According to Chomsky, …By the 1970’s, behaviorism gave way to cognitive science.The problem with behaviorism is that…(p.3-4 Essential Linguistics)
Now that you are more of the hypothesis experts, let’s revisit your visuals.
Su2012 ss lg week two.full p pppt
Week of 6/11/2012
Content ObjectivesThis week we will: Review chapter one material:(1)The process of first language acquisition (FLA)(2) Behaviorist vs. cognitive perspectives of FLA(3)Chomsky’s theories of Generative Grammar and Universal Grammar Identify key theories associated with SLA, while comparing with that of FLA.
Language Objectives We will accomplish our CO by: ◦ As a whole group we will review the issues of first language development. ◦ In cooperative group we will map the key elements associated with the main theories of second language acquisition. ◦ Read for new information and identify a specific text structure (compare/contrast).
B.F. Skinner (1957) : Language is learned through imitation and reinforcement. Children learn language through positive reinforcement, i.e., every time the child says something “correctly,” the child is praised by the caretaker. In the behaviorist perspective, this causes the child to remember and internalize the structure to be learned.
Language learning is a complex processthat involves much more than justimitation and reinforcement! It involves children interacting withtheir environment and testing hypotheses (Chomsky,1959). Behaviorism does not explain why children make some errors and not others!
Cognitive Science Perspective onLanguage Acquisition Cognitive perspective explains how children create new utterances that they have never heard before (i.e., they are not simply imitating adult language structures that they have already heard). - Argument against behaviorist view of language acquisition Child-generated sentences give good evidence that young children do not simply imitate adults’ speech, but overgeneralize language rules.
Chomsky’s Theory of GenerativeGrammar Generative Grammar ◦ A limited set of rules for the unlimited generation of language Deep Structure (DS) vs. surface structure (SS) of language (generation of SS from the same DS) “The boy threw the ball./The ball was thrown by the boy”: 2SS (ACTIVE & PASSIVE),1DS (AGENT/DOER = boy; Action = throwing; OBJECT = the ball)
Deep Structure & Surface Structure SS: the syntactic structure of the sentence, which a person speaks and writes. How many SS and DS are there in the following sentence?“The chicken is ready to eat.”DS/underlying structure (more abstract than SS): considered to be in the speaker’s/writer’s mind.Structurally ambigouschicken = agent/chicken = object
Chomsky’s Theory of UniversalGrammar Children are born with an innate capacity for language/linguistic knowledge. Humans are pre- programmed to learn language. EVERY CHILD HAS THE POTENTIAL TO LEARN ANY LANGUAGE IN THE WORLD! This innate capacity or knowledge is called Universal Grammar Knowledge of those things common to all languages (e.g., have subjects and predicates, pre/post-positions) Proposed to use the language acquisition device [LAD].
Children’s Errors in FLA and What theyTeach Us Errors children make when acquiring English as L1: ◦ He hitted me.* ◦ She bringed me the toy.* ◦ We goed to the party.*Errors children DON’T make when acquiring L1 = evidence for their innate ability.“Is the person who is sitting at the table is a linguist?”* (p. 16)
The Wug Test (Berko, 1958) Children acquire language rules in a productive and analytical way (not in rote fashion).
FLA occurs more rapidly than other kinds of developmental learning (e.g., motor skills) - even without formal instruction.Uttering grammatical sentences>tying shoe laces Early correction of children’s language output tends to inhibit rather than encourage FLA.
Recapping FLA Concepts How would you explain the behaviorist and cognitive perspectives on language acquisition to someone who is unfamiliar with these concepts? Giveexamples of the behaviorist explanation for language learning.Give examples that support Chomsky’s theories of Universal and Generative Grammar.
Krashen’s Theories of SLA: Map out a Hypothesis1. Learning/Acquisition Activity: Hypothesis (p. 35)2. The Natural Order • Divided into teams of 3. Hypothesis (p. 36) • Review your assigned3. The Monitor Hypothesis (p. theory. 37) • Create a visual that4. The Input Hypothesis (p. 38) represents the main5. The Affective Filter points of your theory on Hypothesis (p. 39) chart paper. • We’ll revisit the visual after the lecture on Krashen’s 5 Hypotheses.
The Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis (Krashen): 2 Independent systems of LanguagePerformance Learning: Conscious process of accumulating knowledge Acquisition: Subconscious process Explicit Learned “Knowing Learning Grammar/ about” a Rules language Natural Input Acquired “Picking up” a (similar to L1 Competence language development)
Learned System This system is the product of formal instruction, and it comprises a conscious process, which results in conscious knowledge about the language (e.g., vocabulary and grammar rules through drill and practice). Is mathematics learned or acquired? Why?
Acquired System The product of a subconscious process - very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. “Picking up” an L2 in another country from long periods spent in interaction with native speakers of the language is acquisition.
Language Acquisition TheoryAcquisition vs. LearningStephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell, 1983 Acquisition: Learning: Subconscious Conscious Similar to first Knowing about language language development Focus is on grammar Focus is on needs Corrections of errors and interest of Involves drills and students grammar exercises All attempts at communication are praised and reinforced; errors are accepted as developmental Involves student- centered Situational activities
The Natural Order Hypothesis(Krashen) The acquisition of grammatical ING (progressive) structures follows a PLURAL COUPULA (―to be‖) natural order that is AUXILIARY (progressive, as in ―he is going‖ predictable. ARTICLES (a, the) It is independent of IRREGULAR PAST (e.g., ―ate‖) the learner’s age & L1 background. REGULAR PAST (e.g.,‖ walked‖) III SINGULAR –S POSSESIVE -S “Average” order of acquisition of grammatical morphemes for ESL (children & adults)
Monitor Hypothesis: Language learning may not lead to language acquisition. The acquisition The learning system system as an as a monitor/editor - utterance initiator - When the focus of language When the focus of language is grammatically correct is communicating for communication, language is meaning, language is more learned; therefore, is subject easily acquired. to the influences of self- Learned competence monitoring. (the monitor)Acquiredcompetence Output = acquired AND learned together Acquisition and learning in L2 production
Krashen’s Monitor Hypothesis Knowing how language works and how words are comprised can facilitate the language acquisition process. This hypothesis suggests that knowledge of the rules of language helps second language learners to check or monitor the language they produce or their linguistic output. This can occur with both oral and written output. Writing > Speaking
Monitor Hypothesis continued: The monitor acts in a planning editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: ◦ The second language learner has sufficient time ◦ He/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness ◦ He/she knows the rule.
Input Hypothesis Condition 1: Language is acquired by receiving comprehensible input with linguistic items that are a slightly beyond the learner’s current level. Current Level of competence = “i” Comprehensible Input contains “i” + 1
The Input Hypothesis Explains how second language acquisition takes place. Only concerned with acquisition not learning. The learner improves and progresses along the natural order when he/she receives comprehensible input in the second language. “i+1” input is appropriate for ELLs’ current stage of linguistic competence.
Affective Filter Hypothesis High motivation, Condition 2: a low affective filter to strong self- allow the input “in” confidence, & a low level of anxiety lead Filter to being betterInput LAD Acquired equipped for Competence classroom performance & SLA Operation of the “affective filter”
Affective Filter Conversely, the opposite characteristics can raise the affective filter and form a mental block that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition when a person feels nervous or threatened. A high filter can impede language acquisition.
Becoming Hypothesis Experts: JigsawActivity Pretend that you’re teaching students who are non-education majors about your group’s hypothesis. Create an analogy for remembering your team’s hypothesis—be ready to explain your analogy to the class. Come up with an original phrase to help you/classmates remember the 5 hypotheses. Act out your hypothesis—BE CREATIVE!
Let’s Meet Stephen Krashen Two Conditions in Which L2 Learners Acquire a New Language The Silent Period http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRr eug&feature=related
Reactions to Krashen’s Theory of SLA M. Long agrees with Krashen on some points but not others. His research shows that teaching rules in context through use of negotiated interactions makes “i + 1” language input more comprehensible.
How do we best support SLA? Contextualize learning Differentiate to make language instruction through a input comprehensible variety of (e.g., visuals, hands- meaningful/communi on, & guarded vocab.) cative activities Create an affectively Allow preproduction supportive climate level students should (e.g., L1 use & small be develop listening groups) comprehension without requirement of performing orally
Additional Points to Remember about SLA…. Neurological Factors (accent remains post critical period) pp. 42-43 Cognitive Factors (younger = acquisition without needing to analyze the L2) p. 43 Affective Factors (self-conscious) can create a barrier to acquisition pp. 43-44 Interlanguage – in-between system (Yule, pp. 191-192) Fossilization – fixed repertoire of L2, not progressing any further p. 44
Additional SLA Concepts: Create a Slide1. The Critical Period Hypothesis Activity: (F & F, pp. 41-42)2. Interlanguage (Yule, pp. 191- • Divided into teams of 192) 2/3.3. Fossilization (F & F, p. 44) • Investigate your4. Communicative Competence assigned theory/concept. (Yule, p. 194 • Create PowerPoint slides that represent your understanding of the theory/concept • Teach the class!
Using comparison/contrast tounderstand text Authors compare 2 things to show how they are alike and different. Sometimes, they define a new word by telling how it is like or different from something that they think their readers know about by using comparison words and contrast words Comparison words: like, just as, similar to, the same as Contrast words: in contrast, different from this, on the other hand, however, whereas
Compare & Contrast: Word Clue toDefine Key terms The freshman year of college is the first year of college study; it is like grade thirteen in that it is the 13th year that students will be in school. In contrast to the bachelor’s degree, the master’s degree requires six years of college study – four years to obtain the bachelor’s degree and an additional two years for the master’s degree.
Comparison and Contrast WordClue Exercise 1 What is the clue word that tells us what each of the following key terms means? 1) The smallest asteroid are irregular in shape, like boulders. 2) Whereas asteroids travel between the planets in roughly circular orbits, the orbits of comets are highly elliptical, extending far beyond Pluto’s orbit.
Comparison and Contrast WordClue Exercise 2 A unified field theory is one in which two forces, seemingly different from each other, are shown to be basically identical. According to such a theory, unification will take place at various stages as the energy and temperature increase. Identical is: (a) different, (b) unified, (c) equal, and (d) level