Ss & PS are build out of words >words are built out of morphemes > morphemes are build out of phonemesPhonemes don’t contribute to meaning as a whole.
e.g., Double negative (two negatives cancel each other out) as in “*I didn’t buy no tickets”.Acceptable in Middle English and standard French “Je ne sais pas”“ I didn’t buy any tickets at all”. “any” + ‘at all” are doing exactly what no is doing.
Spanish-speaking students might say/write a noun before an adjective due to their L1 influencee.g.,* I live in a house white. What is the most likely explanation for the occurance of this error?
ELL Ss are not only learning English as a second language but grade level content at the same time. This is why we need to emphasize …
Su 2012 ss syntax(1)
Discrete Combination of Language(Pinker, 2007) Sentences/Phrases (I love dogs.) Words (dogs) Morphemes (dog-s)
Greek origin— “putting together” or “arrangement” Earlier Approach: attempt to produce accurate description of the sequence in the linear structure Recent Approach: greater focus on the underlying rule system that we use to generate sentences (Chomsky)
Descriptive Grammar vs. PrescriptiveGrammar Descriptive Grammar: A system, which describes how a language is actually spoken. Prescriptive Grammar: prescribes how one “ought” to talk reflecting the grammarian’s views of what is acceptable. e.g., Never begin a sentence with “because”.
Grammar from a Descriptive Viewpoint Rather than stating that one sentence structure is “correct” and another is “incorrect,” linguists describe how people compose and use sentences in real life. For example, ending a sentence with a preposition, when writing, is not considered incorrect from a descriptive viewpoint (i.e., “Who do you want to eat with?”)
Linguists rely on native speakers’ use of language in order to determine what sentence structures are grammatically acceptable or not as opposed to the rules set forth in grammar books. For example: He was tall, dark, and handsome. He was handsome, dark, and tall.
Premise: if students are able to memorize grammar rules, then they’ll be able to apply them when writing How useful is it to teach grammar in a prescriptive manner? Grammar workbooks, dictionaries “Correct” vs. “incorrect”
“Rather than trying to develop a set of rules for students to learn, linguistics attempt to make explicit the subconscious rules people use to produce and understand language” (Freeman & Freeman, 2004, p. 219). Descriptive, not prescriptive
◦ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NfN_gcjGoJo&NR=1◦ “I shot an elephant in my pajamas.” Who is in the speaker’s pajamas? The speaker or the elephant? The words do not have a double meaning, but the sentence does. (p. 219)
Some sentences are ambiguous, not because of words having multiple meanings, but because the sentence has 2 different structures.
What are some strategies that you can employ to call students’ attention to the syntactic structure of English?In what ways can you effectively teach the following set of structures? In your small group, come up with a mini lesson. Be creative.(1)Mr. Phat expects Mr. Thin to paint himself.(2)Mr. Thin believes Mr. Phat will paint himself.
Strategies to teach syntactic structurescontinued(3) Visiting linguists can be boring (linguists who is visiting = boring).(4) Visiting linguists can be boring (to visit linguists = boring).(5) Kyle paid the bill. (active)(6) The bill was paid by Kyle. (passive)