E democracy, visualization, open data, digital citizenship


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Latin American study about digital democracy.

El Seminario/Taller que tiene como objetivo completar y cerrar el estudio comparativo de experiencias exitosas en América Latina y el Caribe sobre e – Democracia y promover el intercambio de buenas prácticas, el análisis y la documentación en torno a cómo consolidar la “democracia electrónica” en la región.

Published in: Technology, Education

E democracy, visualization, open data, digital citizenship

  1. Networks for Citizen Consultation and Citizen Sourcing of Expertise: Exploring Innovations in the Public SectorCristobal Cobo, Ph.DResearch Fellow 1Oxford Internet InstituteUniversity of Oxford
  2. Continuous socio- technical process: community engagement. demand Information supplyElectronic Government Cicles (adapted from Caldas, 2008) Yang and Zhiyong Lan (2010) 2
  3. G2C 3
  4. Can the new technologymake a positive difference? ✔(+) Yang and Zhiyong Lan (2010): Internet hasreduced the disparity in resources between policyexperts and citizens.(+)Castells (2011): Internet facilitates changes in allaspects of life, society, the economy and culture(‘Arab spring’).(+) Brabham (2009): ICTs enable deeper levels ofengagement between people and governments.Crowdsourcing : New methods for connectingcollective intellect and creative solutions fromnetworks of citizens. 4
  5. ✗ http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2011/jun/06/social-media-documentary-makers Photograph: Mohammed Abed/AFP/Getty Images(-) Alexander and Pal (1998): Information availability is different frominformation utilisation. (-) Van Dijk (2010): ICT does not cause more political and societalinterest among citizens.(-) Yang and Zhiyong Lan (2010): Avoiding techno-reductionism. TheInternet can improve democratic public policy making but thosechanges depend on education, institution building, culture and trustrelationship formation.(-) Hardy, Lawrence and Grant (2005): Avoiding oversimplifications.Many collaborations fail to produce innovative solutions. 5
  6. atlas.ch developer.mozilla.orgThe Performance of DistributedProblem Solving Networks:+ peer production+ social production+ co-production sciencecommons.org innocentive.com+ co-creation+ mass collaborationOII and McKinsey Technology Initiative (MTI).Dutton, William H., Paul A. David, and WolfRichter. (2008). sermo.com digg.com‘wisdom of crowds’ – the idea that ‘the manyare smarter than the few’ (Surowiecki), wherea large number of ordinary people canoutperform a few experts by sharinginformation and solving problems. wikipedia.org seriosity.com(e.g. see Surowiecki 2004;Benkler 2006; Tapscott aswarmofangels.comand Williams 2006). 6Source: http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=45
  7. Management depends on Type of CNO 1.0 Sharing 2.0 Contributing 3.0 Collaborating Architecture One to many Many to many Many to one Openness Open, Low Managing access Tiering, and Control Control management control structures IPR Information Platform Co-created shared product Performance Viewers Quantity of Engaging Contributors targeted experts, producers1.0 sharing documents, data, and other digital objects. Hypertextual/2.0 supporting contributions to (limited) collaboration. Hypertextual/ UGC3.0 supporting cooperative co creation. Hypertextual/ UGC /Cooperative Work 7 William Dutton. Capturing the Value of Networked Individuals: Strategies for Citizen Sourcing. University of Oxford. Presentation to ‘NETworked Organizations’, organized by SINTEF, at Kanonhallen, Oslo, Norway, 10 November 2010
  8. Aims of this study :1. To explore relevant EU website from publicsector to identify if they facilitate the creation ofnetworks for citizen consultation.2. Identify the level of participation (1º Sharing; 2.º Contributing & 3.º Co-creating of knowledge). -> Architecture, Openness, Control, Modularization• Governments strategies to foster online –’many-to- many’ communication.• Online mechanisms to incorporate crowdsourcing and ‘distributed problem solving’. 8
  9. Matrix of Collaboration Levels of Architecture Value Openness Value Control Value Modularization Value Total collaboration Value“1.0. Sharing”: Here Focus on open 1 Enables access 1 The control of 1 Contributors have 1 3the information can sharing of to information individuals limited level ofbe shared, sold, or documents (one through deep participation is intervention inadvertised. to many) searching low or limited contents (low)(Hypertextual) (open) (low)“2.0. Contributing”: Enables user- 2 It allows sharing 2 The platforms 2 Modularization 2 6The Web to facilitate generated insights, management is keeps the task at agroup content (many- information and based in the manageable levelcommunication, to-many). opinions. levels of (moderate, simplethereby reshaping (networked) participation task).who contributes (moderate,information to the reputation).collective group(Hypertextual- UserGenerated)“3.0. Co-creating”: It Allows 3 Creates a 3 Hierarchical 3 Keeping tasks 3 9allows attracting collaborative hierarchy of levels of modular, precise andand sustaining production of rights and control over easy to completerelevant information privileges who and how (high).contributors or co- products (many- (managed). participatescreation to the to-many). (high).creation ofinformationproducts or services.(Hypertextual- UserGenerated –Cooperative Work) 9
  10. www.epractice.eu/awardsThe boom in social media networks2011-2015 European Action PlanA more open (pro-active) model of design,produce and deliver online services that fostercollaboration between citizens. From 31 countries, 52 cases have been shortlisted as finalists. eGovernment: • Supporting the single Market; • Empowering citizens; • Empowering businesses; • Enabling administrative efficiency & effectiveness. sample: the non-biased nature of this list gives us objective criteria for inclusion 10
  11. Results Number of Websites Average of the total Social Media Tool that include websites of the study “social media tools”Twitter 8 16.3Facebook 6 12.2Youtube 4 8.2Flickr 4 8.2Linkedin 1 2 11 11
  12. Classification + Ranking tinyurl.com/EUwebsites[e-Catalunya] # 12ecatalunya.gencat.net (Spain) [PloneGov] # 12 Best Practices plonegov.org (Belgium) Participa Andalucía # 10 participaenandalucia.net (Spain) [Interoperability Infrastructure for Serv. Transf.] # 10 ermis.gov.gr (Greece)+Thematic citizens [Participatory Budgeting –Cologne] # 9dialogue. buergerhaushalt.stadt-koeln.de +Open Source+ Self organized (Germany) Community. + Citizens: propose,communities. +Facilitate the exchange and + Citizens suggest &+ No external social transfer of citizen promote ideas. + Participatory discuss ideas.media tools. knowledge. budget (environment + Direct +Anonymity or & educ.)+ Variety of + Ecosystem of interaction with authentication. + First 100 ideas >participation tools. meta- + Promote the local authorities. studied by local+ Self developed collaboration + Linked to FB & T submission of ideas.mechanism of admin. ( Cologne to disseminate City council).transactions. citizen ideas. + Crowdsourcing (vote for the ideas) 12
  13. C2G 13
  14. 14http://www.slideshare.net/oso/participatory-democracy-participatory-media
  15. This map is taken from the following publication: "Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011)Geographies of the Worlds Knowledge. London, Convoco! Edition." 15
  16. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/twitter/8638292/Amazing-maps-show-Twitter-and-Flickr-activity-around-the-world.html?image=18demanda Orange dots = Flickr photos; blue = tweets; white dots = both 16 Picture: Eric Fischer
  17. Apple pulls WikiLeaks app from the App Store http://www.tuaw.com/2010/12/21/apple-pulls-wikileaks-app-from-the-app-store/ demanda 17
  18. http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/how-egypt-or-how-your-government-could-shut-down-the-internet.arshttp://thefifthwave.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/egyptwebshutdown.jpg 18
  19. 19
  20. Power to People20
  21. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/twitter/8638292/Amazing-maps-show-Twitter-and-Flickr-activity-around-the-world.html?image=18 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-14493497 “Under social media, Mr Cameron includes Facebook, Twitter and specific technologies such as text messaging”. Between 6 and 10 August 2011 Prime Minister David Cameron “We are making technology work for us, by capturing the images of London: The centre of the city. Twitter activity and the perpetrators on CCTV – so photographies. even if they haven’t yet been Orange dots = Flickr photos; blue = tweets; arrested, their faces are known white dots = both Picture: Eric Fische and they will not escape the law”. 21 http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/print/2011/09/the-middle-eastern-nation-most-vulnerable-to-internet-shutdown/244507/ http://www. number10.gov.uk/news/pm-statement-on-disorder-in-england/
  22. http://www.flickr.com/photos/metropolitanpolice/sets/72157628402525369/?page=2 These images have been released as part of the Metropolitan Police Winter Withern Campaign. Police are seeking assistance in identifying the following individuals. If anyone recognises an individual please contact the telephone number below the image or call Crimestoppers quoting the unique reference code. 22
  23. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/who-are-the-commons-moles-changing-wikipedia-entries-7545991.html “MPs and staff working in the House of Commons have been responsible for making nearly 10,000 changes to pages of the online encyclopaedia Wikipedia”.Trust? http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/07/putin-hacked-emails-russian-nashi?newsfeed=true 23
  24. open datavisualization 24
  25. http://www.socrata.com/opendata/open-data-its-more-than-publishing-a-csv/ demand/supply 25
  26. 93,6 M. CLP 121m GBPhttp://www.gobiernotransparentechile.cl/directorio/entidad/11/156/per_planta/A%C3%B1o%202012 open dataInstituto Federal de Acceso a la Información 26Pública y Protección de Datos (IFAI)
  27. http://reference.data.gov.uk/gov-structure/organogram/?dept=justice&post=1 146,9M CLP 184m GBP open data 27
  28. http://data.gov.uk/ Use the UK Police API to retrieve information about neighborhood areas. * View the crime stats open datahttp://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/crime-spy-uk/id420241073?mt=8 28
  29. Open Data/visualization 29
  30. US Federal Communications Commission: US communications objectsdensity (cellular tower density , TV digital towers by state). http://www.gearthblog.com/images/images606/communicationsdensity.jpg
  31. http://spatialanalysis.co.uk/2011/12/2011/http://www.coolinfographics.com/blog/2011/8/18/the-power-of-data-visualization-iphone-tracking.html 31
  32. http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/stats-of-the-union/id432948008?mt=8&ign-mpt=uo%3D4 32
  33. Compare presidents approval/disapproval ratings in theirfirst 1000 days in office using Gallup Poll data. http://visual.ly/us-presidents-job-approval-ratings?view=true 33
  34. Appropriate conditions: The right social media tools; socialcapital; digital literacy & trust >conditions to supports public participation (crowdsourcing). 34 http://www.slideshare.net/missrogue/citizen-superheroesand-other-tales-of-government-20
  35. 6 Conclusions1. Rhetoric about participation is constantly present in the public policies (G2C).2. EU public websites: limited channels of interaction/communication.3. The C2G mechanisms of expression are dynamically organized (beyond government based tools).4. Instead of referring to the so-called “participation”, is important to understand they vary according different levels (Architecture, Openness, Control, Modularization).5. Social media tools by no mean are synonymous of citizen participation or transparency.6. Further research are required to identify the causes of the low levels of participation (political interest, digitally savvy, lack of knowledge, etc.) and the direct benefits (awareness). 35
  36. thanks! Cristobal Cobo, Ph.D Research Fellow Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford @cristobalcoboAcknowledgments: This study was supported through the Knetworks project(Knowledge Dissemination Network for the Atlantic Areawww.knetworks.gov.pt) and prepared in collaboration with the Socio-EconomicServices for European Research Project (SESERV www.seserv.eu). 36