Content ObjectivesOur mission for this week will be to: Identify the key attributes of building background, comprehensible input, learning strategies, interaction, practice & application, lesson delivery, and review & assessment. Distinguish factors in “sheltering” a lesson to ensure that it is comprehensible for CLD students. Apply strategies to make grade-level, content-area curriculum comprehensible to all students. 2
Language ObjectivesWe will accomplish this by: Listening to and identifying effective strategies when teaching a story. Articulating how we would shelter instruction to ensure that input is comprehensible. Applying strategies in small groups and with partners. Assessment: Identifying in teams ways we can shelter instruction for our “students.” 3
Key VocabularyVocabulary Quilt Experiential BackgroundFold a piece of chart Academic Backgroundpaper to make sixboxes. Oral VocabularyWrite or draw what Reading Vocabularycomes to mind whenyou read the Incidental Vocabularyfollowing words. Intentional Vocabulary
Experiential and Academic BackgroundTaking into consideration andexplicitly linking CLD Throughoutstudents existing knowledge/ every lessonbackground and new learning. CLD students may not have the background knowledge Take what CLD students and experiences needed to fully know and build a bridge participate and comprehend to facilitate transfer. academic tasks. CIMA (c) 2012
What students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to the content being presented by the teacher. (Marzano, 2004)
Definition of Vocabulary Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively: oral vocabulary reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. ( Reading First)
Building Background: Vocabulary and Connection Vocabulary knowledge correlates to comprehension. It takes 12 meaningful interactions with a word to create mastery. Comprehension depends on 90-95% knowledge of words in a text. To overcome vocabulary deficit in CLD students, we must explicitly teach it daily.
Incidental & Intentional Vocabulary No one single instructional strategy is sufficient for optimal vocabulary learning. Effective instruction includes opportunities for both incidental word learning and intentional word teaching throughout all grades.Incidental:Exposure to & interaction with increasingly complex and rich oral language and by encountering lots of new words in text (own reading or being read to).Intentional:Specific words are selected for explicit and in-depth instruction.
Cognate Activities Put book pages on an overhead and point out cognates. Have students work in pairs to find cognates in a text. Create a cognate wall. Create a cognate classroom dictionary. Have students work together to find and then categorize cognates. Same spelling-colonial Predictable variation - civilization/civilizacion Same root - sport/deporte
Quilt Review As a group revisit your vocabulary quilt and add your definitions for each term on your team quilt. On a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions: 1. Discuss meaningful connection from your own background knowledge/experience to help you remember the words as a group. 2. How are you going to apply this knowledge in your future classroom? 3. Why is it important to vocabulary development or to building background? 4. In what way will knowing this information improve your future practice with CLD students?
Vocabulary & Concept Development = KNOWLEDGE
Three functions of memory… Sensory Memory Working Memory permanent Memory 13
Before the Lesson: Sensory Memory• Sensory memory deals with the temporary storage of data from the senses.• The Sensory memory serves as a (very) temporary repository for this information from our senses.• However, we cannot process all of the information from the senses. Rather, we pick and choose. (Marzano, 2004)
Activating Sensory Memory Explicitly linking to background knowledge Explicitly linking to cultural knowledge Provide visual/sensory cues 15
Linking Language Have students list descriptive words that support your concept vocabulary. Have students find cognates. Link languages by drawing lines between native language and English language to provide label for already known words. Have students write a predictive paragraph about the topic.
Throughout the Lesson: Working Memory Working memory can receive data from sensory memory (where it is held only briefly), from permanent memory (where it resides permanently), or from both. If processing goes well in working memory, information makes it to permanent memory. If processing does not go well, information does not make it to permanent memory.
Vocabulary Effective InstructionTeachers Use explicit instruction to teach key words and technical vocabulary prior to reading. Limit the number of new words taught at one time. Provide multiple exposures to words across contexts. Provide opportunities for students to discuss and use new words in and out of class.Students Use words meanings in a variety of contexts. Discuss the relationships between words. Use strategies to figure out the meanings of new words.
Review & Assessment: Permanent Memory Permanent memory contains information that has been stored in such a way that is available to us. Permanent memory is the repository of our background knowledge- academic and experiential.
Four-Dimensional Study Preparation 4. Word: Incidental Vocabulary Buildingreading they learn language in authenticI learn incidenal vocabulary by Background Experiential contexts. vocbulary to our EFL students so It is important to teach incidental books. 3. From Background Picture: Academic Background my life. . Oral Vocabulary no t acil p m/ no t ce nno C 1. Sentence from the class/text. l a no ss ef or P. 2 Reading Vocabulary Incidental I i i everyday interactions/life. Vocabulary Incidental vocabulary is the vocabulary we learn from Intentional Vocabulary i
Comprehensible InputComprehensible Input is Throughoutdelivering instruction in amanner in such a manner that every lessonall students understand theinformation being presented. Helps the CLD student Through the use of visuals, develop meaning. hands-on activities, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary. 24
Comprehensible Input “Making the message understandable to students is referred to as comprehensible input.” (Krashen, 1985) 25
Four Key Components of Comprehensible Input Visuals Hands-on Cooperative Learning Guarded Vocabulary 26
There is no such thing as an unmotivated learner. There are, however, temporary unmotivated statesin which learners are either reinforced and supported or neglected and labeled. (Jensen, 2000) 27
If we want our students to learnwhat we are teaching, we must be awareof their states of mind and navigate them. 28 (Jensen, 2000)
Navigating the States of Mind Providing comprehensible input through varying degrees of linguistically and cognitively demanding tasks. Varying group configurations. Supporting the native language. Actively monitoring teacher “state of mind.” 29
Visuals Use of manipulatives, models, concrete objects, etc. to illustrate and demonstrate and provide a visual link to key concepts and vocabulary.* Pictures * Maps * Props * Interactive Media * Diagrams 30
Cooperative Learning Students work collaboratively with other students to achieve common goals. Helps reduce language barriers and classroom pressures on the affective filter. 31
GROUPING CONFIGUATIONS I + TPSI Total Group (Teacher to Class) Individual Partner(Student to Teacher/ (Student to Student)Teacher to Student) Small Group (Focus on CLD Biography) 32
Guarded Vocabulary Explicitly Teach and Paraphrase Academic Vocabulary Controlled Rate of Speech Speak clearly, separating each word to reveal prefixes and suffixes; repeat often; ask the students to repeat Practice Tools Created for Vocabulary As much as possible, develop terms in context Consistent Use of Instructional Words Use the same words each time you ask students to do a particular thing 33
Hands-OnUse of hands-on activities and manipulatives to supportstudent comprehension by providing a way for studentsto make meaningful connections to new learning. – Create posters, models, etc. – Engage students in activities reflecting key concepts from the lesson (e.g., role play, discussion , debates, etc. – Use manipulatives to reinforce key concepts. – Do a Reader’s Theater. 34
AH-HA! vs. HA-HA! Remember, making connections is not enough.We still need to elaborate on them make the right ones, strengthen them, and integrate them into other learning. (Jensen, 2000) 35
Learning StrategiesLearning strategies(cognitive, metacognitive, Throughoutand social/ affective) that every lessonCLD students use to increasecomprehension. Strategies should be introduced by the teacher,Provide CLD students with modeled by the teacher,explicit learning strategies practiced in pairs, groups,needed to monitor understanding and individually.and comprehend instruction. 36
Learning Strategies Defined Cognitive: Activities that include how to manipulate materials mentally or physically to facilitate learning. Metacognitive: Used in planning for learning, self-monitoring, and evaluating understanding. Social/Affective: Interacting with others for learning in ways that support learning. 37
Implications Why is it important to know what type of learner you are? How might this affect your teaching? In what ways will you apply this information in the future?
InteractionDiscussion between whole Throughoutgroup, teacher and student, every lessonor between students andstudents. Multiple grouping and interaction Provide CLD students configurations allow for students to with the opportunity for clarify key concepts, make meaningful frequent interaction and connections to background knowledge, discussion between the and use L1 when necessary. teacher, students and students. 39
Interaction• Incorporated multiple grouping configurations.• Group configurations supported CO/LO.• Allowed use of L1.
Kinds of Interaction Total Group (Teacher to Class) Individual Partner (Student to Teacher/ (Student to Student) Teacher to Student) Small Group (Focus on CLD Biography) Student interaction is critical to language development. Students cannot learn a language that they do not have the opportunity to use. In order to develop cognitive academic language proficiency, CLD students must have daily opportunities to read, write, speak, and listen in all content 41 areas. (Vogt, 2000)
What Have We Learned From Research?• Ability grouping: placing students into groups based on their academic skills (ability).• Traditional ability grouping has been unsuccessful in meeting the academic and social needs of students who are not in the top group.• All students benefit from support and assistance from individuals with more experience.• Individual voices may not be heard during whole class instruction. 42
The Five Steps to Setting Up Interactive Learning GroupsStep 1: Revisit CLD/EFL student biographies.Step 2: Determine academic purpose for grouping.Step 3: Determine task & outcome to be completed by group.Step 4: Designate groups to reflect CLD/EFL student biographies.Step 5: Authentically assess work completed by the group. 43
Practice/Application Provide hands-on materials and/or manipulatives for students to practice using new content knowledge. Provide activities for students to apply content and language knowledge in the classroom. Provide activities that integrate all language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). 45
Lesson DeliveryThe delivery of the lesson,starting with content and Throughoutlanguage objectives, highlighting every lessonkey vocabulary and concepts, andactively engaging CLD studentsin the learning process. Incorporation of content and language objectives, Teachers promote practice of key vocabulary, and students academic application of learning success when each of strategies that promote active these elements are engagement of students in the focused on throughout learning process. the lesson. 46
Reflecting on Lesson Delivery• Supported CO/LO.• Engaged students 90-100% .• Appropriately paced lesson. 47
Review and AssessmentEnsuringcomprehension by Throughoutaligning to content and every lessonlanguage objectives. Provides you an Using assessment tools that opportunity to monitor the inform grades as determined level of linguistic and by the implementation of academic growth. formative and summative assessment. 48
Starting with the CLD Student BiographyAcademic: Sociocultural:• Explore • The “whole”• Known to Getting to the heart of our student • Ability to unknown CLD students’ biographies learn throughCognitive: authentic Linguistic:• Ways of knowing assessment. • Observe/listen• Thinking is • Understand the culturally bound many dimensions of L1 & L2 50
Let’s make what isimportant more measurable,rather than making what’smeasurable more important. 51