The Mercado - Rizal FamilyThe Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time. Domingo Lam-co, the familys paternal ascendant wasa full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the closing years of the 17th century and married aChinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa.Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Even Negrito bloodaside from Chinese.Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora AlonsoRealonda, and nine sisters and one brother.FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898)Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna onApril 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila.TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913)Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegiode Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read. She was born in SantaCruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila.SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913)Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas.PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930)Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later ageneral of the Philippine Revolution.NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939)The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician.OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887)The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth.LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919)The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa.MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945)The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna.JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896)The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896.CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865)The eight child. Died at the age of three.JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945)The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster.
TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951)The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die.SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929)The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero.The 9 Women of RizalNovember 29, 2007 triciacampos2007
There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely SegundaKatigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, O-Sei San,Gertrude Beckette, Nelly Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby and JosephineBracken. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence,charm and wit.Segunda Katigbak and Leonor ValenzuelaSegunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, hisfirst love was engaged to be married to a town mate- ManuelLuz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person ofSegunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl fromPagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink,that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her onthe eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.Leonor Rivera (with Teodora Alonso)Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatestinfluence in keeping him from falling in love with other women duringhis travel. Unfortunately, Leonor‟s mother disapproved of herdaughter‟s relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero.She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believingthat Rizal had already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry theEnglishman Henry Kipping, her mother‟s choice.Consuelo OrtigaConsuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga‟s daughters, fell in love withhim. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems.The Ortiga‟s residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. Heprobably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses.He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, becausehe wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendshipwith Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo.O Sei SanO Sei San, a Japanese samurai‟s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese artof painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve hisknowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patrioticmission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman andlived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legationthere offered him a lucrative job.Gertrude BeckettWhile Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded inthe house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum.
Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters.She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizalsuddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him.Before leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters.He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship.Nellie BousteadRizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting otherladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in theresort city of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of hishost, Eduardo Boustead. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studioof Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juan‟s brother and also a frequent visitor ofthe Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal.In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarksagainst Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately,Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots.Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. It failed because Rizal refused tobe converted to the Protestant faith, as Nellie demanded and Nellie‟s mother did not likea physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. The lovers, however,parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe.Suzanne JacobyIn 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living inParis. In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacobysisters. In time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne criedwhen Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid.Josephine BrackenIn the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happydisposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter ofGeorge Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal foreye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness andboredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion thatto fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friarsand they considered her as a threat to Rizal‟s security.Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision dueto her responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufer‟s blindness was untreatable, heleft for Hon Kong on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal‟s family in Manila. Uponher return to Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for theirmarriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marryingthem. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine‟s consent tookher as his wife even without the Church blessings. Josephine later give birth
prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which might have shockedor frightened her.Jose Rizal: Travels and AdventuresFrom WikiPilipinas: The Hip n Free Philippine EncyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchBefore reaching Madrid to pursue his medical career in 1882, Jose Rizal had manystopovers. He visited the progressive English colony of Singapore, traversed thehistoric waterway of Suez Canal via the steamship Djemnah, reached the Italian cityof Naples, disembarked at the French port of Marseilles, then took a train to thehistoric city of Barcelona. His Filipino schoolmates from the Ateneo Municipal threwa party as they welcomed his arrival. In Barcelona, Rizal wrote his first essay on aforeign soil – the “El Amor Patrio” (Love of Country) – which he sent to hisfriend, Basilio Teodora, an editorial staff member of the Diariong Tagalog. By theend of 1882, Rizal decided to leave Barcelona for Madrid.Rizal lived a frugal life in Madrid, strictly budgeting both his (1) money for food,clothing and school materials; and (2)time for his studies and social life. He joinedthe Circulo Hispano Filipino and wrote the poem, Me Piden Versos (They Asked Mefor Verses). In 1884, Rizal made a splendid speech which saluted two Filipino mastersof painting, Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, in a banquet held at theNational Exposition of Fine Arts. He met and almost fell in love with Consuelo Ortigay Rey if not for his engagement with Leonor Rivera and his friendship with Eduardode Lete who had a romantic feeling for Consuelo.First TravelIn 1885, the 24-year old Rizal went to Paris, France to pursue his career as anophthalmologist. He tried his skills in music and studied solfeggio, piano and voiceculture for a month and a half. He worked as an assistant to the renownedophthalmologist, Dr. Louis de Weckert, and left for Heidelberg after a year. He settledin the house of a Lutheran, Karl Ullmer and worked in the clinics of famous Polishand German ophthalmologists, Dr. Javier Galezowsky and Dr. Otto Becker,respectively. In Heidelberg, he was astound with the flowers along the Neckar River,especially the forget-me-nots, which made him compose the poem, A Las Flores de
Heidelberg (To the Flowers of Heidelberg), on April 22, 1886. It was also in thisGerman city where the long-distance friendship between Jose Rizal and FerdinandBlumentritt began.Rizal traveled to Leipzig and attended some lectures at its local university. Afterwhich he went to Berlin to further study ophthalmology and other languages, to getfamiliar with the scenic Germany, to be part of the scientific community, and to finishhis novel,Noli Me Tangere. However, he was struck by financial problem in Berlin ashe was short of allowance from Calamba. Back to the PhilippinesThe stunning beauty of the European lands did not stop Rizal from continuouslyadoring his native land. After the Noli Me Tangere was published, he decided toreturn to Calamba despite the many warnings he received from friends and relativesalike. He had four reasons for returning to the Philippines:1. to perform an operation on Doña Teodoras eyes;2. to defend his oppressed countrymen more effectively than doing so in a foreignland;3. to find out how his Noli was received by the Filipinos and Spaniards; and4. to know the reason for Leonor Riveras long silence.Aboard the steamer Djemnah, Rizal sailed to the East via the Suez Canal on June 3,1887 and reached Saigon on the 30th of July. From Saigon, he boarded thesteamer Hayfong bound for Manila. On the sixth day of August, he arrived in Manilaand visited some friends, and reached Calamba two days later. In his native land, heopened a medical clinic and restored his mothers vision. Such “miraculous” newsspread throughout the community like wild fire, thus, his clinic was flocked by peopleaspiring for a better eyesight. Newly arrived from Germany, he began to be known as“Doctor Uliman” (from the word Aleman).Regarding his novel Noli Me Tangere, Rizal met Governor General EmilioTerrero who informed him of the charges against him. As a defense, Rizal toldTerrero that the Noli only exposes the reality. Not having read the book yet and out ofcuriosity, the governor general asked for a copy of the controversial novel, which helater confessed that he enjoyed reading. He saw no problem on the book, yet to protectRizals life which was then in danger, he assigned Jose Taviel de Andrade, a youngSpanish lieutenant, as Rizals personal bodyguard. Soon enough, the attackers anddefenders of the novel resurfaced.
 Second TravelRealizing that his familys and friends safety were at risked; and that his fight againstthe Spaniards have better chance of winning if hed stay abroad, Rizal, six monthsafter, finally decided to sail back to Europe. Before his departure, a friend from LipaCity,Batangas asked of him a poem dedicated to the industrious workers in their town.Privileged, Rizal wrote the Himno Al Trabajo (Hymn to Labor). A glance of East AsiaOn February 3, 1888, for the second time, Rizal sailed to Hongkong as a frustratedbeing who wanted the utmost reform in his native land. Terrero’s formersecretary, Jose Sainz de Varranda, followed Rizal in the said British colony, and wasbelieved to be commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on the hero. Afteralmost three weeks, on board the American steamer, Oceanic, he left Hongkong andsailed to Japan where he was invited by Secretary Juan Perez Caballero to live atthe Spanish Legation. His instinct told him that it was a bait – a way for the Spanishofficials to keep track of his activities. And since it was economical to stay at thelegation and he believed that he had nothing to hide, he accepted it. Rizal wasimpressed by the scenic Japan and had keenly observed the life, customs and cultureof the people. He had fallen in love not only with the view but more to its women,particularly with the 23-year old O-Sei-San (a.k.a. Usui Seiko). Sail to the WestRizal was almost tempted to settle in Japan with O-Sei-San, but on April 13, 1888,Rizal boarded the English steamer, Belgic bound for the United States, reaching theland on April 28. He visited San Francisco, left it on the second day for Oklahoma,then to Sacramento, then to Reno, and finally to New York. On May 16, 1888 theship, City of Rome sailed for Liverpool and where he decided to stay in London untilMarch 1899. Rizal chose to stay in London so that he could improve his Englishskills, study and do an annotation of Antonio Morgas Sucesos de las IslasFilipinas and because he believed that the said English city was a safe place for him tocarry on the reforms he wanted for the Philippines. He stayed at Dr. Antonio Ma.Regidors home and boarded at the Beckett family where he fell in love with Gertrude. In Great BritainIn London, Rizal received both good news and bad news from home. The good newswas that Rev. Vicente Garcia was defending his Noli from the attacks of the friars. Onthe other hand, the bad news were that the Filipino signatories of the “Petition of1888” and the tenants of the Calamba agrarian trouble were facing persecution; that
his brothers-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo and Mariano Herbosa, were exiledto Bohol and was denied Christian burial, respectively; and his friend, LaureanoViado, a UST medical student, was imprisoned for possessing a copy of his Noli.During his stay in this country, Rizal also made used of his time in writing essays andarticles for the La Solidaridad. On June 12, 1889, with Filipino and Spanish friends,they founded the Asociacion Hispano-Filipino which aimed for union and reforms.After ten months, Rizal left London and departed for Paris. In FranceIn Paris, Rizal continued his study on various languages and practiced his artisticskills, and finished two statues - “The Beggar” and “The Maid With A Basket.” Heorganized a social club called Kidlat Club which brought together young Filipinosresiding in France. Soon, the members of the said club founded a new Filipino society– the Indios Bravos, an organization which envisioned Filipinos being recognized bySpain for being excellent in various fields of knowledge.By January 1890, Rizals annotation of the Sucesos was finally printed and publihedby the Garnier Freres. In BelgiumWith his roommate, Jose Albert, Rizal celebrated Christmas in Paris. Shortlyafter New Year, he visited London for the last time and on January 28, 1890, left Parisfor Brussels. With Albert, they left the extravagant and gay social life in Paris andstayed in a boarding house owned by the Jacoby sisters in Brussels. Rizal continuedcontributing for La Solidaridad under the pseudonyms Dimas Alang and Laong Laan.From Calamba, Rizal received letters telling that the agrarian trouble in the provincewas getting worse, and as such, he decided to go home. But instead of going home, aletter from Paciano told him that they already lost the case against the Dominicans andthey were in need of a lawyer who would defend their family and the families inCalamba from Madrid. Rizal traveled to Madrid to seek justice but in vain – he couldnot find the right person and he heard that his family was already evicted from theirland in Calamba and other family members were banished to Mindoro and Manila. In SpainRizal had many misadventures in Madrid. For one, he challenged Antonio Lunaand Wenceslao Retana in a duel. With Luna, it was about the latters frustration withhis unsuccessful “love affair” with Nellie Boustead, and so gave negative remarks onthe lady which Rizal did not tolerated. The other encounter was with Retana who hadinsulted Rizal and his family by writing in La Epoca, an anti-Filipino newspaper, that
the Rizal family in Calamba was ejected from their lands because they did not paytheir rents. It is also from this city where Rizal heard the news of Leonor Riverasmarriage with Henry Kipping, an Englishman, which terrible broke his heart.Another marked event in Madrid was the Marcelo H. del Pilar-Jose Rizal rivalry forleadership in the Asociacion Hispano Filipino. A faction emerged from the Filipinosin Madrid, the Rizalistas and Pilaristas, Rizal and del Pilars compatriots,respectively, during the organizations election. Losing the election, Rizal decided togo back home, fearing that his presence may result to bigger and stronger factionamong the Filipinos in Madrid. But instead of going straight to Hongkong, he wentback to Brussels to finish his second novel, the El Filibusterismo. (For a detaileddiscussion regarding the novel, click here). Back in HongkongAfter the Fili was published, Rizal left Europe. Aboard the S.S. Melbourne, he sailedto Hongkong where he lived for seven months. His reasons for venturing to Hongkongwere the following :1. to leave behind his rivalry with del Pilar;2. to facilitate a Propaganda Movement in Hongkong; and3. to be proximate to his family in the Philippines.On November 20, 1891, Rizal arrived in Hongkong and was cordially welcomed bythe Filipino residents in the city, particularly, his friend Jose Ma. Basa. He resided atNo. 5 D Aguilar Street, No. 2 Rednaxela Terrace and opened a medical clinic there.Rizal had a continued correspondence with his family in Calamba and had been awareof the unsettled agrarian problem. Through a letter from his brother-in-law, Manuel T.Hidalgo, he had been informed of the deportation of twenty-five persons in Calamba,including the Rizal family. This news made Rizal even more desperate to return toManila, but his sorrow was replaced by surprise when his family visited him inHongkong and celebrated the 1891 Christmas with him.While in Hongkong, Rizal practiced his medical career. With the help of his friend,Dr. Lorenzo P. Marquez, they built a large clientèle and opened a medical clinicwhere he was recognized as an excellent eye surgeon. He was equally supported andaided both morally and financially by his family and friends with his chosen career.Another marked event during Rizals stay in Hongkong was his plan to move thelandless Filipinos to Borneo and transform the said wilderness into a “New Calamba”through the so called Borneo Colonization Project. In April 1892, he visited Borneoand negotiated with the British authorities who are willing to provide 100,000 acres of
land for the Filipinos. Many Filipino patriots found this project amusing, thus,promoted the said project. However, there were a number who objected it, one ofwhich was Rizals brother-in-law, Hidalgo. Twice did Rizal wrote a letter addressedto Governor General Eulogio Despujol informing his Borneo colonization project,with whom he received no response. Instead, Despujol commanded the Spanishconsul-general in Hongkong to notify Rizal that such project was very unpatriotic, andby immigrating Filipinos to Borneo, the Philippines will surely be lacking of laborers.Despite the many oppositions from friends and relatives, he decided to return toManila on the following reasons:1. to discuss with Governor General Despujol his Borneo colonization project;2. to form the La Liga Filipina in the Philippines; and3. to prove that Eduardo de Letes allegations on him and his family in Calambawere wrong.Before his departure, he wrote three more letters – the first addressed to his parentsand friends; the second one, to the Filipinos; and the last to Governor General EulogioDespujol. Instead of having the protection he desired, Rizal and his sister, Lucia, fellinto the Spanish trap – a case was secretly filed against Rizal, and Despujol orderedhis secretary, Luis de la Torre, to verify whether the patriot had naturalized himself asGerman citizen or not. And so the siblings sailed across the China Sea without priorknowledge of what awaits them in the Philippines.Answer:1. Instability if colonial administration2. Corrupt officials3. No representation in the Spanish Cortes4. Human Rights denied to the Filipinos5. No equality before the law6. Maladministration of justice7. Racial discrimination8. Failocracy9. Forced labor10. Haciendas owned by Friars11. Guardia CivilRizal FamilyOrignally surnamed Mercado, the Rizal family, as it became later known, was one of the prominent andinfluential families of Calamba. The Mercados acquired their fortune through the industry of
both Francisco and Teodora. They were the first to build a bahay na bato to own a carruaje (horse-drawncarriage); to maintain a personal library; and to send their children to colleges in Manila.Aside from being one of the wealthiest families in the town, they were also highly esteemed and wereknown for being hospitable and cultured, participating in many social, cultural and religious gatheringsand events in their community.Contents[hide]1 Rizals ancestry and parents2 Rizals surname3 Family Traditions4 Family Members5 Paternal Ancestors6 Influential Relatives7 References8 External Links9 Related Resources10 Citation Rizals ancestry and parentsRunning in Rizal‟s blood were mixtures of different races. Austin Craig accounted that Rizal had a trace ofchinese ancestry that came from a businessman named Domingo Lam-Co, the ancestor of Rizal‟s father,who was born in Chinchew, China. From Amoy, China where he was residing then, Lam-Co migrated toand invested in the Philippines in the late 17th century and married a half-breed Chinese-Filipinanamed Ines dela Rosa.Rizal apparently came from a Chinese-Filipino descent – Francisco Mercado Y Chinco. FranciscoMercado was born in Biñan, Laguna on May 11, 1818. He took up Philosophy and Latin in the Colegio deSan Jose in Manila. After his parents‟ death, he moved to Calamba. There he became a tenant farmer ofthe Dominican-owned hacienda and later became one of the town‟s wealthiest men. He was able toestablish a private library and kept carriage. The name „Francisco‟ was in high honor in Laguna for it hadbelonged to a famous sea captain who had been given the ENCOMIENDA of BAY for his services.Rizal‟s mother Teodora Alonso came from the clan of Lakan Dula, known as the last Malay king of Tondo.She was also traced to Eugenio Ursua whose ancestors came from Japan. She was the second daughterof Lorenzo Alberto Alonso who was a former representative of Spanish Cortes and Brigida deQuintos whose parents were Manuel de Quintos, of a well-known family in Pangasinan and ReginaUrsua who was the daughter of Benigna and Eugene Ursua.As already noted, Teodora Alonso had a trace of Japanese ancestry. Moreover, she was of Ilocano-Tagalog-Chinese-Spanish descent. Combining the paternal and maternal ancestry, therefore Jose Rizal
was born with Malay, Chinese, Japanese and Spanish lineages in his blood. Teodora Alonzo died onAugust 16, 1911 at the age of 84. Rizals surnameDomingo Lam-Co, the great-great-grandfather of Jose Rizal, decided to use Mercado as his surname in1731 to match his profession, being a merchant. He used this surname from 1731 to November 11, 1849as soon as Governor-General Narciso Claveria posed a regulation that requires them to make use ofSpanish family names. Meanwhile, for Don Francisco Mercado, Rizal‟s father, Rizal was used, whichmeans new pasture or greenfield. Family TraditionsThe Rizal family‟s traditions are bound by spirituality and firm moral ground. Everyday, they used togather to pray the rosary. Their mother would often tell the children to gather up so they can say theirprayers together.They were filled with obedience, virtue, as well as mutual respect and love for each other, especially fortheir parents. The Rizal children addressed their parents as “Tatay” and “Nanay”.Hence, when Jose lost his little sister Concha in 1865, he grieved bitterly. For the first time, according tohim, he cried because of sorrow and love.The children also learned a lot from their first teacher, their mother Dona Teodora. She was loving, kind,and indulgent, but can be a true disciplinarian. There was actually one occasion when Jose refused towear a sinamay camisa since it was rough and coarse. Because of his disobedience, his mother spankedhim. Hence, he learned his lesson so well.Aside from this, Dona Teodora also taught her children to read the Bible. She translated those passagesthey did not understand to inculcate in them the value of spirituality and goodness out of reading the HolyScripture. Family MembersA family of 13, they are paternally of Chinese ancestry and maternally descendants of a maharlika class.Jose Rizal was a mestizo from both East and West with blood from native, Chinese, Japanese andSpanish races. Francisco Mercado (b. May 11, 1818 – d. January 5, 1898), the father of Jose Rizal and consideredthe patriarch of the family, was a native of Biñan, Laguna. He was an educated and industriousfarmer who studied Latin and philosophy atColegio de San Jose in Manila. Of Chinese ancestry, hisgreat grandfather Domingo Lam-Co was a native of Chinchew (now Quanzhou), China who marriedthe Filipina Ines de la Rosa. One of the couples children was Francisco Mercado, who later marriedCerila Bernacha. Bernacha gave birth to Juan Mercado who became Cerila Alejandros husband andFranciscos father. Both Franciscos father, Juan, and grandfather, Francisco, became Capitanes ortown mayors of Biñan. Upon the death of his mother, Francisco moved to Calamba where he becamea tenant and farmer of a large Dominican estate. On 28 June 1848, he married Teodora AlonzoRealonda. In 1850 he petitioned the court to change the family name to Rizal, with all their childrenbeing surnamed as such.
Teodora Alonzo Realonda (b. November 8, 1826 – d. August 16, 1911), a Manileña, was a highlyeducated Filipina who graduated from the Colegio de Santa Rosa. Of Spanish and Japaneseancestry, Teodora was a talented woman whose interests lay in literature, culture, and business, andwas well-versed in Spanish. She helped her husband in farming and in their business. She devotedherself to the childrens education and growth as morally-upright individuals. Teodoras lineage canbe traced to Lakandula, the greatest ruler of Tondo. Her great grandfather, who was of Japaneseblood, was Eugenio Ursua (Ochoa). Her maternal grandfather was Manuel de Quintos who was apopular lawyer in his time, while her paternal grandfather was Cipriano Alonso who belonged toBiñans long list of Capitanes. Teodora was second child of Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo, an engineer anda recipient of the most sought decoration, the Knight of the Grand Order of Isabela theCatholic and Order of Carlos III; and Brigida de Quintos, a fair and well-educated lady. With her visionfailing in old age, her son took up medicine, specializing in opthalmologoy, in order to cure her. Saturnina Rizal (1850 – 1913), also known as “Neneng,” was the eldest of the Rizal children. Shemarried Manuel Hidalgo, affectionately called "Maneng" by Rizal, who was a nativeof Tanauan, Batangas. Paciano Rizal (b. March 7, 1851 – d. 1930) was the elder and only brother of Jose Rizal. Being adecade older than Rizal, Paciano became a second father to his sibling. He succeeded in sending theyoung Jose (Pepe) to Europe to study, giving the latter 700 pesos upon departure. During theyounger years Paciano would continue supporting his brother financially. After the death of Jose,Paciano joined the Revolution and was later appointed general of the revolutionary forces in Laguna.His common-law wife was Severina Decena. He died in Los Baños, Laguna on April 13, 1930. Theironly child Emiliana Rizal married her first cousin Antonio Rizal Lopez Jr., the son of Narcisa Rizal withAntonio Lopez Sr. Narcisa Rizal (1852 – 1939) was the third child of Francisco and Teodora. She was a teacher and amusician by profession, and married Antonino Lopez who was a school teacher in Morong, Rizal. Olympia Rizal (1855 – 1887) was the fourth child of the brood who married Silvestre Ubaldo, atelegraph operator from Manila. Lucia Rizal (1857 – 1919) was the fifth child of the Rizal family who was married to MarianoHerbosa of Calamba. She died in 1887. Maria Rizal (1859 – 1945) was the sixth of the eleven children who married Daniel Faustino Cruz ofBiñan, Laguna. Concepcion Rizal (1862 – 1865), also known as “Concha,” was the eight child of the Rizals, whodied at the age of three. Josefa Rizal (1865 – 1945) was the ninth child and affectionately called Panggoy. She remained aspinster throughout her life.
Jose Rizal (June 19, 1861- December 30, 1896), later to become the Philippine national hero, wasthe second son and seventh child. Trinidad Rizal (1868 – 1951) was the tenth child who, like Josefa, died without a husband. Soledad Rizal (1870 – 1929) was the youngest of the brood who later married Pantaleon Quintero, anative of Calamba. Paternal Ancestors Domingo Lam-Co, the family root, arrived from Amoy, China in 1660s and changed his name toMercado in 1697. He married late in life. Francisco Mercado y Chinco, the first son of Domingo Lam-co. Juan Mercado y Monica, youngest son of Francisco Mercado y Chinco, a captain in the Spanish army Petrona, Potenciana and Francisco Mercado, Sr., children of Juan Mercado. The youngest FranciscoMercado, Sr. was the father of Jose Rizal, Francisco Mercado (Junior). Influential RelativesJose‟s relatives who influenced him greatly mostly consisted of his mother‟s brothers: Tio Jose, TioManuel, and Tio Gregorio. Tio Jose - He is the youngest among the siblings of Teodora, and was schooled in Calcutta, India.He was Jose Rizal‟s inspiration as he sketches and paints. Tio Jose encouraged him to engage insculpturing. Tio Manuel - Known to be big and strong, he influenced Jose to visit the outdoors, do long walks withhis pet black dog, Usman, and even go horseback riding with his horse, castaño. Tio Gregorio - Through his Tio Gregorio, Jose learned the value of hard work, careful observation oflife, as well as independent thinking. Through him, Jose likewise became interested in the printedpage.Childhood 1
Definition: The state of being a child; the time in which persons are children; the condition or time from infancy to puberty.Adolescent1Definition: Growing; advancing from childhood to maturity.Adolescence 1Definition: The state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; youth, or the periodof life between puberty and maturity,generally considered to be, in the male sex, from fourteen to twenty-one. Sometimes used with reference to the lower animals.Vygotskys Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentThe Socio-Cultural PerspectiveSarah Maccarelli, Yahoo! Contributor NetworkMay 2, 2006 "Share your voice on Yahoo! websites. Start Here."MORE:Cognitive DevelopmentVygotskyFlagPost a commentPsychologist Lev Vygotsky proposed that children learn through interactions with their surroundingculture. This theory, known as the socio-cultural perspective, states that the cognitive developmentofchildren and adolescents is enhanced when they work in their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPDfor short). To reach the ZPD, children need the help of adults or more competent individuals tosupport or scaffold them as they are learning new things.According to Vygotskys theory, children can do more with the help and guidance of an adult or otherperson more experienced person than they can do by themselves. The Zone of ProximalDevelopment defines skills and abilities that are in the process of developing. The ZPD is the range of
tasks that one cannot yet perform independently, but can accomplish with the help of a morecompetent individual. For example, a child might not be able to walk across a balance beam on herown, but she can do so while holding her mothers hand. Since children are always learning newthings, the ZPD changes as new skills are acquired.In the example above, the childs mother provided assistance to the child. The mother acted as ascaffold in that situation. Scaffolding is the structure or guidance of a more experienced person.There are many different ways of scaffolding, including breaking the task down into smaller steps,providing motivation, and providing feedback about progress as the person progresses.As time goes by, the adult will continually adjust the amount of support they give in response to thechilds level of performance. For example, as the child becomes more confident in her balance, hermother can go from holding both hands, to eventually holding one hand, and eventually she can stopholding her hand. The child will soon be able to walk unassisted. Therefore, scaffolding instills theskills necessary for independent problem solving in the future.In conclusion, Vygotskys theory of cognitive development states that interactions with other peopleare essential for maximum cognitive development to occur.