Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Unit 1 tourism gateway 2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Unit 1 tourism gateway 2


Published on

GCE O Level Tourism Gateway 2 slides

GCE O Level Tourism Gateway 2 slides

Published in: Education

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Photo links to
  • Online countdown timer page
  • Link to
  • Ecotourism in Malaysia
  • Waitomo caves
  • Grey nomads
  • Online countdown timer page
  • Tohoku Earthquake
  • Global Economic Crisis explained
  • Little India riot in Egypt protest
  • SARS Corona virus (SARS-like)
  • Online countdown timer page
  • Transcript

    • 2. GATEWAY 2 WHY HAS TOURISM BECOME A GLOBAL PHENOMENON? • Describe the trends of international and domestic tourism • Describe the changing nature of tourism • Explain the growth of global tourism • Explain why tourism is subject to regional fluctuations
    • 3. CHANGING TRENDS IN TOURISM • Travelling to further destinations • Travelling to destinations once considered unreachable • Changing purposes and nature • Example: emerging trends of ecotourism and medical tourism
    • 4. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM (PG 28) • World tourist arrivals has been increasing • From 1950 to 2010, world tourist arrivals have increased by nearly 1 billion • Before 1980s, Europe was receiving most of the tourists
    • 5. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM (PG 28) • In the 2000s, Asia Pacific overtook North & South America to be the second most visited region • All regions have been experiencing growth in number of tourist arrivals
    • 6. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM: ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS • More than half of all international tourists originate from developed countries in Europe and North America • Increasingly more tourists from rapidly developing countries • Eg: China, India and Brazil
    • 7. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM: ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS • Destinations of tourists are also unevenly distributed • In 2011, Europe received more than half of all international tourists arrivals at 504 million • Asia Pacific is the second highest at 217 million
    • 8. DOMESTIC TOURISM • Most popular form of tourism despite growth of international tourism • In 2010, domestic tourism account for: • 83% of all tourist arrivals • 69% of overnight hotel stays
    • 9. DOMESTIC TOURISM (PG 32) • Eg: China and Philippines • Large percentage of domestic tourism is due to: • Holiday and sightseeing • Visiting family and relatives
    • 10. GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS • Flow line & Desire line maps (pg 30) • Calculating percentage change (pg 33) • Identifying trends or patterns (pg 33)
    • 11. PITSTOP 6 Pg 34 Questions • 1(a), (b) • 2 • 3(a), (b), (c), (d)
    • 12. CHANGING NATURE OF TOURISM • Tourism has been evolving due to: • Improvement in transportation • Growth in income • This has led to the evolution of: • Mass tourism • Package holidays • Niche tourism
    • 13. FORMS OF TOURISM • Mass tourism • Package holidays • Niche tourism • Ecotourism • Short-haul / Long-haul destinations
    • 14. MASS TOURISM • Involves a large number of tourists visiting a place together • Due to increased affluence and leisure time • One form of mass tourism is package holidays
    • 15. PACKAGE HOLIDAYS • Holiday that involves a tour usually arranged by a travel agent • Includes accommodation, transport and most meals • Service of guides who speak local language and is knowledgeable about the sites, habits, culture and history of the place
    • 16. NICHE TOURISM • Special-interest tourism based on particular areas or activities • Done by independent travellers or with package tours • Appeals to tourists who seek ‘new’ destinations, activities and experiences
    • 17. NICHE TOURISM • Examples: • Whale-watching in Hawaii • Whitewater rafting in NZ • WWII historical tour in Europe • Ecotourism is a form of niche tourism
    • 18. ECOTOURISM • TIES - The International Ecotourism Society • Ecotourism - responsible to travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the wellbeing of local people • Six principles of ecotourism
    • 19. ECOTOURISM 1. Minimise impact 2. Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect 3. Provide positive experience for both visitors and hosts (local people)
    • 20. ECOTOURISM 4. Provide direct financial benefits for conservations 5. Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people 6. Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental and social climate
    • 21. ECOTOURISM - EXAMPLE • Waitomo Caves in New Zealand • Glow worms that light up the cave ceiling • Managed by government and the Maori • Close monitoring of carbon dioxide levels (<2,400 parts per million)
    • 22. ECOTOURISM - EXAMPLE • Controls number of tourists • Benefits the Maoris who are employed as part of staff and who also receive part of the cave’s entrance fees
    • 23. SHORT & LONG-HAUL DESTINATIONS • Tourism can also be classified into short and long-haul destinations • Short – destination reachable by car, bus, train, or flight less than 5 hours (S’pore to Hong Kong) • Long – generally flights of 5 hours or more (S’pore to Europe)
    • 24. REASONS FOR GROWTH OF GLOBAL TOURISM • Developments in technology • Demand factors • Destination factors
    • 25. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – BETTER & AFFORDABLE TRANSPORT • Technology developments applied to transport: • improved travel safety • shortened travel time • lowered travel costs
    • 26. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – BETTER & AFFORDABLE TRANSPORT • Budget airlines • Cheaper than major commercial lines due to smaller and more fuel-efficient aircraft • Fly mainly short-haul • Tickets sold online and not through agents, lower costs
    • 27. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – BETTER & AFFORDABLE TRANSPORT • Eg: Jetstar Asia, Tiger Airways • More people can travel, and more frequently • Opportunities to travel further away from home • Go to destinations not covered by major airlines, eg Bhutan, Corsica
    • 28. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – MORE AIR ROUTES & AGREEMENTS • Increased air routes have made various parts of the world more accessible • Interconnectedness between countries have also increased
    • 29. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – MORE AIR ROUTES & AGREEMENTS • Open skies agreement • • Agreement between governments to remove restrictions on commercial flights between their countries Deregulation or airline industry • Allow fares to rise and fall based on market demand and competition between airline companies
    • 30. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – MORE AIR ROUTES & AGREEMENTS • Effect of agreement and deregulation • Growth of air routes and flights • Increased number of commercial airline companies and budget airlines • Reduced prices of flights for passengers
    • 31. DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY – EASY ACCESS TO INFORMATION • Online booking and research • • • • Easier to obtain tickets More options and control for tourists Able to do more research on destinations before travelling Surveillance, electronic checks and other safety controls research • Increased safety and confidence about travelling
    • 32. DEMAND FACTORS – DISPOSABLE INCOME • Disposable income – amount of income after taxes • Increasing disposable income due to rapid economic growth (eg China and India) • More money to spend on leisure activities, ie travelling
    • 33. DEMAND FACTORS – LEISURE TIME • Leisure time – part of the day with no work commitment • Can be in the form of paid leave • Having more public holidays and shorter working weeks increases availability of leisure time
    • 34. DEMAND FACTORS – CHANGING LIFESTYLE • Changing lifestyle – change in the way people live throughout their lifetime • Faster pace of life today • Travelling is a common way to relax and take a break from work
    • 35. DEMAND FACTORS – CHANGING LIFESTYLE • Due to medical technology and increase in health consciousness, people live longer and are physically fit to travel • More retirees travel as a way to spend their time • Eg: Grey nomads in Australia
    • 36. DESTINATION FACTORS ATTRACTIONS • Tourists are more likely to visit places with attractions • Attractions can be scenic, manmade, rich culture or purpose-built facilities (recall previous topic) • Attractions can be promoted by the government or tourist authorities in hope that tourists will return repeatedly
    • 37. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Investment in infrastructure and services is to support expected growth in tourist arrivals • Good infrastructure and service support also makes a place more attractive to tourists
    • 38. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Infrastructure • • • • Transport and communication networks, systems for water and waste disposal Eg: S’pore Changi Airport Closed down Budget Terminal to build Terminal 4 by 2017 Increase capacity from 73 million to 85 million
    • 39. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Infrastructure • • • Accommodation in the form of fivestar hotels to backpacker hostels and homestays Eg: Hong Kong will add 49 hotels to its current 189 by 2016 Increase capacity from 42 million to 70 million a year
    • 40. DESTINATION FACTORS – INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES • Services • • • Help or work provided by businesses to customers Eg: free Wi-Fi in hotel rooms Eg: trained guides, travel agents, hotel managers
    • 41. DESTINATION FACTORS – ACCESS TO INFORMATION • Tourists are more likely to visit a destination where information is easy to obtain • Eg: Weather, travel routes, accommodation availability • Information should be in a language tourists can understand
    • 42. DESTINATION FACTORS – ACCESS TO INFORMATION • Signs in languages that visitors can understand provide security and comfort to them • Local guides and travel agents with knowledge of history, geography and culture of location can enhance the tourists’ experience
    • 43. PITSTOP 8 Pg 45 Questions • 3(a), (b) • 4(a), (b) • 8(a), (b)
    • 44. TOURISM AFFECTED REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS • Refers to rapid changes in a region’s situation or condition • May directly lead to changes in tourist numbers • • • • Disasters Regional / Global recessions Unfavourable political situations Outbreak of diseases
    • 45. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS DISASTERS • Events that cause great damage to properties, injuries and loss of lives • Poses risks to tourists’ safety • Disrupt essential infrastructure • Watch the video on Japan, Tohoku Earthquake in 2011 and suggest the impacts it could have on tourism in Japan.
    • 46. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS DISASTERS • Earthquake, followed by tsunami • Disruption of services: govt buildings, air terminal, ports, train services disrupted • Damage to infrastructure: roads damaged, oil refinery & nuclear plant, airport submerged • What is the effect of this news report on tourism of Japan?
    • 47. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • A period of slowdown in economic activities • People experience loss of income or jobs • Will cut back on spending, less likely to travel overseas • Fewer international tourists
    • 48. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • Recession may cause more tourists to opt for domestic tourism • A more affordable option than international tourism • Spend less on transportation • Domestic tourism helps to boost country’s own economy during the recession
    • 49. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • Eg: European Sovereign Debt Crisis (Regional Recession) • 2010 – Greece unable to repay government debt • Followed by Ireland, Portugal and Spain • Affects other countries that use the Euro as their currency • Collapse of financial institutions & businesses, massive unemployment
    • 50. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – REGIONAL & GLOBAL RECESSIONS • Eg: Global Financial Crisis (Global Recession) • 2007, 2008 – World’s largest financial firms went bankrupt • Due to loss of investments in the crash of USA housing market • Triggered panic in financial institutions around the world • Caused economies to slow down or shrink
    • 51. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – UNFAVOURABLE POLITICAL SITUATIONS • Eg: War, civil war, political riots • Poses a danger to residents as well as tourists • May cause disruptions to services and damage to infrastructure • Discourages tourists from travelling • Governments may issue travel advisories to discourage their citizens from travelling • Who else will issue travel advisories?
    • 52. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – UNFAVOURABLE POLITICAL SITUATIONS • Examples – Little India, Egypt and Bangkok • What effects will these activities have on the surrounding environment? • What kind of impact does it have on the tourism of the country?
    • 53. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES • A sudden and widespread occurrence of disease in an area • Discourages tourists from travelling, do not want to risk getting infected • May cause cancellation of large-scale MICE activities • Governments may issue travel advisories to discourage their citizens from travelling • Travel advisories may also be issued from international organisations eg. WHO
    • 54. REGIONAL FLUCTUATIONS – OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES • Eg: SARS in HK, Singapore (2003) • Infected 8,000 in 25 countries and killed 775 • Eg: H1N1 Influenza outbreak (USA, Mexico, Spain) • Widespread cancellation of bookings by tourists from USA, Canada and Europe
    • 55. CHECKPOINT Pg 53 Questions • 2 • 6 • 10 (Open-ended question) • 12 (Open-ended question) • 13 (a), (b) • 14 (a), (b)