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Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
Chile online 2011
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Chile online 2011

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Description of the current state of the Interent in Chile. …

Description of the current state of the Interent in Chile.
Sergio Godoy, professor from the Catolic University of Chile.

Lecture given at the Oxford Internet Institute.

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  • 1. www.wipchile.clExploring whys and hows: hows:the internet in Chile andthe WIP 3.0 project* By Sergio Godoy E. MBA PhD, E. Director or Research & Postgraduate Studies School of Communications Universidad Catolica de Chile sgodoye@puc.cl * A project executed with the Institute of Sociology and the School of Engineering (Fondecyt Nº1110098) and the support of the Ministry of Economics (MINECON) CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS DE LA ECONOMÍA DIGITAL CÁMARA DE COMERCIO DE SANTIAGO
  • 2. www.wipchile.cl Contents• People and organisations: WIP / BIT• BIT Chile main descriptive results 2010• WIP Chile main descriptive results 2010• Qualitative comparison UK/Chile: highlights• The WIP/BIT 3.0 project 2
  • 3. www.wipchile.cl WIP & BIT and their common fields The information economy BIT PROJECT WORLD INTERNET PROJECT IT usage & impact on business Overall ITWeb & IT usage in everyday life of people and the economy usage & adoption Fields: Fields: In companies: •IT adoption & budgets IT adoption trends & expendituresTransactions & •Organisational impact Attitudes e-commerce (workforce, structure, Media usage outsourcing) Social links •Links with partners & clients E-commerce Performance •Business results Impact on offline activities at work &•Globalisation/geographical reach Impact at work (productivity) school •Chile: reputation Impact at school (performance) State of the Information Economy Corporate communication & reputation 3 3
  • 4. www.wipchile.clThe information economy sectorChile, SenKorea and the USA’s GNP Gráfico 1. Evolución comparada del in información Chile, Corea y EE.UU. 1990-2003 (porcentaje del PIB de cada país) Fuente: Avilés, 2007 Source: BIT teams in each country Economía de la información 1990-2003 70.00% 65.00% US 60.00% Korea Korea US 55.00% Korea Chile Chile 50.00% 45.00% 40.00% 1990 1992 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 US (55.87%) (63.00%) Chile (51.21%) (51.73%) Korea (51.93%) (56.54%) (59.04%) US Chile Korea 4 BIT Chile by S Godoy Logarítmica (US) Logarítmica (Chile) Logarítmica (Korea) 4
  • 5. www.wipchile.cl 5
  • 6. www.wipchile.cl Chilean GNP – 2003 Work and occupationProducts Services patterns in an 39% 61% (information) economy 17% Material 31% 48% 44% Information 52% 8% 6
  • 7. www.wipchile.cl 7
  • 8. www.wipchile.cl Selected organisational impacts of IT in firms, 2007-2010 2007-(% of respondents strongly agree /agree on an increase of the following phenomena) Flatter organisation 44 51 Wider mgmts span of control 54 47 Geographical dispersion of the 59 organisation 42 Employees working from their homes 60 38 Tele-conferencing 63 33 Worker collaboration with ad hoc tools 67 56 IT skills for low level employees 81 73 Nº of employees facing a screen 83 63 Workers need to retrain constantly 87 81 Mgmt needs intelligent info 87 76 0 20 40 60 80 100 2010 2007 8
  • 9. www.wipchile.cl Internet users in selected WIP countries, 2009 */ 2010** countries,100 80 78 77 7780 73 70 67 61 5960 55 51 48 47 45 42 3740 3220 0 Macao* Mexico** Sweden** Canada* Australia* Israel* USA** New Zealand* Czech Republic** Chile** Italy** Hungary* Portugal** Singapore* Colombia** Chile (Santiago)** Britain** Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison 9
  • 10. www.wipchile.cl Chilean internet users according to age, 200980%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0% 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-60 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+ Source: based on CASEN survey data. 10
  • 11. www.wipchile.cl Chilean non users of the internet, 2010 vs. 2008 2008 2010 3% 6% 9% 6% 8% 12%40% 42% 39% 34% 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-49 50-6412-17 18-24 25-34 35-49 50-64 In 2010 adults aged 60 to 64 are included. 11
  • 12. www.wipchile.cl Chilean Internet users according to income quintiles 2000, 2003, 2006, 200980% 70%70% 65% 59%60% 50%50% 44% 45%40% 38% 32% 33% 33%30% 28% 25%25% 22% 22%20% 18% 15% 15% 10%10% 9%0% Quintile I (lowest) Q II Q III Q IV Quintile V (highest) 2000 2003 2006 2009 Source: based on CASEN survey results 12
  • 13. www.wipchile.cl Percentage of internet users according to place of usage100% according to income level, 2010 90%90% • Highest income 84% 83% (c1) uses in all 81% 82% 78% 79% places; lowest (D/E)80% 75% less at home and70% more in paid-for 61% locations60% 52% 49%50% 44%42%40% 37% 35% 35% 32% 28%30% 22%20% 15% 10%8%10% 8% 7% 0% School (N=165) Home (N=406) Work (N=177) Friends or Paid places Free places relatives home (N=406) (N=406) (N=406) ABC1/C2 C3 D/E Total Fuente: encuestas WIP-Chile 2010. Unidad de análisis: usuarios Internet 12-64 años, residentes en Santiago. 13
  • 14. www.wipchile.cl Percentage of internet users using wireless connections* per year *Mobile broadband and WiFI70% 61%60%50%40% 25%30%20% 13%10% 5%0% Type of home connection 2004 2006 2008 2010 14
  • 15. www.wipchile.cl e-mail 64% Use Facebook 51% The 10 most popular online Browse the Web 51% activities by internet users, 2010 Visit social media 48%Use instant messaging 44% (Percentage of users who do each Comment on… 35% activity at least once daily) Read news 35% Send attachments 32% Find or check an… 28% Get information for… 26% Fuente: Encuestas WIP-Chile. Unidad de análisis: personas de 12 a 64 años, residentes en Santiago 15
  • 16. www.wipchile.cl Most frequent activities by internet users according to income level, 2010. (Percentage of users who do the activity at least once daily).90% 80%80%70% 64% 64% 59%60% 57% 56% 54% 53% 51% 51% 50%50% 46% 48% 48% 42% 44% 43% 37% 37%40% 35% 35% 35% 33% 30% 30% 31% 29%30% 20%20%10%0% E-mail Use Facebook Browsing the Visit social Use instant Comment on Read local news Web media messaging blog/fotolog Total ABC1-C2 C3 D-E 16
  • 17. www.wipchile.cl Perceptions about political influence of the internet, 2010. Percentage of answers “strongly agree/agree"People should be free to criticise their government 71% by internet 44% Its OK to people to express their ideas on the 63% internet, however extreme 38% 55% state should increase regulation of the internet 52% In general, I feel comfortable saying what I think 53% about politics 45%In internet it is safe to say whay one thinks about 35% politics 19% I am worried companies know what I do in the 35% internet 38% I am worried the state knows what I do in the 28% internet 31% User Non user Unit of analysis: persons aged 12 to 64, living in Santiago 17
  • 18. www.wipchile.cl Most frequent activities by internet users according to age, 2010. (Percentage of users who do the activity at least once daily).60% 55% 53% 54% 53%50% 46% 46% 44% 44% 42% 42%40% 37% 36% 36% 35% 35% 35% 32% 30%30% 28% 28%20% 18% 16% 14% 9%10%0% Use instant messaging Comment on blog/fotolog Read local news Send attachments Total 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-49 50-64 18
  • 19. www.wipchile.clPercentage of internet users and non users who own a mobile phone, 2010 86% 77% User Non user Fuente: Encuestas WIP-Chile. Unidad de análisis: personas de 12 a 60 años, estratos ABC1, C2, C3 y D residentes en Santiago 19
  • 20. www.wipchile.cl Payment systems of mobile phones owned by internet users and non users according to income, 2010 90%90% 79% 82% 80% 74%80% 70% 68% 70%70% 58% 61% 60%60% 53% 50%50% 47% 42% 39% 40%40% 32% 30% 30% 26%30% 21% 18% 20%20% 10%10%0% 0% Prepaid Plan Prepaid Plan Total ABC1-C2 C3 D-E Total ABC1-C2 C3 D-E USERS NON USERS Unit of analysis: people aged 12-64, owners of a mobile phone, residents of Santiago 20
  • 21. www.wipchile.cl The 10 most frequent activities done in mobile phones by internet users and non users, 2010. User Non user Talk 95% 98% Send/receive text messages 84% 46% Contact friends/relatives who see in person 83% 66% Contact people who doesnt see in person… 68% 55% For professional or work matters 52% 34% Photos or videos (capture, send, etc.) 43% 10% Play 39% 21% Download music MP3 or ringtones 22% 15% Send/receive e-mail 21% 5% Find information in Google and similar seach… 0% 17%Participate in social media (Facebook, Twitter) 14% 2% Unit of analysis: people aged 12 to 64, owners of a mobile phone, living in Santiago 21
  • 22. www.wipchile.cl Deepening the concept of DigitalExclusion: a comparison between the UK and Chile* By Sergio Godoy, UC School of Communications Ellen J. Helsper, London School of Economics Helsper, *A project supported by The Conference Board / Fundación Telefónica
  • 23. www.wipchile.cl Aims• Why some engage with ICTs while others from same background do not? – Need to go beyond the bipolar access/not access (digital) and want/do not want (decisional) divides-• Focus on the reasons, attitudes, fears or pressures behind this decision, which can change over time.• Exploring in-depth within a specific & significant segment of population from Chile & UK: – Who feels technology is more or less integrated. – Motivators and obstacles, real or imaginary. – Perceptions of usefulness and purpose within a complex network of social ties. Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison 23
  • 24. www.wipchile.cl Chile and the UK• UK and Chile: relative leaders in digital inclusion in their region (Northern Europe, Latin America), surpassed by others.• Differences between the two could illustrate a wider range of possibilities. 24 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 25. www.wipchile.cl 25Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 26. www.wipchile.clSource:Source: World Economic Forum Global Information Technology Report 2010 26
  • 27. www.wipchile.cl UK ChileUNDP Human Development Index 26th (0.840, 45th (0.634,ranking & score, 2010 “Very High”) “High”)UNDP’s inequality-adjusted HDI 0.766 0.630scores, 2010UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index 0.355 0.505score, 2010Transparency International’s 17th (7.7) 25th (6.7)Corruption Perception Index Rank andscore, 2009 27
  • 28. www.wipchile.cl Quantitative comparisons: comparisons: Internet users in selected WIP countries, 2009 */ 2010** countries,100 80 78 77 7780 73 70 67 61 5960 55 51 48 47 45 42 3740 3220 0 Macao* Mexico** Sweden** Canada* Australia* Israel* USA** New Zealand* Czech Republic** Chile** Italy** Hungary* Portugal** Singapore* Colombia** Chile (Santiago)** Britain** Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison 28
  • 29. www.wipchile.clModel for the relationships between social and digital inclusion Norris, 2001; Van Dijk, 2005; Witte & Mannon, 2010; Helsper, 2008; Selwyn, 2004; Warschauer, 2004 Dijk, Mannon, Helsper, Warschauer, 29 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 30. Note: All individuals were middle and lower-middle class adult parentschildren attending school All individuals were middle and lower-middle class adult parents of of children attending school www.wipchile.cl Focus group selection Fathers intense Mothers intense users users Fathers limited Mothers limited users users 30 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 31. www.wipchile.cl General engagement and valuations: commonalities• ‘Digitisation inevitable’ > UK pessimistic - Chile aspirational.• The internet and mobiles perceived as distinct technologies.• Mobiles fundamental, extension of the body, an integral part of everyday life.• Mothers concerned about children - fathers a wider repertoire of reasons.• Children: a powerful driver for ICT access, very proficient but also poor trainers. – Concern about the “copy & paste”, lazy mentality of youngsters 31 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 32. www.wipchile.cl UK specificities• Engagement not a free and positive choice.• Concerns: – Safety & surveillance issues (not in Chile) – How to save money by engaging with ICT (not at all in Chile)• Mobile phones: 24 hour safety & support. ... constant access a major concern, puts people off.• (Social) networks strengthen digital inclusion- wide, informal, instant support in relation to ICTs. 32 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 33. www.wipchile.cl UK Results: Some quotes Male/fathers intense users Female/mothers intense users“…I’m constantly getting…so and so’s “It’s just like you’ve lostinvited you to join Facebook and I don’t something...respond to any of them …I get so much It’s a lifeline as well, isn’t it? You’reemail in every day anyway, the last thing dependent on it…. As much as Iyou want to do is spend more hate them sometimes.”time…...buried under a pile of messages.” Male/fathers limited users Female/mothers limited users “They laugh at you, kids, don’t they…youknow, and we are supposed to be teaching “But sometimes I think it’s too much. them […] then they start laughing and It’s just like your information is just with huffing, and like you’re useless or you’re you all the time, just like, why you need this and that.., you think like pfff where to know everything like that, you know, does this thing come from?” the football score, you know, the weather forecast... What else?” Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison 33
  • 34. www.wipchile.cl Chile specificities• Workplace and gender roles seem the most prominent aspects explaining engagement: – Limited users reported higher rates of free-lance work and more unstable jobs – Children are a motivating factor to engage with ICTs – Female limited users felt backward and sacrificed themselves (paid jobs, access to the family’s PC) for the sake of their families – Some male Chilean infrequent users boasted about not needing the internet -they could rely on relatives and colleagues 34 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 35. www.wipchile.cl Chilean results: some quotes results: Male/fathers intense users Female/mothers intense users ”To learn about “Yesterday I left my cell“Life hasn’t changed for internet] I look on phone at home and Ithem (our children), it has the internet…for wanted to die. It was likechanged for us instead” ‘Saint Google’, or I being without clothing” call the internet provider” Male/fathers limited users Female/mothers limited users “It is not that one hasn’t got“I have no motivation whatsoever the time for it. It’s rather thatto use the internet. (I use mobile “Those in kids do not leave a space (forphones) for the most basic things, Facebook are me). I mean, when one hasshort and precise. (If at need) I full of shit in some spare time, they’rewould learn how to, just as I did their heads” (logged in) there”with the cell phone” 35 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 36. www.wipchile.cl Discussion• While reasons for disengagement differed between the two countries, the patterns of social exclusion were very similar• There is greater potential for inclusion of limited users in Chile where ICT use is still more aspirational than in the UK• Home and societal pressures are stronger in the UK, workplace and societal aspirations are in Chile• These aspirations may change as the curve of technological diffusion in Chile approaches Britain’s.• Motivations and “whys” –how different are they for each group, country, culture? (cfr. Presentation by G. Blank & B. Reisdorf) 36 Helsper & Godoy-Chile & UK comparison
  • 37. www.wipchile.cl WIP/BIT 3.0 proposal• Aim: determine how ICTs affect trust & confidence between organisations and their stakeholders• Mixed methodological approach, initially qualitative and finally quantitative to generalise results:• Three sector studies: retail, local government, telecoms/pay TV – Focus groups of stakeholders (frequent internet users vs. infrequent users) – Usability tests of online and offline interfaces – Analysis of the competitive/organisational environment (including stakeholder map) & strategies of the chosen organisations; in-depth interviews of management• 3rd year: (Enhanced) WIP survey to users / non (?) users: – Draw typologies by means of regression and cluster analysis 37

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