Chapter 1 Chemistry

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Chapter 1 Chemistry

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Chemistrythescience of matter<br />By QBP Cristina A. Rmz.<br />
  2. 2. Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Physicalchange
  3. 3. Physicalproperty
  4. 4. Solution
  5. 5. Alloy
  6. 6. Solute
  7. 7. Solvent
  8. 8. Aqueos solution
  9. 9. Element
  10. 10. Compund
  11. 11. formula</li></ul>Chemistry<br />Matter<br />Mass<br />Property<br />Scientificmodel<br />Qualitative<br />Quantitative<br />Substance<br />Mixture<br />
  12. 12. Chemistry<br />Isthesciencethatinvestigates and explainsthestructure and properties of matter<br />
  13. 13. Matter<br />Isanythingthattakes up space and has mass<br />
  14. 14. Mass<br />Isthemeasure of theamount of matterthatanobjectcontains<br />Whatisn´tmatter ?<br />Figure 1.1 page 4<br />
  15. 15. Thestructure of matter<br />Referstoitscomposition<br />
  16. 16. Theproperties of matter<br />Describe thecharacteristics and behavior of matterincludingthechangesthatmatterundrgoes.<br />Figure 1.2 , 1.3 and 1.4 page 5 <br />
  17. 17. Themacroscopiclevel of matter<br />Matterthatislargeenoughto be seeniscalledmacroscopic , so all of yourobservations in chemistry and everywhereelsestartfromthisperspective<br />Themacroscopicworldistheoneyoutouch, feel, smell, taste and see.<br />Figure 1.5 page 7<br />
  18. 18. Thesubmicroscopiclevel of matter<br />Thesubmicroscopiclevelviewgivesyou a glimpseintotheworld of atoms<br />Its a world so smallthatyoucannotseeitevenwiththemostpowerful light microscope<br />Figure 1.6 <br />
  19. 19. Usingmodels in chemistry<br />Page 8 <br />Figure 1.7<br />Figure 1.8 page 9<br />
  20. 20. Usingmodels in chemistry<br />Scientists use manytypes of modelstorepresentthingsthat are hardtovisualize<br />
  21. 21. A scientificmodel<br />Is a thinkingdevicethathelpsyouunderstand and explainmacroscopicobservations<br />
  22. 22. In thefield<br />Read page 12 and 13<br />
  23. 23. Classifyingmatter<br />Classificationbycomposition<br />Whatisitmade of ?<br />Examplesucroseiscomposed of theelementscarbon, hydrogen and oxigen<br />A QUALITATIVE observationisonethat can be madewithoutmeasurement<br />
  24. 24. Afterqualitativeanalysisthenextquestionishowmuch of theelementsispresent<br />Forsucroseis: 100.0 g of sucrosecontains 42.1 g of carbon, 51.4 g of oxigen and 6.5 g of hydrogen<br />A QUANTITATIVE observationisonethat uses measurement<br />
  25. 25. Puresubstanceor a mixture?<br />In terms of purity<br />PURE: made up of onlyonekind of matter<br />MIXTURE: of differentkinds of matter<br />
  26. 26. Puresubstances<br />Figure 1.10<br />Meansthatevery bit of thematterbeingexaminedisthesamesubstance<br />A SUBSTANCE ismatterwiththesamefixedcomposition and properties<br />Sucrose, sand (silicondioxide)<br />
  27. 27. Mixtures<br />Figure 1.11 page 15<br />A combination of twoor more substances in whichthebasicidentity of eachsubstanceisnotchanged<br />Figure 1.12 page 16<br />
  28. 28. EverydayChemistry<br />Read page 17. You are whatyoueat.<br />
  29. 29. Theseparation of mixtures intosubstances<br />Mixtures cab be separatedintoitscomponentsbyphysicalprocesses (phyisical: theprocessdoesnotchangetheidentity of a substance).<br />Howcoludyouseparate a mixture of sugar and sand?<br />
  30. 30. Byusingphysicalchanges<br />A phyisicalchangeis a change in matterthatdoesnotinvolve a change in theidentity of thesubstance (boiling, freezing, melting, evaporating, dissolving, and crystallizing)<br />
  31. 31. Physicalproperties<br />Are characteristics of a sample of matterthat can be observedormeasuredwithoutanychange in itsidentity<br />Examples: state (solid, liquid, gas), color, solubility, boilingpoint, meltingpoint, etc.<br />
  32. 32. Look at figure 1.13 page 20<br />
  33. 33. Types of mixtures<br />HETEROGENEOUS mixtures<br />Heteromeansdifferent<br />So, itsonethatdoesnothave a uniformcomposition and in whichthe individual substancesremaindistinct<br />Thecomponentsexist as distinctregionscalledphases = you can seethedifferentsubstances in the mixture <br />
  34. 34. HOMOGENEOUS: homo meansalike, are thesamethroughout, they are calledsolution (mightappearto be onepuresubstance)<br />Solutions are solids, liquidsor gases<br />Alloys are solidsolutions, table 1.1 page 23<br />
  35. 35. Solutions<br />Are composedbaytwocomponents: solute and solvent<br />Water + sugar: water = solvent (dissolvesthesolute) and sugar = solute (beingdissolve). <br />Aqueoussolution = whenthesolventiswater<br />
  36. 36. Look at page 26 <br />
  37. 37. Substances: purematter<br />ELEMENTS: thebuilding blocks, thesimplestform of matter (figure 1.16)<br />117 elements. Figure 1.17 page 27<br />COMPOUNDS: made of twoor more substances<br />Theproperties of thecompound are differentfromtheproperties of theelementsthatcomposethecompound<br />Table 1.3 page 30<br />
  38. 38. Look at page 29<br />
  39. 39. Formulas of compounds<br />Is a combination of thechemical symbols that show whatelementsmake up a compound and thenumber of atoms of eachelement<br />Table 1.3 page 30 secondcolumn<br />
  40. 40. Session 1.1 assessment page 31<br />
  41. 41. Properties and changes of matter<br />PHYSICAL PROPERTIES are thosethatdontinvolvechanges in composition<br />
  42. 42. PHYSICAL QUALITATIVE PROPERTIES<br />Such as: solid, hard…<br />PHYSICAL QUANTITATIVE PROPERTIES<br />Such as: meltingpoint, density, mass…<br />Figure 1.20 page 32<br />
  43. 43. States of matter<br />Solid<br />Liquid<br />Gas<br />Plasma <br />Read: states of matter page 23<br />Figure 1.21 page 33<br />
  44. 44. Change of state<br />Readchanges of state page 33<br />Fusion<br />Solidification<br />Boiling<br />Condensation<br />Liquefaction<br />sublimation<br />

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