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Unit 1 tourism gateway 2
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Unit 1 tourism gateway 2

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GCE O Level Tourism Gateway 2 slides

GCE O Level Tourism Gateway 2 slides

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  • Photo links to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnJws_qdCnw
  • Online countdown timer pagehttp://www.online-stopwatch.com/bar-timer/
  • Link to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kaiHMpEUVuY
  • Ecotourism in Malaysia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdBzOV-mTnA
  • Waitomo caves http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puxf3HlMRCw
  • Grey nomads http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AuXnJ1WvjI0
  • Online countdown timer pagehttp://www.online-stopwatch.com/bar-timer/
  • Tohoku Earthquake http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odMF4YhfZCc
  • Global Economic Crisis explained http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rG1DUn8mMwk
  • Little India riot http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZGhRr8el6ERiots in Egypt http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3xWiBCIxjIkBangkok protest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5zZEuAaAcs
  • SARS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JBagOaneLeoNew Corona virus (SARS-like) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPaSA0r0iQE
  • Online countdown timer pagehttp://www.online-stopwatch.com/bar-timer/
  • Transcript

    • 1. ELECTIVE GEOGRAPHY OUR CHANGING WORLD GLOBAL TOURISM IS TOURISM THE WAY TO GO?
    • 2. GATEWAY 2 WHY HAS TOURISM BECOME A GLOBAL PHENOMENON? • Describe the trends of international and domestic tourism • Describe the changing nature of tourism • Explain the growth of global tourism • Explain why tourism is subject to regional fluctuations
    • 3. CHANGING TRENDS IN TOURISM • Travelling to further destinations • Travelling to destinations once considered unreachable • Changing purposes and nature • Example: emerging trends of ecotourism and medical tourism
    • 4. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM (PG 28) • World tourist arrivals has been increasing • From 1950 to 2010, world tourist arrivals have increased by nearly 1 billion • Before 1980s, Europe was receiving most of the tourists
    • 5. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM (PG 28) • In the 2000s, Asia Pacific overtook North & South America to be the second most visited region • All regions have been experiencing growth in number of tourist arrivals
    • 6. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM: ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS • More than half of all international tourists originate from developed countries in Europe and North America • Increasingly more tourists from rapidly developing countries • Eg: China, India and Brazil
    • 7. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM: ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS • Destinations of tourists are also unevenly distributed • In 2011, Europe received more than half of all international tourists arrivals at 504 million • Asia Pacific is the second highest at 217 million
    • 8. DOMESTIC TOURISM • Most popular form of tourism despite growth of international tourism • In 2010, domestic tourism account for: • 83% of all tourist arrivals • 69% of overnight hotel stays
    • 9. DOMESTIC TOURISM (PG 32) • Eg: China and Philippines • Large percentage of domestic tourism is due to: • Holiday and sightseeing • Visiting family and relatives
    • 10. GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS • Flow line & Desire line maps (pg 30) • Calculating percentage change (pg 33) • Identifying trends or patterns (pg 33)
    • 11. PITSTOP 6 Pg 34 Questions • 1(a), (b) • 2 • 3(a), (b), (c), (d)
    • 12. CHANGING NATURE OF TOURISM • Tourism has been evolving due to: • Improvement in transportation • Growth in income • This has led to the evolution of: • Mass tourism • Package holidays • Niche tourism
    • 13. FORMS OF TOURISM • Mass tourism • Package holidays • Niche tourism • Ecotourism • Short-haul / Long-haul destinations
    • 14. MASS TOURISM • Involves a large number of tourists visiting a place together • Due to increased affluence and leisure time • One form of mass tourism is package holidays
    • 15. PACKAGE HOLIDAYS • Holiday that involves a tour usually arranged by a travel agent • Includes accommodation, transport and most meals • Service of guides who speak local language and is knowledgeable about the sites, habits, culture and history of the place
    • 16. NICHE TOURISM • Special-interest tourism based on particular areas or activities • Done by independent travellers or with package tours • Appeals to tourists who seek ‘new’ destinations, activities and experiences
    • 17. NICHE TOURISM • Examples: • Whale-watching in Hawaii • Whitewater rafting in NZ • WWII historical tour in Europe • Ecotourism is a form of niche tourism
    • 18. ECOTOURISM • TIES - The International Ecotourism Society • Ecotourism - responsible to travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the wellbeing of local people • Six principles of ecotourism
    • 19. ECOTOURISM 1. Minimise impact 2. Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect 3. Provide positive experience for both visitors and hosts (local people)
    • 20. ECOTOURISM 4. Provide direct financial benefits for conservations 5. Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people 6. Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental and social climate
    • 21. ECOTOURISM - EXAMPLE • Waitomo Caves in New Zealand • Glow worms that light up the cave ceiling • Managed by government and the Maori • Close monitoring of carbon dioxide levels (<2,400 parts per million)
    • 22. ECOTOURISM - EXAMPLE • Controls number of tourists • Benefits the Maoris who are employed as part of staff and who also receive part of the cave’s entrance fees
    • 23. SHORT & LONG-HAUL DESTINATIONS • Tourism can also be classified into short and long-haul destinations • Short – destination reachable by car, bus, train, or flight less than 5 hours (S’pore to Hong Kong) • Long – generally flights of 5 hours or more (S’pore to Europe)
    • 24. REASONS FOR GROWTH OF GLOBAL TOURISM • Developments in technology • Demand factors • Destination factors
    • 25. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – BETTER & AFFORDABLE TRANSPORT • Technology developments applied to transport: • improved travel safety • shortened travel time • lowered travel costs
    • 26. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – BETTER & AFFORDABLE TRANSPORT • Budget airlines • Cheaper than major commercial lines due to smaller and more fuel-efficient aircraft • Fly mainly short-haul • Tickets sold online and not through agents, lower costs
    • 27. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – BETTER & AFFORDABLE TRANSPORT • Eg: Jetstar Asia, Tiger Airways • More people can travel, and more frequently • Opportunities to travel further away from home • Go to destinations not covered by major airlines, eg Bhutan, Corsica
    • 28. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – MORE AIR ROUTES & AGREEMENTS • Increased air routes have made various parts of the world more accessible • Interconnectedness between countries have also increased
    • 29. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – MORE AIR ROUTES & AGREEMENTS • Open skies agreement • • Agreement between governments to remove restrictions on commercial flights between their countries Deregulation or airline industry • Allow fares to rise and fall based on market demand and competition between airline companies
    • 30. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – MORE AIR ROUTES & AGREEMENTS • Effect of agreement and deregulation • Growth of air routes and flights • Increased number of commercial airline companies and budget airlines • Reduced prices of flights for passengers
    • 31. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – EASY ACCESS TO INFORMATION • Online booking and research • • • • Easier to obtain tickets More options and control for tourists Able to do more research on destinations before travelling Surveillance, electronic checks and other safety controls research • Increased safety and confidence about travelling
    • 32. DEMAND FACTORS – DISPOSABLE INCOME • Disposable income – amount of income after taxes • Increasing disposable income due to rapid economic growth (eg China and India) • More money to spend on leisure activities, ie travelling
    • 33. DEMAND FACTORS – LEISURE TIME • Leisure time – part of the day with no work commitment • Can be in the form of paid leave • Having more public holidays and shorter working weeks increases availability of leisure time
    • 34. DEMAND FACTORS – CHANGING LIFESTYLE • Changing lifestyle – change in the way people live throughout their lifetime • Faster pace of life today • Travelling is a common way to relax and take a break from work
    • 35. DEMAND FACTORS – CHANGING LIFESTYLE • Due to medical technology and increase in health consciousness, people live longer and are physically fit to travel • More retirees travel as a way to spend their time • Eg: Grey nomads in Australia
    • 36. DESTINATION FACTORS ATTRACTIONS • Tourists are more likely to visit places with attractions • Attractions can be scenic, manmade, rich culture or purpose-built facilities (recall previous topic) • Attractions can be promoted by the government or tourist authorities in hope that tourists will return repeatedly
    • 37. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Investment in infrastructure and services is to support expected growth in tourist arrivals • Good infrastructure and service support also makes a place more attractive to tourists
    • 38. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Infrastructure • • • • Transport and communication networks, systems for water and waste disposal Eg: S’pore Changi Airport Closed down Budget Terminal to build Terminal 4 by 2017 Increase capacity from 73 million to 85 million
    • 39. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Infrastructure • • • Accommodation in the form of fivestar hotels to backpacker hostels and homestays Eg: Hong Kong will add 49 hotels to its current 189 by 2016 Increase capacity from 42 million to 70 million a year
    • 40. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Services • • • Help or work provided by businesses to customers Eg: free Wi-Fi in hotel rooms Eg: trained guides, travel agents, hotel managers
    • 41. DESTINATION FACTORS – ACCESS TO INFORMATION • Tourists are more likely to visit a destination where information is easy to obtain • Eg: Weather, travel routes, accommodation availability • Information should be in a language tourists can understand
    • 42. DESTINATION FACTORS – ACCESS TO INFORMATION • Signs in languages that visitors can understand provide security and comfort to them • Local guides and travel agents with knowledge of history, geography and culture of location can enhance the tourists’ experience
    • 43. PITSTOP 8 Pg 45 Questions • 3(a), (b) • 4(a), (b) • 8(a), (b)
    • 44. TOURISM AFFECTED REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS • Refers to rapid changes in a region’s situation or condition • May directly lead to changes in tourist numbers • • • • Disasters Regional / Global recessions Unfavourable political situations Outbreak of diseases
    • 45. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS DISASTERS • Events that cause great damage to properties, injuries and loss of lives • Poses risks to tourists’ safety • Disrupt essential infrastructure • Watch the video on Japan, Tohoku Earthquake in 2011 and suggest the impacts it could have on tourism in Japan.
    • 46. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS DISASTERS • Earthquake, followed by tsunami • Disruption of services: govt buildings, air terminal, ports, train services disrupted • Damage to infrastructure: roads damaged, oil refinery & nuclear plant, airport submerged • What is the effect of this news report on tourism of Japan?
    • 47. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • A period of slowdown in economic activities • People experience loss of income or jobs • Will cut back on spending, less likely to travel overseas • Fewer international tourists
    • 48. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • Recession may cause more tourists to opt for domestic tourism • A more affordable option than international tourism • Spend less on transportation • Domestic tourism helps to boost country’s own economy during the recession
    • 49. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • Eg: European Sovereign Debt Crisis (Regional Recession) • 2010 – Greece unable to repay government debt • Followed by Ireland, Portugal and Spain • Affects other countries that use the Euro as their currency • Collapse of financial institutions & businesses, massive unemployment
    • 50. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • Eg: Global Financial Crisis (Global Recession) • 2007, 2008 – World’s largest financial firms went bankrupt • Due to loss of investments in the crash of USA housing market • Triggered panic in financial institutions around the world • Caused economies to slow down or shrink
    • 51. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – UNFAVOURABLE POLITICAL SITUATIONS • Eg: War, civil war, political riots • Poses a danger to residents as well as tourists • May cause disruptions to services and damage to infrastructure • Discourages tourists from travelling • Governments may issue travel advisories to discourage their citizens from travelling • Who else will issue travel advisories?
    • 52. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – UNFAVOURABLE POLITICAL SITUATIONS • Examples – Little India, Egypt and Bangkok • What effects will these activities have on the surrounding environment? • What kind of impact does it have on the tourism of the country?
    • 53. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES • A sudden and widespread occurrence of disease in an area • Discourages tourists from travelling, do not want to risk getting infected • May cause cancellation of large-scale MICE activities • Governments may issue travel advisories to discourage their citizens from travelling • Travel advisories may also be issued from international organisations eg. WHO
    • 54. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES • Eg: SARS in HK, Singapore (2003) • Infected 8,000 in 25 countries and killed 775 • Eg: H1N1 Influenza outbreak (USA, Mexico, Spain) • Widespread cancellation of bookings by tourists from USA, Canada and Europe
    • 55. CHECKPOINT Pg 53 Questions • 2 • 6 • 10 (Open-ended question) • 12 (Open-ended question) • 13 (a), (b) • 14 (a), (b)