at the completion of the mincha Service, without adding the brachah at the close of the prayer, and including it in alohai nezor (ibid). Al HaShulchan 1. One may comfort the bereaved and visit the ill on Shabbat. When visiting an ill person, he should not say the usual weekday blessings, but tell him, "Not to cry out on Shabbat, may you soon recuperate; His mercy is great, and may his Shabbat be one of peace (Shulchan Aruch, 287, 1). 2. The Rabbis of the mussar movement state, that the chief motive behind the mitzvah of visiting the ill is to see if they are in need
  • 132. ‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 123 ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ף‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ,‫ן‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫ל‬‫פ‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ .‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ח‬‫ר‬‫ו‬ ,‫א‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ (‫א‬ ‫ז‬‫פ‬‫ר‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬)
  • 133. 124 Visiting the ill on Shabbat of anything, especially those that are also destitute. To these he should then extend aid to the best of his ability (Kaf HaChaim, ibid, 6). 3. If one contemplates during the day on any one of those subjects that if dreamt, are reason for making a fast on, he has no cause for assuming that a Heavenly sign appeared to him in his sleep. Therefore, he may not fast after dreaming of :hem on Shabbat (Kaf HaChaim, 288, 15). However, he may approach others and ask them to interpret his dream for the better (ibid, 20). 4. The author of the Sefer Agudot Aliyahu writes, that whenever someone came to ask him if he could fast on a evil dream dreamt on Shabbat, his reply always was that they should not fast, but instead eat, drink, and enjoy the Shabbat. This, on condition that they do not speak to anyone throughout the day, but sit and recite the entire Book of Psalms. On the following day, he may fast if he wishes; however, whatever was stated about the need for fasting the morning after having a bad dream, was intended only for those historical eras when they were expert in interpretating dreams. He should also give charity to the best of his ability, so that if the dream was a good one, it should transpire, but if an evil one, God forbid, may be nullified (ibid, 63). 5. No fast may take place on Shabbat for any reason whatsoever, even in times of crisis. Neither may we raise a hue and cry for any distress save for a food crisis, when we still may not use a shofar to do so. Otherwise, a city under attack, a ship at sea and in danger of sinking, or even a single person in danger, may cry out and entreat in prayer on Shabbat. Even then, an alarm is not to be sounded unless it is a necessary in summoning aid (Shulchan Aruch, ibid, 8, 9).
  • 134. ‫יב‬ ‫סימן‬ 125 ‫ם‬‫א‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ל‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫חולים‬ ‫ביקור‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫שעיקר‬ ‫המוסר‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫כ‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬‫ת‬‫כ‬ .‫ב‬ ‫כפי‬ ‫צורכיהם‬ ‫וימלא‬ ,‫עניים‬ ‫לחולים‬ ‫ובפרט‬ ,‫דבר‬ ‫איזה‬ ‫צריכים‬ (‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫)כה״ח‬ .‫ידו‬ ‫ג‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ת‬‫ש‬ ‫שייך‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ת‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫ב‬‫ד‬‫ה‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫ל‬‫ח‬‫ו‬ ‫ביום‬ ‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ה‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ .‫ג‬ ‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ת‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫לו‬ ‫גרם‬ ‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ה‬‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ה‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ,‫הראוהו‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ש‬‫ה‬‫מ‬‫ש‬ ‫לומר‬ .‫בשבת‬ ‫חלום‬ ‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ט‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ומותר‬ .(‫טז‬ ‫רפ״ח‬ ‫)כה״ח‬ .‫בשבת‬ (‫כ‬ ‫)שם‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ממני‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ש‬‫ל‬ ‫אלי‬ ‫א‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫בל‬ ,‫אליהו‬ ‫ת‬‫ד‬‫ג‬‫א‬ ‫בספר‬ ‫ב‬‫ת‬‫כ‬ .‫ד‬ ‫ג‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ת‬‫י‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ,‫יתענה‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫לו‬ ‫אומר‬ ‫אני‬ ,‫בשבת‬ ‫חלום‬ ‫ת‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ת‬ ‫שום‬ ‫ם‬‫ע‬ ‫היום‬ ‫ל‬‫כ‬ ‫ידבר‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫ש‬ ‫ובתנאי‬ .‫ושתיה‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫כ‬‫א‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ,‫סוף‬ ‫ד‬‫ע‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ח‬‫ת‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ה‬‫ת‬ ‫ספר‬ ‫ל‬‫כ‬ ‫ויקרא‬ ‫וישב‬ ,‫בעולם‬ ‫ם‬‫ד‬‫א‬ ‫זהו‬ ‫ביום‬ ‫בו‬ ‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ת‬‫י‬‫ש‬ ‫שאמרו‬ ‫ה‬‫מ‬‫ד‬ ,‫ירצה‬ ‫אם‬ ‫ה‬‫נ‬‫ע‬‫ת‬‫י‬ ‫ר‬‫ח‬‫מ‬‫ל‬‫ו‬ ‫כפי‬ ‫ה‬‫ק‬‫ד‬‫צ‬ ‫יתן‬ ‫גם‬ .‫חלומות‬ ‫בפתרון‬ ‫בקיאים‬ ‫שהיו‬ ‫בזמנם‬ ‫ושלום‬ ‫ס‬‫ח‬ ‫ע‬‫ר‬ ‫ואם‬ ,‫שיתקיים‬ ‫טוב‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫ח‬‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫כדי‬ ,‫ידו‬ ‫ת‬‫ג‬‫ש‬‫ה‬ (‫סג‬ ‫)שם‬ .‫שיתבטל‬ ‫זה‬ ‫ל‬‫כ‬ ‫שבזכות‬ ‫י‬‫א‬‫ד‬‫כ‬ ‫ולא‬ ‫צועקין‬ ‫ואין‬ .‫מהצרות‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫שום‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫מתענין‬ ‫אין‬ .‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫שצועקין‬ ‫המזונות‬ ‫ת‬‫ר‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫חוץ‬ ‫ה‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫שום‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫מתריעין‬ ‫ספינה‬ ‫או‬ ‫אנסין‬ ‫שהקיפוה‬ ‫עיר‬ ‫וכן‬ .‫בשופר‬ ‫ולא‬ ,‫בשבת‬ ‫ה‬‫פ‬‫ב‬ ,‫לסטין‬ ‫או‬ ‫אנסין‬ ‫מפני‬ ‫שנרדף‬ ‫יחיד‬ ‫ואפילו‬ ,‫בים‬ ‫ת‬‫פ‬‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫כן‬ ‫ם‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ל‬‫א‬ ‫תוקעין‬ ‫אין‬ ‫ל‬‫ב‬‫א‬ ,‫בשבת‬ ‫ת‬‫ו‬‫ל‬‫פ‬‫ת‬‫ב‬ ‫ומתחננין‬ ‫זועקין‬ (‫ט‬ ‫ח׳‬ ‫שם‬ ‫)שרע‬ .‫ולהצילם‬ ‫ם‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫ח‬‫א‬‫ל‬ ‫לעזור‬ ‫ם‬‫ע‬‫ה‬ ‫לקבץ‬ ‫תוקעין‬
  • 135. 126 Chapter Thirteen 6. The custom is to pray for an ill person in mortal danger, and it is then also permitted to say a mi shebairach for his speedy recovery (Shulchan Aruch, 288, 10). Chapter Thirteen The morning meal, and seuda shlishit of Shabbat‫־׳‬ 1. As in the evening, the morning kiddush must also take place in the vicinity where he will later have his meal. Likewise, he may not taste anything before kiddush. Drinking before the Morning Service, however, is permitted since he does not have an obligation to make kiddush until after the Service (Shulchan Aruch, 289). 2. In a location where wine is unavailable, beer or any other liquor or beverage (chamar medinah), except for water, is acceptable for kiddush. If none of the above are at hand, he begins eating without kiddush and pronounces the blessing of hamotzi over the challah, eating nothing else before it. If he should also have no bread, he eats whatever is available, again without kiddush. It appears from a certain statement made by the Rosh, that if at Shabbat night one does not have any challah, he does not make kiddush then either; at any rate, if he expects that bread will later be brought to him, he should wait for it until no later than midnight. At daytime, however, there is no need to wait at all (chap. 289, and Be'ar Haytav). 3. One should add to the amount of fruit, delicacies, and aromatic species at his table in order to arrive at a total of one hundred daily blessings.
  • 136. ‫יג‬ ‫סימן‬ 127 .‫היום‬ ‫ת‬‫נ‬‫כ‬‫ס‬ ‫המסוכנים‬ ‫חולים‬ ‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ל‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫לומר‬ ‫נהגו‬ (‫י׳‬ ‫רפ״ח‬ ‫ביום)שו״ע‬ ‫בו‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬‫ס‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ה‬‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ח‬‫ה‬ ‫לברך‬ ‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫וכן‬ ‫יג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ( ‫ט‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫צ‬‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫׳‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ט‬ ‫״‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫ך‬‫י‬‫ר‬‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ (‫ט‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ג‬
  • 137. 128 The morning meal and Seudat Shlishit 4. One should make an effort to eat the seuda shlishit of Shabbat, and if he is sated, he can still fulfill his obligation with a k'baiza of bread. If, however, he cannot eat at all, he has no obligation to cause himself torment by eating. One with foresight will thus be careful not to gorge himself at the morning meal, and save some of his appetite for the seudah shlishit. The Magen Avraham states that similarly, if one did not eat the evening seudah, he pronounces the evening kiddush during the day, and follows it by eating two meals (Shulchan Aruch, 298, and Be'ar Haytav, ibid). 5. The time for performing the seudah shlishit is at the hour that the mincha Service may be prayed, i.e., six and one-half hours and upward after sunrise. If he eats it any earlier, he does not fulfill his obligation (ibid). 6. If the morning seudah lasted until the time had come for mincha, he is to terminate the meal at once, and pronounce the birkat hamozon. Then, after washing his hands and pronouncing the hamotzi blessing, he resumes eating what is now the seudah shlishit. Such is the proper method to follow in such an instance, since if he were to continue his morning seudah, he will not have any appetite left for the seudah shlishit except by forcing himself to eat (ibid). 7. Ramah - whoever realizes that he will still be able to eat the seudah shlishit after praying mincha with the congregation, should not eat it before mincha; but if he does eat it before mincha, he still fulfills his obligation. 8. He should pronounce the blessing of hamotzi on two wheaten loaves, though there are opinions that claim that he can use loaves made of any one of the five grains. Other opinions contend that one may even make use of such foods as meat or fish, but not fruit, while another opinion asserts that even fruit is suitable. The first opinion is the generally accepted one, i.e., that bread formed from wheat is to be used unless he is too sated to eat it.
  • 138. ‫יג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 129 ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫מ‬‫צ‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ח‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫׳‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ט‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫״‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ד‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ .‫ד‬‫ו‬‫ע‬‫ס‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) ,‫ו‬‫נ‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫מ‬‫ב‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬‫ה‬‫י‬‫מ‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ .‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ן‬‫ג‬‫ד‬ ‫י‬‫ג‬‫י‬‫מ‬
  • 139. 130 Chapter Thirteen Ramah ‫־‬ or for situations where the eating of bread is impossible, such as if Erev Pesach occurs on Shabbat. Then, one may not eat bread from the time of mincha and upward, as will be explained later in the section dealing with the Laws of Pesach. 9. Women are obligated to eat the seuda shlishit as well (ibid). Al HaShulchan 1. After the morning seudah, custom is to learn the Prophets and hear lectures on the Aggadah, and it is forbidden to organize meals at that time. Ramah ‫־‬ workers and laymen that do not have much time to learn Torah during the week, should make efforts to devote time to it's studyQ n Shabbat (Shulchan Aruch, 290, 2). I have witnessed places where the entire Shabbat afternoon is set aside for learning Torah, and even the seudah shlishit is eaten in the Synagogue in order to make use of the precious time wasted in walking home; and how fortunate is Israel. It is indeed fitting for every one to join one of these Torah study-groups, choosing one to match his mental abilties. It is found in the holy writings of Rabbainu Chaim Vital, quoting our master, the Ari 2&, as constantly exhorting him to increase the number of sermon* intended to reprove the community and bring them to repentance, for on this hinges the Final Redemption (Kaf HaChaim, ibid, 12). 2. If one began eating the seudah shlishit while yet day and it became dark, he may continue eating and finish his meal. Nevertheless, the meal should initially not be began at the hour of bein hasmoshot (Ben Ish Chai, vayaizai, 18). If the sun had already
  • 140. ‫יג‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 131 ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫נ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ח‬ ‫ס‬ ‫פ‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ .‫א‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ב‬ ‫ר׳יצ‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ע‬‫״‬‫ו‬‫ש‬) . ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬‫ת‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫ק‬‫ס‬‫ע‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ך‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬‫ו‬ .‫ל‬‫א‬‫ר‬‫ש‬‫י‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫ז‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ט‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ו‬‫א‬‫ר‬ (‫ט‬‫ו‬‫ש‬‫פ‬) .‫ו‬‫ת‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫ה‬ ‫ח‬ ‫כ‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז״ל‬ ‫י‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫א‬‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ר‬‫ש‬ ,‫ו‬‫״‬‫ח‬‫ר‬‫ה‬‫ו‬‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫ר‬‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫מ‬ (‫יב‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫ה‬‫כ‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬‫ו‬‫כ‬‫י‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ .‫ב‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫מ‬‫ג‬‫ל‬
  • 141. 132 Havdalah set, the seudah may not be begun, since now he has an obligation to make havdah. As explained later in chapter 15 (see also Kaf HaChaim, 299, 63), the time of bein hashmoshot begins from the moment that the sun is no longer visible. In spite of the fact that one is about to fail eating the seudah shlishit, he may not begin it now, as one is forbidden to eat before havdalah. Chapter Fourteen Havdalah of the evening amidah, and the laws of havdalah over wine, candle, and spices 1 • Havdalah is mentioned within the blessing of atah chonan in the Evening amidah, and if one forgot to mention it, he need not repeat the blessing; since he will make havdalah afterward on wine, he is not required to repeat the amidah. If he tasted food before making havdalah, he must repeat the amidah once more, this time making mention of havdalah (par. 294). 2. If he forgot to mention havdalah in the amidah and does not have wine for havdalah either, and in addition, realizes that tomorrow too he will not have wine for making havdalah, he must repeat the amidah once more and remember to mention havdalah this time (chap. 294). It seems to me, that if he recalled that he hadn't mentioned havdalah before he completed the blessing of shamaya tfilah, he should say it within that blessing. But if he is going to make havdalah afterward on wine, he need not do so (ibid, Be'ar Haytav, Magen Avraham).
  • 142. ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 133 ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ (‫יח‬ ‫א‬‫צ‬‫י‬‫ו‬ ‫ח‬‫״‬‫א‬‫ב‬) ‫ח‬‫י‬‫׳‬‫ה‬‫כ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ) ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ק‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ,(‫ס״ג‬ ‫ט‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ס‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫כ‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ק‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬‫י‬‫פ‬‫א‬‫ו‬ , ‫ץ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬‫נ‬‫ו‬ ‫היין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ (‫ד‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ד‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬‫ס‬) . ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ,‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ז‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ל‬ ( ‫א‬ ‫״‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬
  • 143. 134 Chapter Fourteen 3. If Tishi B'av is on a Sunday, and one forgot to make mention of havdalah in the amidah, he need not repeat it, as he will make havdala!1 anyhow on the night following Tisha B'av (ibid). 4. Whenever the ruling is that one is not required to repeat the amidah if he forgot to say hdvdalah in the blessing of atah chonan, he not repeat the blessing if he recalled his mistake immediately on completing it, even if he hadn't yet begun the following blessing. But should he wish to be stringent and repeat the blessing, he must first complete the entire amidah and then repeat it again from the beginning. Nevertheless, his second amidah can be reckoned as no more than a voluntary one (ibid, Be'ar Haytav). 5. The havdalah procedure is wine, spices, and candle. Care should be taken not to use wine that is 'marred', which can be remedied by adding some wine or water to it, as mentioned earlier (chap. 296). But if the wine had been left exposed for a lengthy duration, it can never be made fit for use again. 6. If one has no wine, he may pronounce the havdalah over beer or chamar medinah as well as other beverages, excluding water (ibid). Ramah - if no other wine is available, it is preferred to make havdalah over a 'marred' cup of wine, than to use beer (ibid). 7. Havdalah cannot be made over bread. If Yom-Tov was on motzai Shabbat and kiddush was being pronounced over the challot, some opinions state that he may then pronounce the havdalah over the bread along with the kiddush, while others claim that it is preferred that he say both over beer. Ramah ‫־‬ and the first opinion is to be followed. Nevertheless, the Birkat Yosef rules, basing his decision on the Darchai Moshe, that the second opinion is the conclusive one, see there (chap. 296). 8. If one has neither wine, beer, or any other beverage, but expects to find one of them the following day, he may not eat until
  • 144. ‫יד‬ ‫סימן‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ן‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) . ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫פ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ,‫ר‬‫ז‬‫ו‬‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ק‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ד‬‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ , ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫ד‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫ר‬‫ו‬‫ז‬‫ח‬‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ם‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ס‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ט‬ ‫״‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ) . ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ד‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ך‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫״‬‫נ‬‫ב‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫יין‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .(‫רצ״ו‬ ‫)סי׳‬ .‫ם‬‫ו‬‫ג‬‫פ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ .‫ל‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ .‫ל‬‫י‬‫ע‬‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫כ‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬‫ו‬‫ט‬‫ו‬ , ‫ה‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ה‬ .(‫)שם‬ .‫ם‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬ ‫ץ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ן‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ר‬‫כ‬‫ש‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ג‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ו‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ם‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫ב‬‫ו‬ . ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫נ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ו‬‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬‫י‬‫ו‬ .‫ו‬‫י‬‫ל‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫כ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫׳‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ה‬‫ג‬‫ה‬ . ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ד‬ ‫׳‬ ‫ס‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫י‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬‫׳‬‫ר‬‫נ‬ ‫ף‬‫ס‬‫ו‬‫י‬ ‫י‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ע‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ק‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ,‫ר‬‫ק‬‫י‬‫ע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫א‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ר‬) .‫ם‬‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ם‬ ‫י‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ר‬ ‫א‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ר‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬ ‫יין‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫א‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬
  • 145. 136 Havdalah he makes havdalah then. If does not expect to find wine the following day either, he may eat without havdalah, and rely on the havdalah recited during the amidah (inferred from the words of the Beth Yosef, chap. 296). 9. Havdalah is to be recited sitting, while grasping the wine cup in his right hand and the spices in his left. After the blessing on the wine, the spices are switched to the right hand and the wine to the left until after pronouncing the blesing on the spices, when the wine is once more taken up by the right hand and the spices by the left (ibid). 10. If all the members of the household have already heard havdalah earlier in the synagogue, but they did not intend to fulfill their obligation then, they may make havdalah afterward at home. Also, women are obligated to hear havdalah no less than they are obligated to hear kiddush (ibid). 11. A blessing is pronounced over spices only when they are available. Otherwise, there is no requirement to make an effort to obtain them (ibid, 267). 12. A blessing may not be pronounced over spices normally used to aromatize the toilet, corpses, or if they belonged to a non-Jew, since they generally utilize them in their places of worship (ibid). The same applies to those spices mentioned by the Shulchan Aruch in chapter 217, such as deodarants used to dispell body odor, and soaps and spices placed in dishes or clothes to give them a pleasant odor (Ramah). 13. A blessing of minai besamen may be pronounced on freshly- ground pepper (Machzik Brachah, quoting Rishonim and several Achronim, see chap. 297, as well as Kenesset Hagdolah). 14. Whoever does not actually smell them may not pronounce a blessing over the spices, unless he intends to help the other members
  • 146. ‫ד‬‫י‬ ‫ן‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ס‬ 137 ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ . ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ , ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫יין‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬‫ל‬ ‫י‬‫ד‬‫ו‬ . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫א‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫א‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫א‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ף‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬ ‫פ‬ ‫צ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫י‬ ‫א‬ (‫ו‬‫״‬‫צ‬‫ר‬ , ‫י‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫״‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ן‬‫״‬‫ר‬‫מ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫מ‬ ‫מ‬ ) . ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ש‬ , ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ו‬ .‫ב‬‫ש‬‫ו‬‫י‬‫מ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬‫ו‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ב‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ט‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ,‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ (‫ם‬‫ש‬) .‫ו‬‫נ‬‫י‬‫מ‬‫י‬‫ל‬ ‫ן‬‫י‬‫י‬‫ה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫י‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ו‬ , ‫ס‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ו‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ם‬ ‫א‬ , ‫ת‬ ‫ס‬ ‫נ‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫י‬‫נ‬‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ע‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫א‬