Openess: Rethinking the Role of the University in the Internet Era


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This presentation explores the implications of Open Educational Resources (OER) in higher education.

OER definition: "…digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences." (OECD, 2007)

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  • 1 Million visit per month + 7 Million pages visited (approximately). 127 million visits by 90 million visitors from virtually every country.MIT OCW used for a wide range of purposes:Educators: Improve personal knowledge 31%Learn new teaching methods 23%Students:Enhance personal knowledge 46%Complement a current course 34%Self-Learners:Explore areas outside my professional field 40%
  • More than 800 universities have active iTunes U sites. About half of these institutions — including Stanford, Yale, MIT, Oxford, and UC Berkeley — distribute their content publicly on the iTunes Store.In the Beyond Campus section of iTunes U, students and faculty can access a wealth of content from distinguished entities such as MoMA, the New York Public Library, Public Radio International, and PBS stations.- SOURCE: has had over 10 million downloads from its iTunes U site.We are reaching a worldwide audience of 185 countries (including 29% from China, 38% from the USA and 18% from the UK).- SOURCE:
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (120) > To increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. .. cover all open access scientific and scholarly journals that use a quality control system to guarantee the content (peer-review or editorial quality control ).Open Access Journal: “…journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access."open access" we take the right of users to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles" as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory. Research Journal: Journals that report primary results of research or overviews of research results to a scholarly community. - SOURCE: Monday:one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals on the Internet, solely devoted to the Internet. Since its start in May 1996, First Monday has published 1,153 papers in 184 issues, written by 1,502 different authors. In addition, nine special issues have appeared.
  • OER Commons - Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching Training Platform Academy Without Borders Commons
  • Reinvent the publishingRemove e the barrier between publication and use of high quality contents.The faculty is the gatekeeper in control of their class (freedom to choose the course materials that s/he wants).Flat World Knowledge the strategy is to produce great contents (copy the industry model of how to produce contents).1) Get a great author. 2) Provide the development contents (i.e. Peer-review, dissemination among other faculties).The disruptive part includes: transfer control to the individual faculty member (the contents are provides with creative commons and build an online platforms that allow the faculty to rebuild those contents). So faculty can come to the site and create a derivative version of the book (i.e., insert, delete, rearrange, etc.) in order to make the book better for his course. This is a process that all professors do somehow through their syllabus. The platform allows a quick ad intuitive customization process. Open, Revised and Mixable.(Jeff Shelstad, Co-Founder and CEO of Flat World Learning.)
  • “OER do not ensure that overall standards will be higher or that a greater proportion of students will achieve the highest grades but they can increase the absolute numbers of people participating and provide a greater range of ways for people to learn, giving them more control of when and how they learn and not having to fit in with selective, pre-determined opportunities. So evaluation measures have to be varied and not just restricted to educational attainment” (2009, p.6)B. Gourley and A. Lane, “Re-invigorating openness at The Open University: the role of Open Educational Resources,” Open Learning 24, no. 1 (2009): 57–65.-SOURCE:JanHylén (2006) Open Educational Resources: Opportunities and Challenges. OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
  • External agents use and generate contents in a continues process that goes far beyond the formal learning and the educational entities.…“Sharing” and “Exchanging” are often used in relation to OERs but it is useful to clarify what we mean by some of these terms in this context. When we use the word sharingwe usually imply an intent – where someone, or some organisation, chooses to share something of value with either a specific audience or more widely. ‘Exchanging' where both/all parties want, and agree to, share for some mutual benefit. The difference between these two actions is significant, particularly in relation to business models and benefits.  -SOURCE:
  • Openess: Rethinking the Role of the University in the Internet Era

    1. 1. Rethinking the Role of the University in the Internet Era Cristobal Cobo, phd Research Fellow “En cuestiones de cultura y de saber, solo se pierde lo que se guarda, solo se gana lo que se da” (A.Machado)
    2. 2. 1. Transformation 2. Complexity 3. Challenges Technologies Radical Innovation Practices Incremental Innovation
    3. 3. Open Educational Resources "…digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences." (OECD, 2007) Image by ”…teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge." (The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in Atkins, Seely Brown & Hammond, 2007:4) “Open educational resource, (n). Any artifact that is either (1) licensed under an open copyright license or (2) in the public domain” (Wiley, 2011)
    4. 4. Big - visibility Visible reuse & production of licensed (institutional) OER. Institutional repositories. Governments Little - visibility Staff &students reuse of digital resources in /around the curriculum. Folksonomies (co-creation) {UGC in flickr, scribd, slideshare, youtube} “White, D. Manton, M. JISC-funded OER Impact Study, University of Oxford, 2011” 1. The term OER is broad and still under discussion. 2. OER come in all shapes and sizes. 3. Licensing is important. 4. The difference between use and reuse. 5. Sharing and reuse are not new. “preferential attachment” (Barabási, 2000)
    5. 5. ”… promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning path” (The International Council for Open and Distance Education) 
”… implies changes throughout the entire educational system: Publishing (authorship & review); Tenure; Curriculum Design / IP; Opening up educational institutions and making knowledge public…” (Weller, 2011). It makes little sense to talk about OER independently of Open Educational Practices (OEP) {Farrow, 2011}
    6. 6. The 4 R's of Openness Hilton, J. W. (2010, January 11). The 4 R's of Openness and the ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources. Reuse—The most basic level of openness. People are allowed to use all or part of the work for their own purposes (e.g. download an educational video to watch at a later time). Remix—People can take two or more existing resources and combine them to create a new resource (e.g. take audio lectures from one course and combine them with slides from another course to create a new derivative work). Redistribute—People can share the work with others (e.g. email a digital article to a colleague). Revise—People can adapt, modify, translate, or change the form the work (e.g. take a book written in English and turn it into a Spanish audio book).
    7. 7. The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Scientific Knowledge -344 universities (2003) 200 educational organizations signed OER declaration (Cape Town, 2007)
    8. 8. Some rights reserved by MΛЯK International Organizations Local/National Government Regulator bodies (e.g. IP) Experts Professional Associations Suppliers Teaching Community Researchers Administrators Media Technology providers Cultural & Leisure Services Press/Editorial ( e.g.Journals, Libraries) Industry – SME Competitors General public / self-lerners Activist, Contributors, NGOs Social Enterprise Communities of Internest Open Source Community Scientific Community Students
    9. 9. William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Self-learners Students EducatorsOthers
    10. 10. "Introduction to Artificial Intelligence" October 10th to December 18th 2011 University of Stanford Stanford University's School of Engineering Offers complete online courses at no cost. 160,000+ Sign Up Google moderator service (best questions) Over 40 languages Sebastian Thrun+Peter Norvig
    11. 11. Online [audio] lectures
    12. 12. 10 educational channels (science-related). “This is good business for Google, hopefully bringing with it more traffic and advertising revenue".
    13. 13. First Monday: (1ST of its kind) 15-year-old open access journal about the internet. PLoS ONE: peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the Public Library Of Science
    14. 14. Open Learning Communities [formal & informal]
    15. 15. Open Educational Hub
    16. 16. Online [open] books online digital editions free of charge 00:25-02:22 Flat World Knowledge Open source textbooks and technology free online textbooks and other OER
    17. 17. Peer-based-Learning Networks [the rise of amateur culture] Keen, 2007
    18. 18. Institutional Implications OER University #oeru • Free learning to all students using OER learning materials • Courses based solely on OER and open textbooks • Not a formal teaching institution and does not confer degrees or qualifications. OAR (Open Assessment Resources)
 Existing assessments neither reusable, revisable, remixable, or redistributable
 Peer-to-Peer University * University of the People* Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) * OER University *
    19. 19. Online [open] data repositories Radical transparency 00:11-01:11
    20. 20. A network of tools / agents
    21. 21. [everything is miscellaneous] mapping the knowledge flow Weinberger, David. 2007. Everything is miscellaneous. The power of the new digital disorder. Times Books.
    22. 22. Production of knowledge Distribution of knowledge
    23. 23. Production of knowledge
    24. 24. CollaborationComplexity Computational Complexity OCW AI(open access) (hybrid models of teaching & researching) 2001 2011 Bulger, Meyer, De la Flor, et al. (2011) Reinventing research? Information practices in the humanities. A Research Information Network Report
    25. 25. P: Haraway+Gibbons+… informal comm… A variety of labels, such as Mode 2 (Nowotny, Scott and Gibbons, 2001); post-normal science (Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993); technoscience (Latour 1987; Haraway 1985) and the triple helix (Leydesdorff and Etzkowitz 1998).
    26. 26. M1-M2 Mode 1 Mode 2 Pardo, H.; Cobo, C. and Scolari, C. (2011) Death of the University? Knowledge Production and Disemination in the desitermediation Era. In McLuhan Galaxy “Understanding Media, Today”, International Conference. Universidad Oberta de Catalunya. Mode 1: isolated, objective, decontextualized, traditional, restricted to scientific communities. Mode 2: open, context based, not restricted to scientific communities, transdisciplinary, demand-driven. {R}
    27. 27. Open Closed Peer review User comments, user ratings Internal quality procedures Word of mouth Quality management in OER initiatives Hylén (2006) Centralised Decentralised {R}
    28. 28. Research Driven - MotivationstoShare Public Driven Data Producers Data Users Reproduce or to verify research Making the results of public funds available to the public Enabling others to ask new questions To advance the state of R+I Borgman (2011)The conundrum of sharing research data Incentives {R} {R}
    29. 29. Distribution of knowledge
    30. 30. Understanding Knowledge as a Commons Hess & Ostrom + Lessig + Benkler Level of Restriction Online Research (CC) public private low Research Publication Printed (CC) (Ed.) Hess and Ostrom (2007) Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: From Theory to Practice. MIT, Cambridge, USA high © Printed Publication Property © Online Book {R}
    31. 31. How does a University deliver knowledge (research & teaching) today? Distribution and Device Platforms Produced by Professionals Private Open ContentSource Traditional University Professional branded content “walled” access environment incumbent have a legacy position User/community contributions Content Hyper – syndication Model with secure, professional content available online and on standard devices New Platform Aggregation Model relies on user- generated contents and open distribution platforms E-Learning University Model integrates user/community contents with a “walled” access environment IBM Institute for Business Value (IBV) Modified by Chris Sparshott for Education Sector {R}
    32. 32. The Political Economy of Intellectual Property in the Educational Material Market. Carolina Rossini and Erhardt Graef. Industrial Cooperation Project, Berkman Center for Internet & Society (Work in Progress) The evolving model of textbooks Unregulated -Regulated Closed Open Text books with adds (BookBoon) Amazon Renting B. Google Books (only read) Print-based journals -Self-publishing & free distribution (CreateSpace) -OER materials shared among colleagues /students -Used Books -Copies -Curse Pack -Print on demand ( New business models – Increasing demand Flat World of Knowledge Bloomsbury Academic {R}
    33. 33. Teaching Application Integration Discovery (transdisciplinary) (experimentation) Open Course Ware Consortium iTunesU Open Learning Initiative Academic Earth Polimedia OpenLearn Flatworldknowledge iLabs Project Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Closed/Open Initiatives P2P University Khan Academy OER Commons Academia.eduiCamp ResearchGate Public Library of Science SciVee Edufire Living Labs Bookcamps Wikipedia Knowmad School Open/Open Initiatives youtube edu lecturefox textbookrevolution coursesmarthowstuffworks Boyer (1990) • Categories of scholarship : discovery, teaching, application & integration of knowledge. SCOLARI, C. COBO, C. and PARDO, H. (forthcoming) Should We Take Disintermediation In Higher Education Seriously? Expertise, Knowledge Brokering, and Knowledge Translation in the Age of Disinterme diation. In Takševa, T. (coord.) Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination.
    34. 34. Open/Closed Production - Distribution Productionofknowledge Distribution of knowledge Innocentives {R} {R} SCOLARI, C. COBO, C. and PARDO, H. (forthcoming) Should We Take Disintermediation In Higher Education Seriously? Expertise, Knowledge Brokering, and Knowledge Translation in the Age of Disinterme diation. In Takševa, T. (coord.) Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination.
    35. 35. Now what?
    36. 36. a. Access: from archipelago to spaghetti From the long tail towards the semantic [Metadata]
    37. 37. b. Platforms: from mono- to multi- Interoperability (technic- & institutional )
    38. 38. c. Licenses: awareness create-remix-preserve-propagate Attribution Share-Alike Non-commercial No-modify Educational
    39. 39. d. Literacies (awareness): prosumer - filter & (re)use [economy of attention] Bulger, Meyer, De la Flor, Terras, Wyatt, Jirotka, Eccles, Madsen (2011) Reinventing Research in the Humanities: Information Practices The distribution of all the Wikipedia articles Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the Worlds Knowledge. Ed. Flick, C. M., London, Convoco! Edition.
    40. 40. e. Incentives: produce & use quality – New teaching/researching and business models
    41. 41. -> hybridization [transition]: new agents & transactions + formal & informal mechanisms
    42. 42. Kathleen Fitzpatrick
    43. 43. OportUnidad - OEP: a bottom up approach in Latin America and Europe to develop a common Higher Education Area. 30 months Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Spain, UK, Uruguay. To promote the increasing use of OEP and resources. Specific objectives are: • Raise awareness and widen HEI participation in open educational practices and resources • Define a mid-term strategic roadmap for the implementation of the OER • Agenda at local-institutional level (participation of 60 regional universities) according to the cultural and institutional needs. • Pilot start-up open educational practices. • Increased managers' and educators' awareness on benefits of OER and OEP. Università degli Studi “Guglielmo Marconi” – Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) & University of Oxford.
    44. 44. Criticism 1. Sustainable? (practical and economical) 2. Contents need to be inter-culturally adjusted (contextual and epistemological). 3. Static vision on knowledge. 4. Content-centric vision on learning. 5. OEP is more relevant (LLL) 6. OER movement remains fragmented insufficiently documented. 7. Need of clear evidence about the best use of OER. 8. Culture of amateur. Quality? 9. Paternalistic agenda (e.g. third world institutions). Benefits 1. Expand student access to high- quality & up-to-date contents. 2. Unlock the educational ROI. 3. Support better equipped teachers. 4. Stimulate the self and life long learning. 5. Stimulate the exchange (and combination) of knowledge (disciplines). 6. Reputational benefits: Visibility, recognition, traffic. 7. Student/user feedback and open peer review. 8. More focus on the learning experience. 9. Engagement with a wider community (transdisciplinarity) 10. Brokering collaborations and partnerships (experimentation)
    45. 45. teşekkürler *(thank you) Cristobal Cobo, phd Research Fellow