Part 3
Landforms commonly associated at
tectonic boundaries
Fold Mountains
Fold Mountains
• The rock layers on the crust are
constantly exposed to pressure
• When they are compressed, they
fold, fo...
Fold Mountains
• The major ranges are along
convergent plate boundaries
• The rocky mountains
• Himalayas
• Swiss Alps
• P...
Rift Valleys /
Grabens
Rift Valleys
• Near divergent plate boundaries, plates pull
apart, causing land displacement.
• The downward displacement ...
Rift Valley diagram
Block Mountains / Horst
Yosemite National Park
Block Mountains
• When sections of the crust are pulled
apart by tensional force, some parts are
ripped off.
• The downwar...
Block Mountain diagram
Volcanoes
Volcanoes
• Landform formed by magma ejected from the
mantle.
• Magma builds up in the earth’s crust to form a
magma chamb...
• Vents are openings in the earth’s surface
with a pipe leading into the magma
chamber
• When magma is ejected onto the
su...
Let’s take a short Brain Break
• Take a look at the
video on Mt St
Helens in America
• Half the volcano
was blown off in t...
Viscosity
• The stickiness of the lava
• The resistance of the lava to flowing
• High viscosity flows slowly
• Low viscosi...
2 Key types of Volcanoes
1.Shield Volcanoes
2.Composite Volcanoes
(Stratovolcanoes)
Shield Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
• Gentle sloping sides and a broad
summit
• Low-silica lava (low viscosity) present
• Lava flow is fast, ...
Stratovolcanoes
Stratovolcano
• Developed from successive eruptions.
• Ash and lava (coarse fragment) accumulate over
time.
• Layers of as...
Mt Pinatubo
Distribution of volcanoes
• Pacific Ring of Fire is the most active volcanic
activity occurs
• Many earthquakes and volcan...
Pacific Ring of Fire
Volcanic Eruptions
• Volcanoes fall into 3 states
–Active
–Dormant
–Extinct
Active Volcano
• Constant volcanic activity
• Currently undergoing eruption or
are expected to erupt in the
future.
• Mt P...
Dormant Volcano
• Currently inactive but may erupt
in the near future
• Prolonged period of no volcanic
activity
• Inner m...
Extinct Volcano
• Volcanoes without current seismic
activity
• No geological evidence of eruption in
the past thousands of...
Risks of living near volcanic areas
1.Destruction by volcanic
materials
2.Landslides
3.Pollution
4.Effects on weather
Destruction by volcanic materials
• Lava, rock fragments, volcanic bombs (ejected
molten lava blobs)
• Extreme temperature...
The loss people of Pompei
Landslides
• Collapse of a volcanic cone during eruption.
• Downward displacement of previous slide of
volcano.
• Causes l...
Landslide
Pollution
• Ash particles and gases released disrupt
human activities over long distances.
• Some gases (Carbon monoxide, ...
Pollution
Effects on weather
• Sulphur dioxide reacts with water vapour in
the atmosphere.
• The particles reflect the sun’s energy ...
Let’s attempt an exercise on what we
have covered.
• 15 - 20 minutes,
• Complete all the questions in
Foolscap / space pro...
Earthquakes
• Caused by sudden release of stored
energy due to movements of crustal
plates.
• Occurs along faultlines as p...
Key Earthquake Terms
• Seismic waves – energy that is released
by earthquakes.
• Focus – the point in the crustal plate
wh...
• Aftershocks
–subsequent smaller earthquakes that follow
after a major earthquake.
–Could continue to occur months after ...
Depth of Focus
• The depth of focus affects the
impact felt on the surface.
• 2 key types
1. Deep-focus earthquakes
2. Sha...
Depth of focus
• Deep-focus earthquake
–70 to 700km below surface
–Smaller impact on land
–Most of seismic waves lose thei...
Depth of focus
• Shallow-focus earthquake
–70km and above in the crust
–Greater impact on land
–Seismic waves reach surfac...
Measurement of earthquakes
• Richter scale
9?? Destruction impacts thousands of kilometers of land
Factors affecting earthquake damage
• Population Density
• Level of Preparedness
• Distance from epicentre
• Time of occur...
Population density
– High population density affects more people
– Tendency for high-rise buildings increases damage
– Hig...
Level of preparedness
• Proper public training and social
awareness leads to less panic
• Repeated practice of emergency
e...
Earthquake Preparedness
Distance from the epicentre
• Seismic energy weakens as the
distance increases from the
epicentre.
• Locations further awa...
Time of occurance
• Time of earthquake determines what
people are doing and whether they are
able to react.
• At night, pe...
Type of soil
• Loose and unconsolidated (not packed
tightly) soil move more in times of an
earthquake.
• Impact on the bui...
Earthquake zones
• Tendency for earthquakes to occur
along crustal plate margins.
• Tendency for earthquakes to be
caused ...
Earthquake Zones
Hazards of living in earthquake zones
• Tsunamis
• Disruption of services
• Fire
• Landslides
• Loss of lives
• Loss of pr...
Tsunamis
• Tsunami – an unusually large sea wave
• Formed by sudden movement of sea floor
• Possible causes
– Earthquakes ...
Tsunamis
• As the displaced water moves, it gathers
strength and size.
• When it hits the coast, large destruction is
resu...
Disruption of services
• Loss of electricity, gas and water leads to
loss of essential services.
• Broken pipelines also r...
Fire
• Earthquakes at timings where meals are
prepared raise risk of fires.
• Gas pipes and electric cables that are
broke...
Landslides
• Shaking of earthquakes loosen soil.
• Along slopes and hills, original vegetation
may no longer be able to ho...
Destruction of property and
Loss of lives
• Earthquakes destroy homes and buildings that
are not earthquake proof.
• Large...
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  • Click on picture to watch 2 min vid on top 10 active volcanoes in the world
  • Watch 6min vid on Mt St Helen eruption 1980s.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-H_HZVY1tT4
  • Honey – high viscosity
    Water – low viscosity
  • Watch video on Mt Pinatubo eruption Human impact

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQzGjGKdGvQ (4 min)

    Or


  • Watch video on Pacific ring of fire (10 mins)

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqSJDNi7Qzw
  • Watch 2.25 min video footage of the plaster cast people of Pompei

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P352045O-o

    Highlight that these people were instantly turned into plaster casts by the pyroclastic flow.
  • Watch video on the landslide after Mt St Helen’s eruption

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UK--hvgP2uY

    2 min vid
  • Watch FOX news rpt on Iceland volcanic eruption grounding flights
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCWp1fGP_6M
    3 mins
    AlJazeera clip on Heathrow opening and passengers stranded in SGP flying back
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfcTMlP5UTA
  • Issue Ex 5 on the negative effects of living near a volcano
  • Watch view of destruction post earthquake in Christchurch
    (2min)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opsiKirDfdE
    News report on Christchurch massive quake (response by gvt)
    (1:30 min)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBq1-qZWmhM

  • Watch NZ video on Earthquake Preparedness
    (4min)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-a7T9Uf-JB4
  • Watch clip on tremors in SGP (who is our buffer?) Indonesia!

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Eb8xYbF_Po
  • Watch video of damage of 7.2 Christchurch earthquake 2011. End of vid, ask students to think if it had happened in the middle of the night, what might the death toll be looking at the look of the damage in the video?

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlykXk82BlY

    (3min)
  • Watch short clip on liquefaction (45 secs)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmVYbjiNWds

    Alternate vid (forward to 50s) to watch the video of liquefaction.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwvvYxSZ7PI
  • Pic on left (vid) that shows 2004 Tsunami at Thailand
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntIwawAusDE

    Pic on right (vid) of Bandar Aceh (initial earthquake and subsequent tsunami) 7 min. Worth watching!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ht_ZpSuJ6A4
  • Watch 3 min vid on Japanese earthquake
    http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/jan-17-1995-earthquake-japan-9421417

    #nightearthquake #fire #JapanEarthquake #destruction
  • Tectonics preparedness slides

    1. 1. Part 3 Landforms commonly associated at tectonic boundaries
    2. 2. Fold Mountains
    3. 3. Fold Mountains • The rock layers on the crust are constantly exposed to pressure • When they are compressed, they fold, forming fold mountains. • To upfold is called the anticline and downfold is called the syncline.
    4. 4. Fold Mountains • The major ranges are along convergent plate boundaries • The rocky mountains • Himalayas • Swiss Alps • Pg 22
    5. 5. Rift Valleys / Grabens
    6. 6. Rift Valleys • Near divergent plate boundaries, plates pull apart, causing land displacement. • The downward displacement forms rift valleys. • Found commonly along divergent boundaries • Also called Graben • East African Rift Valley
    7. 7. Rift Valley diagram
    8. 8. Block Mountains / Horst Yosemite National Park
    9. 9. Block Mountains • When sections of the crust are pulled apart by tensional force, some parts are ripped off. • The downward displaced areas are the rift valleys • The blocks left behind form block mountains with steep sides. • Also called Horst
    10. 10. Block Mountain diagram
    11. 11. Volcanoes
    12. 12. Volcanoes • Landform formed by magma ejected from the mantle. • Magma builds up in the earth’s crust to form a magma chamber. • With repeated layering of ejected magma, the volcano grows in height • Found a divergent and convergent plate boundaries where there is subduction.
    13. 13. • Vents are openings in the earth’s surface with a pipe leading into the magma chamber • When magma is ejected onto the surface, it is called lava. There is no change in composition. • Vulcanicity refers to the upward movement of magma in the crust and onto the surface.
    14. 14. Let’s take a short Brain Break • Take a look at the video on Mt St Helens in America • Half the volcano was blown off in the eruption
    15. 15. Viscosity • The stickiness of the lava • The resistance of the lava to flowing • High viscosity flows slowly • Low viscosity flows quickly • Viscosity of the lava determines the volcano’s shape
    16. 16. 2 Key types of Volcanoes 1.Shield Volcanoes 2.Composite Volcanoes (Stratovolcanoes)
    17. 17. Shield Volcanoes
    18. 18. Shield Volcanoes • Gentle sloping sides and a broad summit • Low-silica lava (low viscosity) present • Lava flow is fast, spreading out quickly • Subsequent layering leads to wide base with low overall height. • Mount Washington in America
    19. 19. Stratovolcanoes
    20. 20. Stratovolcano • Developed from successive eruptions. • Ash and lava (coarse fragment) accumulate over time. • Layers of ash are locked in by subsequent layers of lava. • Tall volcanoes with concave bases formed. • Secondary cones may develop as magma from the vent seeps into the sides of the cone and erupts. • Pyroclastic flow common – Hot rock fragments and superheated gases. • Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
    21. 21. Mt Pinatubo
    22. 22. Distribution of volcanoes • Pacific Ring of Fire is the most active volcanic activity occurs • Many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur along the ring of fire • Ring is along several converging plates (Pacific, Nazca, Philippines, Australian and Eurasian plates) • Volcanoes can also form where plates diverge. • Pg 29
    23. 23. Pacific Ring of Fire
    24. 24. Volcanic Eruptions • Volcanoes fall into 3 states –Active –Dormant –Extinct
    25. 25. Active Volcano • Constant volcanic activity • Currently undergoing eruption or are expected to erupt in the future. • Mt Pinatubo, Philippines; Mt St Helens, America.
    26. 26. Dormant Volcano • Currently inactive but may erupt in the near future • Prolonged period of no volcanic activity • Inner magma chamber still hot and active • Mt Fuji, Japan
    27. 27. Extinct Volcano • Volcanoes without current seismic activity • No geological evidence of eruption in the past thousands of years. • Almost no risk of eruption. • Lake Toba, Indonesia
    28. 28. Risks of living near volcanic areas 1.Destruction by volcanic materials 2.Landslides 3.Pollution 4.Effects on weather
    29. 29. Destruction by volcanic materials • Lava, rock fragments, volcanic bombs (ejected molten lava blobs) • Extreme temperatures of projectiles and lava flow, destroying and killing. • Inhaling hot gases and ash can also lead to injury and death. • With pyroclastic flow, speeds above 80km/hr can be achieved, making it impossible to escape.
    30. 30. The loss people of Pompei
    31. 31. Landslides • Collapse of a volcanic cone during eruption. • Downward displacement of previous slide of volcano. • Causes large scale damage to infrastructure and loss of life. • Settlements near the volcano may get wiped out totally.
    32. 32. Landslide
    33. 33. Pollution • Ash particles and gases released disrupt human activities over long distances. • Some gases (Carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, etc) are harmful to humans • Fine ash particles captured in the air endanger planes and cause large monetary loss due to grounding of flights.
    34. 34. Pollution
    35. 35. Effects on weather • Sulphur dioxide reacts with water vapour in the atmosphere. • The particles reflect the sun’s energy back into space. • This leads to a cooling of surface temperatures on earth. • Fall in global temperature might affect plant and animal life.
    36. 36. Let’s attempt an exercise on what we have covered. • 15 - 20 minutes, • Complete all the questions in Foolscap / space provided • Good luck
    37. 37. Earthquakes • Caused by sudden release of stored energy due to movements of crustal plates. • Occurs along faultlines as pressure builds up stress and when the plates slip, earthquakes are formed.
    38. 38. Key Earthquake Terms • Seismic waves – energy that is released by earthquakes. • Focus – the point in the crustal plate where the seismic energy originates. • Epicentre – point above the Focus on earth’s surface. Most of the energy released travels along the surface of the earth.
    39. 39. • Aftershocks –subsequent smaller earthquakes that follow after a major earthquake. –Could continue to occur months after the initial earthquake. –Some aftershocks might be as powerful as the original earthquake.
    40. 40. Depth of Focus • The depth of focus affects the impact felt on the surface. • 2 key types 1. Deep-focus earthquakes 2. Shallow-focus earthquakes
    41. 41. Depth of focus • Deep-focus earthquake –70 to 700km below surface –Smaller impact on land –Most of seismic waves lose their energy as they reach the surface.
    42. 42. Depth of focus • Shallow-focus earthquake –70km and above in the crust –Greater impact on land –Seismic waves reach surface quickly and with more energy.
    43. 43. Measurement of earthquakes • Richter scale 9?? Destruction impacts thousands of kilometers of land
    44. 44. Factors affecting earthquake damage • Population Density • Level of Preparedness • Distance from epicentre • Time of occurance • Soil type
    45. 45. Population density – High population density affects more people – Tendency for high-rise buildings increases damage – Higher literarcy rate in cities mean higher chance of better preparedness. • Higher chance of survival • Better evacuation plans, trained rescue workers.
    46. 46. Level of preparedness • Proper public training and social awareness leads to less panic • Repeated practice of emergency exercise leads to familiarity of action • Emergency preparedness kits raise possibility of survival
    47. 47. Earthquake Preparedness
    48. 48. Distance from the epicentre • Seismic energy weakens as the distance increases from the epicentre. • Locations further away from the epicentre suffer less from the earthquake.
    49. 49. Time of occurance • Time of earthquake determines what people are doing and whether they are able to react. • At night, people are asleep. There is less time to react. • In the day, survivors of an earthquake are able to avoid subsequent accidents.
    50. 50. Type of soil • Loose and unconsolidated (not packed tightly) soil move more in times of an earthquake. • Impact on the buildings on the surface is greater. Damage is often worse. • Liquefaction – loose soil flowing like water. • Danger of landslides after earthquakes cause more harm.
    51. 51. Earthquake zones • Tendency for earthquakes to occur along crustal plate margins. • Tendency for earthquakes to be caused when subduction along destructive plates or slipping of transform plates
    52. 52. Earthquake Zones
    53. 53. Hazards of living in earthquake zones • Tsunamis • Disruption of services • Fire • Landslides • Loss of lives • Loss of property
    54. 54. Tsunamis • Tsunami – an unusually large sea wave • Formed by sudden movement of sea floor • Possible causes – Earthquakes at subduction zones – Explosive underwater volcano eruption – Underwater landslide – Large coastal landslides
    55. 55. Tsunamis • As the displaced water moves, it gathers strength and size. • When it hits the coast, large destruction is resulted.
    56. 56. Disruption of services • Loss of electricity, gas and water leads to loss of essential services. • Broken pipelines also raise the risk of explosions. • Roads and railway destruction make it harder to send aid.
    57. 57. Fire • Earthquakes at timings where meals are prepared raise risk of fires. • Gas pipes and electric cables that are broken lead to fire risk. • Urban areas are densely populated, hence larger fire risk.
    58. 58. Landslides • Shaking of earthquakes loosen soil. • Along slopes and hills, original vegetation may no longer be able to hold soil. • Landslides and mudflows cause large damage. • Heavy rainfall after earthquakes raise the risk of landslides.
    59. 59. Destruction of property and Loss of lives • Earthquakes destroy homes and buildings that are not earthquake proof. • Large amount of money needs to be spent to rebuild the property. • Urban areas with more infrastructure (roads, subways) cause even more money to repair.

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