According to Worthen and Sanders, (1987) all curricula to be effective must have element of evaluation.
Tuckman defines evaluation as meeting the goals and matching them with the intended outcomes.
Curriculum evaluation may refer to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, product of the curriculum.
The most widely used is Stufflebeam’s CIPP (Content, Input, Product, Process) Model.
The context refers to the environment of the curriculum. Input refers to the ingredients of the curriculum which include the goal, instructional strategies, the learners the teachers the contents and all the materials needed. Product indicates if the curriculum accomplishes its goals.
Regardless of the methods and materials evaluation will utilize a suggested plan of action for the process of curriculum evaluation is introduces. These are the steps.
1. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum.
2. Collect or gather the information.
3. Organize the information.
4. Analyze information.
5. Report the information.
6. Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modification and adjustments to be made.
Curriculum practitioners and implementers may use one or more approaches in planning, implementing and evaluating the curriculum.
Behavioral Approach- Anchored on the behaviorist principles, behavioral approach to curriculum is usually based on a blueprint. In the blueprint, goals and objectives are specified, contents and activities are also arranged to match with the learning objectives. In education, behavioral approach begins with educational plans that start with the setting goals or objectives. The change in behavior indicates the measure of the accomplishments.
Managerial Approach- The principal is the curriculum leader and at the same time instructional leader who is supposed to be the general manager. The general manager sets the policies and priorities, establishes the direction of change and innovation, planning and organizing curriculum and instruction. Curriculum managers look at curriculum changes and innovations as they administer the resources and restructure the schools. Some of the roles of the Curriculum Supervisors are the following:
1. Help develop the school’s education goals.
2. Plan curriculum with students, parents, teachers and other stakeholders.
3. Design programs of study by grade levels
4. Plan or schedule classes or school calendar.
5. Prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area.
6. Help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks
7. Observe teachers.
8. Assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum.
9. Encourage curriculum innovation and change.
10. Develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation.
System approach- The organizational chart of the school represents a system approach. It shows the line staff relationships of personnel and how decisions are made.
To George Beauchamp, the systems theory of education see the following to be equal importance are (1) administration (2) counseling (3) curriculum (4) instruction and (5) evaluation
Humanistic approach – This approach is rooted in the progressive philosophy and child-centered movement. The humanistic approach considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum. It considers the whole child and believes that in curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration. The learner is at the center of the curriculum.