1
    Workshop of ICT Indicators in
             Education
          Santo Domingo, March 4th, 2008




     ICT Indicator...
2
                Outline

    What do we know?
    What do we need to know?
    How to proceed?
3
               Outline

    What do we know?
    What we need to know?
    How to proceed?
Access to computers at school has increased
4            rapidly between PISA 2000 and PISA 2003…

                       ...
5          But in some countries students still have only
         limited opportunity to use computers at school.
       ...
6              School principals’ reports on shortage of
                      computers for instruction
               Pe...
7     Percentage of students using a computer at least
                  a few times each week
                           ...
8
    What do students use computers to do?
     PISA asked students how often they used:
        The Internet to look up ...
9     Access to computers at school is more universal than
     access to computers at home, but students report using
   ...
10                    A minority of students frequently use
                       educational software on computers
     ...
In general, students are confident in performing routine
11                and Internet tasks on computers.
              ...
12           Internet tasks on a computer –
     percentage of students who are confident (OECD average)

                ...
13     In general, 15-year-old boys report higher confidence
       than girls do in performing computing tasks and these
...
On average across OECD High mathematics performance
14          countries      Hong Kong-China               Average perfo...
15   … but the performance advantage varies across countries

                 between students who reported using compute...
16                       … and diminishes somewhat when socio-economic
                            background factors are ...
17
                 Outline

     What do we know?
     What do we need to know?
     How to proceed?
18      What do we need to know?
     Much work has been done on the statistics of access
     and use of ICTs in schools,...
19                 What do we need to know?

     1.   The ICT environment
          The environment can be defined as the...
20                  What do we need to know?


     3.   The use of ICT
          This refers to the actual use of ICT in ...
21
                 Outline

     What do we know?
     What do we need to know?
     How to proceed?
22
                    How to proceed?
       The ongoing OECD/CERI project on Digital Learning
       Resources *(DLR) in...
23     What do we need to know?
     Indicators would need to be developed in the
     four identified areas:
       The I...
24                     How to proceed?

     1.   The ICT environment
           access: An indicator merging data such as...
25                     How to proceed?

     2.   The ICT user readiness
           Measuring readiness is a difficult tas...
26                  How to proceed?

     3 & 4. ICT Use and effects
         There are no proxies available for the actua...
27   How to get there: two possible
              strategies
     Strategy 1: Questionnaires to a sample of
     main stak...
28


                 Thank you

     More information:
      www.oecd.org
      Bernard.hugonnier@oecd.org
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Workshop Of Ict Indicators In Education Ocde

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Print a computer document or file
Scroll a document up and down a screen
Create/edit a document
Move files from one place to another on a computer
Copy a file from a floppy disk

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Workshop Of Ict Indicators In Education Ocde

  1. 1. 1 Workshop of ICT Indicators in Education Santo Domingo, March 4th, 2008 ICT Indicators: a work in progress Bernard Hugonnier OECD Deputy Director for Education
  2. 2. 2 Outline What do we know? What do we need to know? How to proceed?
  3. 3. 3 Outline What do we know? What we need to know? How to proceed?
  4. 4. Access to computers at school has increased 4 rapidly between PISA 2000 and PISA 2003… PISA 2003 PISA 2000 At 100 school 75 50 25 0 in s d ration ustralia T ailand B lgium nite Kingd 1 atvia Finland e ico C e R p lic S itz rland I land e ark ungary e any a N w Z aland wdn om d tate L ch nste anad S ee z ch e ub Mx D nm G rm re L nite S e w e e e ie te h ussian Fe e C H A d 100 U U R 75 At 50 home 25 0 1. Response rate too low to ensure comparability. Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Figure 2.5, p.22. technology-
  5. 5. 5 But in some countries students still have only limited opportunity to use computers at school. Number of computers per student (PISA 2003) 5 or fewer students 0.4 per More computer than 10 0.3 students per 0.2 computer 0.1 0.0 United States Lux em b ourg Netherlands Portugal Denm ark Italy G erm any T urkey New Zealand Iceland T hailand Sw itzerland Finland Ireland Poland G reece United Kingdom 1 Liechtenstein Japan Sw eden Uruguay Russian Federation Hungary Norw ay Czech Republic Hong Kong-China M acao-China Australia Korea Canada Austria Serbia Belgium Brazil M ex ico S pain S lovak Republic Latvia Indonesia T unisia 1. Response rate too low to ensure comparability. Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Figure 2.8, p.27. technology-
  6. 6. 6 School principals’ reports on shortage of computers for instruction Percentage of students in schools whose principals report that instruction is hindered by a shortage of computers for instruction PISA 2003 PISA 2000 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 United States Netherlands1 Greece Luxembourg Belgium Sweden Austria Denmark Portugal Germany Switzerland Czech Republic Korea Australia New Zealand Iceland Mexico Ireland Japan Spain Hungary Canada Norway Poland Finland Italy 1. Response rate too low to ensure comparability for PISA 2000. 2. Response rate too low to ensure comparability for PISA 2003. Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Figure 2.9, p.29. technology-
  7. 7. 7 Percentage of students using a computer at least a few times each week United Kingdom1 Canada Thailand Iceland Japan 100% Sweden Percentage of students reporting they useRussian Federation Liechtenstein computers “Almost every day” or “A few Turkey Australia times each week”: Mexico Korea At home Latvia Denmark Serbia Belgium At school 0% Tunisia United St Greece Germany Uruguay Switzerland Poland Austria Ireland New Zealand Slovak Republic Finland Hungary Portugal 1. Response rate too low to ensure comparability. Czech Republic Italy Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Figure 3.2, p.37. technology-
  8. 8. 8 What do students use computers to do? PISA asked students how often they used: The Internet to look up information about people things or ideas Games on a computer Word processing (e.g. <Microsoft Word® or WordPerfect®>) The Internet to collaborate with a group or team Spreadsheets (e.g. <Lotus 1 2 3® or Microsoft Excel®>) The Internet to download software (including games) Drawing, painting or graphics programs on a computer Educational software such as mathematics programs The computer to help learn school material The Internet to download music The computer for programming A computer for electronic communication (e.g. e-mail or “chat rooms”) Students could choose from the following answers: Almost every day, A few times each week, Between once a week and once a month, Less than once a month, Never
  9. 9. 9 Access to computers at school is more universal than access to computers at home, but students report using computers much more frequently at home Percentage of students reporting they use the following “Almost every day” or “A few times each week”: The Internet to look up information about people, things or ideas. Games on a computer. Word processing (e.g. <Word® or WordPerfect®>) 80 60 40 20 0 United States Belgium United Kingdom1 Australia Austria Denmark Mexico Italy Germany Czech Republic OECD average Greece Portugal Japan Turkey Iceland Poland Hungary Switzerland Finland Ireland Canada Korea Slovak Republic New Zealand Sweden Internet Games = 53% on Word research = 55% average processing = on average 1. Response rate too low to ensure comparability. 48% on average Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, technology- Figures 3.3 and 3.4, pp.39 and 41.
  10. 10. 10 A minority of students frequently use educational software on computers Percentage of students reporting they use the following “Almost every day” or “A few times each week”: Educational software such as mathematics programs The computer to help learn school material 80 60 40 20 0 United States Denmark Italy Turkey Germany Thailand New Zealand Poland Portugal Iceland Switzerland Finland Ireland Greece Belgium United Kingdom1 Sweden Liechtenstein Japan Uruguay Russian Federation Hungary Czech Republic Australia Austria Canada Korea Serbia OECD average Mexico Slovak Republic Tunisia Latvia To learn school Educational material = 30% on software = 13% 1. Response rate too low to ensure comparability. average on average Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, technology- Figure 3.4, p.41.
  11. 11. In general, students are confident in performing routine 11 and Internet tasks on computers. Routine tasks on a computer – percentage of students who are confident (OECD average) I can do this… By With myself help Open a file 90 7 Play computer games 90 7 Start a computer game 86 10 Save a computer document or file 88 8 Delete a computer document or file 88 8 Draw pictures using a mouse 85 10 Print a computer document or file 86 9 Scroll a document up and down a screen 87 8 Create/edit a document 80 13 Move files from one place to another on a computer 76 17 Copy a file from a floppy disk 75 16 Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Table 3.9, p.110. technology-
  12. 12. 12 Internet tasks on a computer – percentage of students who are confident (OECD average) I can do this… By With myself help Get onto the Internet 88 7 Write and send e-mails 79 12 Copy or download files from the Internet 70 19 Download music from the Internet 66 21 Attach a file to an e-mail message 58 24 At least 90% of students report confidence in these tasks in Australia, Canada, Iceland, Korea, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Table 3.11, p.112. technology-
  13. 13. 13 In general, 15-year-old boys report higher confidence than girls do in performing computing tasks and these differences are particularly apparent for the more demanding computing tasks... High-level tasks on a computer – percentage of students who are confident to perform these tasks by themselves or with help (OECD average) Boys Girls Use software to find and get rid of computer viruses 79 54 Create a multi-media presentation (with sound, pictures, video) 77 62 Create a computer program (e.g. in Logo, Pascal, Basic) 63 48 Construct a Web page 71 61 Create a presentation (e.g. using <Microsoft® PowerPoint® > 79 70 Use a spreadsheet to plot a graph 79 70 Use a database to produce a list of addresses 85 79 Source: OECD (2005) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? What PISA studies tell us, Table 3.14, p.115. technology-
  14. 14. On average across OECD High mathematics performance 14 countries Hong Kong-China Average performance Korea of 15-year-olds in Finland The 37% of students having more 540 Netherlands than 5 years of computer Liechtenstein Japan mathematics Canada experience scored at 532 points Belgium Macao-China Switzerland Australia The 27% of students having New Zealand 520 between 3 and 5 years of Czech Republic Iceland Denmark computer experience France Does Sweden scored at 514 points Austria Ireland Germany 500 Slovak Republic computing Norway Poland Luxembourg Hungary experience The 26% of students having Latvia Spain United States counts ? between 1 and 2 years of 480 computer experience scored at 479 points Russian Federation Italy Portugal 460 The 10% of students having less than 1 year of computer experience scored at 430 points Low mathematics performance Greece
  15. 15. 15 … but the performance advantage varies across countries between students who reported using computers less than one year and those using computers more than five years 140 between students who reported using computers less than one year and those using computers three to five years between students who reported using computers less than one year and those using computers one to three years 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Greece Korea Canada Austria Australia United States Germany Italy Hungary Turkey Portugal Denmark Mexico Japan Sweden Poland Switzerland Iceland New Zealand Finland Ireland Czech Republic Slovak Republic Belgium
  16. 16. 16 … and diminishes somewhat when socio-economic background factors are taken into account between students who reported using computers less than one year and those using computers more than five years 140 between students who reported using computers less than one year and those using computers three to five years between students who reported using computers less than one year and those using computers one to three years 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Greece Korea Canada Austria Australia United States Germany Italy Hungary Turkey Portugal Denmark Mexico Japan Sweden Poland Switzerland Iceland New Zealand Finland Ireland Czech Republic Slovak Republic Belgium
  17. 17. 17 Outline What do we know? What do we need to know? How to proceed?
  18. 18. 18 What do we need to know? Much work has been done on the statistics of access and use of ICTs in schools, sometimes with an impressive array of details Most of these attempts have emphasised aspects such as quality of access, teacher preparation and time of actual use. Only a few, such as PISA (2005) have tried to connect these parameters with the desired effects on improving the quality of teaching and learning and educational performance. We therefore need to improve the available information in four specific areas
  19. 19. 19 What do we need to know? 1. The ICT environment The environment can be defined as the technical conditions that enable the development and use of ICT. Some of the most relevant might be: access: how easy is it to get access to ICT both in schools and at home. ICT availability: how much ICT is available to users 2. The ICT user readiness This is the propensity of users to produce/use ICT . This propensity is linked to the level or ICT-related skills competence showed by teachers and pupils.
  20. 20. 20 What do we need to know? 3. The use of ICT This refers to the actual use of ICT in teaching and learning activities, both by teachers and pupils, as well as the types of ICT used and for what purposes. 4. The effects of the use of ICT Any kind of measurable effect of the use of ICT either in the quality or in the output of the teaching and learning processes could be said to be the impact of using ICT. In addition, it could be reasonable to expect that an intensive use of ICT at large can result also in the learning of competences and skills not accounted for in traditional educational settings.
  21. 21. 21 Outline What do we know? What do we need to know? How to proceed?
  22. 22. 22 How to proceed? The ongoing OECD/CERI project on Digital Learning Resources *(DLR) includes among its final outputs the delivery of a proposal for a system of indicators that will benchmark the development of DLR. This proposal will come as a result of a standing working group in this area. _________________________________________ * DLR are defined in the context of this project as “any digital resource that is actually used by teachers and learners for the purpose of teaching and learning”.
  23. 23. 23 What do we need to know? Indicators would need to be developed in the four identified areas: The ICT environment The ICT User readiness The ICT use The effects of ICE use
  24. 24. 24 How to proceed? 1. The ICT environment access: An indicator merging data such as ratios of pupils per computer connected to the Internet, percentage of networked homes and the like can provide a useful quick look but more detailed indicators can also be considered, such as for example separating the values for teachers, pupils and families; DLR availability: This could be restricted to DLR in the national language (most appropriate for early school years), but even so could only be measured nationally on the basis of proxies such as, for example, the number of DLR available in the top three devoted national websites or the total number of national websites devoted to DLR.
  25. 25. 25 How to proceed? 2. The ICT user readiness Measuring readiness is a difficult task since no available data on this propensity exist (such as the precise answer to the question how ready teachers/pupils are to use/produce DLR). However, to start with it could be somewhat linked to the training or level or competence showed by different groups of users on the basis of already existing data, such as: – teachers: training hours on ICT related competences by teacher or surveys of ICT-related skills and attitudes; – pupils: surveys of ICT-related skills and attitudes (such as PISA data); – families: general population surveys of ICT-related skills and attitudes.
  26. 26. 26 How to proceed? 3 & 4. ICT Use and effects There are no proxies available for the actual level of use of DLR at a national level, nor for assessing the effects. Therefore, a methodology has to be designed – to deal with the indicators in this area, – including, for example, different groups of users (teachers, pupils, parents) and places of use (school, home).
  27. 27. 27 How to get there: two possible strategies Strategy 1: Questionnaires to a sample of main stakeholders, like government representatives, teacher associations, parent organisations, webmasters and the like. Strategy 2: Questionnaires to a sample of school teachers, pupils and, eventually, to parents.
  28. 28. 28 Thank you More information: www.oecd.org Bernard.hugonnier@oecd.org
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