E xe rcise and d ie t A good diet is central to overall good health, but do you know the bes t foods to include in your meals , and thos e bes t avoided?
The food groups The major food groups that they should be eating every day are:S tarch y food : C arbohydratesF ats and s u garsF ru it and ve ge tab le sP rote inM ilk and d airy p rod u ctsS alt and F lu id s
S tarch y food : C arbohydrates This food group is your bodys main s ourc e of energy and c ontains bread, pas ta, ric e, potatoes , noodles , c hapatti, c ereals and other s tarc hy c arbohydrates . They s hould be a part of all meals , filling about a third of your plate. A high-fibre diet may reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancerE vidence for health benefits of fibre High-fibre foods take longer todiges t, s o keep you feeling fuller for longer. The s low and s teadydiges tion of food through the gut helps c ontrol blood s ugar and as s is tswith weight maintenanc eFibre helps in the diges tive proc es s and c an help lower blood choles terolFibre promotes bowel regularity and keeping the gas trointes tinal tractc lean to help reduc e the ris k of developing divertic ular dis eas e andc ons tipation
Fats and sugarsThes e foods , although an important energy s ourc e,often c ontain few other nutrients , s o its healthier tolimit their c ons umption.Fats are lard, butter, hard margarine, cheese, whole milk and anything that containsthese ingredients, oils, etc. The sugar group, which includes foods such as cakes,biscuits, sweets, sugar-sweetened drinks and crisps, makes up the smallest sectionof the eatwell plate.Fat facts•F at trans p orts th e fat-s olu b le vitam ins A, D , E and K arou nd th e b od y•It can ofte n im p rove th e flavou r and p e rce p tion of food s , incre as ing th e irp alatab ility•E F As m u s t b e s u p p lie d from th e d ie t, and are th ou gh t to h ave a p os itivee ffe ct on h e art h e alth and th e im m u ne s ys te m•It h as a ke y role in m e m b rane s tru ctu re•F at is a conce ntrate d s ou rce of e ne rgy. Ju s t 1 g p rovid e s nine calorie s - m oreth an d ou b le th e calorie s in 1 g of p rote in or carb oh yd rate .
The two types of FatsFat can be divided into two main groups - saturated andunsaturated.Saturated fat is generally solid at room temperatureand is usually from animal sources like butter or hardmargarine.Eating too much saturated fat is associated withincreased blood cholesterol concentrations and anincreased risk of heart diseaseUnsaturated fat is usually liquid at room temperatureand generally comes from vegetable sources. Monounsaturatedand polyunsaturated fats are both included in this group.Unsaturated vegetable oils are generally a healthier alternative tosaturated fat and can be found in sesame, sunflower, soya, oliveand rapeseed oil, soft margarine and in foods such as oily fish,including mackerel, sardines, pilchards and salmon.Polyunsaturated fats contain inflammatory omega-6 fatty acidsand it’s the balance of these with omega-3s which is important.
A jam doughnut contains 10.9g fat A slice of malt loaf contains 0.7g fat A teaspoon of peanut butter contains 5.4g fat A pint of whole milk contains 22.8 g fat A handful of mixed nuts contains 21.6g fat
Its vital our diets contain protein, either fromanimal or plant sources.Meat, poultry, fish, shellfish andeggs, pulses, nuts and seeds, soyaproducts and vegetable proteinfoods
From hair to fingernails, protein is a major functional andstructural component of all our cells. Protein provides thebody with roughly 10 to 15 per cent of its dietary energy,and is needed for growth and repair.Proteins are large molecules made up of long chains of aminoacid subunits. Some of these amino acids are nutritionallyessential as they cannot be made or stored within the bodyand so must come from foods in our daily diet. Although all animal and plant cells contain some protein, the amount and quality of this protein can vary widely.
Protein from animal sources contains the full range ofessential amino acids needed from an adults diet. But redmeat, in particular, should be eaten in limited amounts dueto the high level of saturated fat it contains, which mayraise blood levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol.
A high intake of saturated fat canlead to an increased risk ofcardiovascular disease and otherrelated disorders.
As an alternative source of animal protein, choose poultry, fish and shellfishFish is a good source of animal protein. Oil-rich fish suchas salmon, mackerel, herring, tuna, trout and sardines areall rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which help to reduce therisk of developing cardiovascular disease. Shellfish is also a good source of protein and is low in fat. Aim to eat a couple of portions of fish every week, with at least one portion being an oily fish.
Eggs contain all eight essential amino acids, makingthem a perfect source of protein. However, youdhave to eat at least eight eggs a day to get all theprotein you need. Be sensible!!; include them aspart of a balanced and varied diet.
Vegetarians rely on plant sources for their daily protein. Plants don’tcontain the full range of essential amino acids and so are not as high innutritional value as animal protein. But by eating a well-balanced dietthat contains a variety of different foods, its possible to consume therequired amino acids, regardless of the time of day they’re eaten or inwhat combinations within a meal. Foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, pulses, vegetable protein foods and soya products all contain protein. There are also small amounts in grains and dairy products. Due to this variety of protein-rich foods available in the UK, protein deficiency is rare.
H e alth p rofe s s ionals s u gge s t m e n s h ou ld e at 55.5g p rote in a d ay and wom e n 45g. In p ractical te rm s , e ating a m od e rate am ou nt of p rote in - in one or two m e als e ve ry d ay – s h ou ld give you all th e p rote in you ne e d . Mos t p e op le in th e U K e at far m ore p rote in th an th e y actu ally ne e d . You s h ou ld e at two to th re e s e rvings of p rote in e ve ry d ay from b oth p lant and anim al s ou rce s . H e re are s om e e xam p le s of one s e rving (ab ou t th e s ize of a s tand ard p ack of p laying card s ): 1 00g b one le s s m e at (e g le an b e e f, lam b or p ork) 1 00g b one le s s p ou ltry (e g ch icke n or tu rke y b re as t) 1 00g fis h (e g s alm on, s ard ine s or tu na) 2 m e d iu m e ggs 3 tab le s p oons of s e e d s (e g s u nflowe r or p u m p kin s e e d s ) 3 tab le s p oons of nu ts (e g alm ond s or walnu ts )
If you can, choose to eat low-fat protein foods as these will help to: Keep your heart healthy Keep cholesterol low Minimise the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other related disorders
Fruit and vegetables are low in energy and packed withvitamins, minerals, protective plant compounds and fibre,so theyre a great source of nutrients and vital for ahealthy diet.
D u e to th e ir nu tritional and h e alth b e ne fits , its re com m e nd e dth at fru it and ve ge tab le s form th e b as is of you r d ie t, with am inim u m intake of five p ortions e ach d ay - ab ou t a th ird ofyou r d aily food cons u m p tion. C u rre ntly th e U K ave rage s two toth re e p ortions a d ay, s o we re falling we ll s h ort of th e b e ne fitsth e y can p rovid e .F ru it and ve ge tab le s s h ou ld b e incorp orate d into e ve ry m e al,as we ll as b e ing th e firs t ch oice for a s nack. P op u lation s tu d ie sh ave s h own th at p e op le wh o e at a lot of fru it and ve ge tab le sm ay h ave a lowe r ris k of ch ronic d is e as e , s u ch as heartdis eas eand s om e cancers . H e alth b e ne fits can b e gaine dfrom fre s h , canne d (in natu ral j ice ), froze n, cooke d , j ice d or u ud rie d ve rs ions . P otatoe s d ont cou nt th ou gh , as th e yre as tarc hy food.
Why are they important? Fruit and vegetables of differing colours contain diverse mixtures of phytonutrients (protective plant compounds). These can act as powerful antioxidants, protecting the body from harmful free radicals and helping to protect against certain chronic diseases such as cancer. Some fruit and vegetables are labelled as superfoods because they contain high concentrations of some phytonutrients, particularly antioxidants, which appear to be beneficial to health. Blueberries - contain flavonoids that can improve circulation and help defend against infection Broccoli - rich in the antioxidants vitamin C and beta-carotene, as well as folate, all of which can protect against cardiovascular disease and cancer Tomatoes - rich in lycopene, a powerful antioxidant that can protect against harmful free radicals But variety is the key. In addition to these phytonutrients, each variety of fruit and vegetables contains its own combination ofvitamins, minerals and fibre. Choosing a variety throughout the day will provide a diverse package of essential nutrients.
Water makes up 50 to 70 per cent of an adultstotal body weight and, without regular top-ups,our bodys survival time is limited to a matter ofdays.Waters essential for the bodys growth andmaintenance, as its involved in a number ofprocesses. For example, it helps get rid of wasteand regulates temperature, and it provides amedium for biological reactions to occur in thebody.Waters lost from the body through urine andsweat, and must be replaced through the diet. Ifyou dont consume enough you can becomedehydrated, causing symptoms such asheadaches, tiredness and loss of concentration.Chronic dehydration can contribute to anumber of health problems such as constipationand kidney stones.
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