Making Decisions on a Moving Train: Instructional Approaches A
Our Mission (the what)…•instructional approaches.We will do this by (the how)…• Observing approaches, methods, strategies, and techniques in practice.• Initiating and documenting critical conversations about theory into practice.
Guided Note-TakingKey What I What I Examples inConcepts Know Learned PracticeGrammaticalApproachCommunicativeApproachCognitiveApproach
Ecuador: What is significant?
“You can’t be neutralon a moving train!” - Zinn
What you believe shapes yourinstructional approach!Philosophical Perspectives ApproachesBehaviorist GrammaticalSocial Constructivist CommunicativeCognitivist Cognitive - Herrera & Murry
Table 6.2Philosophical Grammatical Cognitive CommunicativeApproach (Historical) (Contemporary) (Contemporary)Perspectives on Fixed/Staged/ Typically Staged but Interactively Variable/Human Development Predictable Environmentally Variable Impactable Locke Piaget Vygotsky Hume Bakhtin WatsonPerspectives on Behaviorist Cognitivist Social ConstructivistLearning Stimulus-Response (S-R) Guided Guided or Independent Construction of Meaning Construction of Meaning Skinner Gazzaniga, Edelman Bruner, Ansubel, PapertPerspectives on Deductive Inductive InductiveLanguage Learning (Specific to General) (General to Specific) (General to Specific) Rule/Structure Driven Interaction/Guidance Interaction Driven Driven Memorizing language rules Explicit teaching/modeling Language learning through and for and/or sentence patterns with of learning strategies and authentic communication Drill and Practice Emphases language for communication Palmer Oxford, Chamot, O’Malley, Chomsky, Krashen, Terrell, Bialystok Echevarria, Vogt, Short
Day 2: The Three Instructional ApproachToday we will: Discuss the grammatical instructional Discuss the communicative approach Discuss the cognitive approach
Herrera & Murry
Characteristics Methods• Teacher-centered. • Grammar-Translation• Emphasizes rules and • Direct Method structure of target • Audiolingual language. • TPR - Herrera & Murry CIMA
End of Day: Daily ActivityThe Umbrella Reading Approach Activity: Students should divide into 3 groups. Each group will be assigned an instructional approach. A choice of children’s reading material will be available from which to select at least 1 book. This reading book will be used to create a lesson plan demonstrating your assigned instructional approach activity. Demonstrations will be presented the following day.
Day 4: Sheltered InstructionToday we will: Discuss Sheltered instruction Discuss content and language objectives Discuss vocabulary development
Content Objectives to:Our mission for this session will be ◦ Learn about the Sheltered Instruction – specifically the SIOP Method of Sheltered Instruction. ◦ Distinguish between a content objective and a language objective. ◦ Generate language and content objectives which reflect grade-level content-area curriculum. ◦ Develop ways to facilitate students’ schematic connections and vocabulary development.
Language ObjectivesWe will accomplish this by:Listening and identifying content and language objectives witha partner and documenting these for whole group discussion.Reading and identifying language and content objectives incooperative groups.Assessment: Individually writing language and contentobjectives. Identifying strategies to bridge and connect students’ experiential and academic knowledge and new academic vocabulary and concepts. Practicing new vocabulary as a building block for understand CLD students.
Lesson preparation capitalizeson CLD students abilities to Throughoutconnect to backgroundknowledge, prior experiences, every lessonand new learnings. Teachers who identify the critical concepts that CLD Adaptation of content, use students need to know and of meaningful activities, explicitly teach these to CLD and use of supplementary students promote academic materials. success!
Imagine objectives as a road trip: At the beginning, let everyone know where we are going (both in writing and by verbally stating the objectives). During the trip, point out important things along the way (through strategies, interaction, etc.). At the end of the trip, announce that we have arrived at our destination (restating the objective at the end).
• Content objectives set the stage for learning.• Content objectives identify the key content concept(s) to be covered in the lesson.Content objectives are tied to grade-level content standards.
We will learn about fables and folktales from diversecultures, and determine their main message, lesson, or moral.
We will do this by _______ (meaningful activities) rooted in language and academic development.
Language objectives: include L, S, R, W activities throughout the lesson Language objectives are rooted in the content objectives. Language objectives provide concrete links Language objectives can be used to assess learning
In cooperative groups we will do a four square to define the key vocabulary.In pairs we will turn and talk to our partner about the fables lesson.We will individually draw our mental images to create a class book.
Content Objectives Language Objectives
Standard/Benchmark: Content and Language Objectives Putting it all Together Final questions to consider: L2 Are your content and language objectives written in student friendly terms? What is MY Plan? L1 Does CO reflect grade-level concepts that are critical for ELLs students to know? Do your LO reflect meaningful/purposeful activities Speaking that will actively engage ELL students in the learning process?Content objectives: Language Development Listening Writing L1 Social and L1 TPSI: Varied Group Listening/ Cultural Reading/ Processes Configurations! Speaking Writing Cognitive Academic Development Development This portion is the “vehicle” for getting to the Content Objective and can include differentiated group configurations for language use as well as a Activities L1 goal of moving from teacher modeled to L2 independent assessment! “Meaningful Activities”
Application: 5 Steps to Writing Content ObjectivesStep 1: Identify the State Standard, Benchmark, Indicator, etc.Step 2: Identify the key vocabulary within the standard.Step 3:Identify the content you wish to teach (the “WHAT”).Step 4:Write a sentence that identifies the content you want to teach using the key vocabulary from the standard.Step 5: Revisit the Content Objectives to verify that it is written in student friendly terms.
Content and Language Objectives L2 What is MY Plan? L1 SpeakingHistory Standard:The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of significant individuals, Languagegroups, ideas, events, eras, and developments in the history of Kansas, the United States, Development Listening Writingand the world, utilizing essential analyticalSocial and research skills. and L1 L1 Cultural ProcessesContent objectives:•We will identify the early culture of Navajo people living in the Southwest. Cognitive Development Academic Development•We will reflect upon the ways the Navajo live today in the Southwest.•We will compare/contrast the Navajo way of life with the Narragansett, Ojibway, Activities L1and Cherokee. L2
Application: 5 Steps to Writing Language ObjectivesStep 1: Identify language objectives by determining “HOW” you will teach your content objective.Step 2: Begin the language objective by stating what meaningful activitiy you will do with students.Step 3:Identify the verb (L, S, R, W) that supports the completion of the activity.Step 4:Decide on the type of grouping configuration you will use to complete the activity.Step 5: Put pieces 2-4 together and check the completed Language Objective to make sure they are written in student friendly terms (repeat as necessary).
Content and Language TPSI: Varied Group Objectives Configurations! L2 What is MY Plan? L1 “Meaningful Activities” SpeakingListening/ We will listen to Ms. Melton and do a think-pair-shareSpeaking regarding the lives of different cultures of the Indian tribes. Language Development Listening Writing We will share our comparisons with our L1 Social and partner and L1 with the whole group using a tri-fold. Cultural Processes Cognitive AcademicReading/ We will read as a class about the long walk and Development Development jigsaw the effects of this on Navajo people.Writing We will write similarities and differences of the Navajo and Activities L1 tribes studied in other regions using our Magic Books. L2
Tell it , Show it , Write it • Use content and language objectives to introduce the lesson. • Make sure content and language objectives are written at the academic and linguistic level of the students. • Review content and language objectives throughout the lesson to guide instruction. • Close the lesson with a review of the content and language objectives to further solidify what has been learned.
Practice with Content and Language Objectives Explanation: Read each sentence below and decide whether each sentence is a content objective (CO) or a language objective (LO). If it is a content objective write “CO” in the blank. If it is a language objective write the letter “LO” in the blank. ______1. Individually we will listen to the video and complete the guided-note taking response sheet. ______2. We will turn and talk to a partner and share out loud what we know about “The Frog Prince.” ______3. We will compare/contrast the Navajo way of life with the Narragansett, Ojibway, and Cherokee. ______4. We will jigsaw an article in cooperative groups and articulate the key concepts in our section to our peers.
Post in a prominent place in the room.Keep content and language objectives posted in the same place in the room.Keep content and language objectives posted throughout the lesson.
Remember that we and our students all have our “ah-ha” moments at different times. For CLD students, the class (material, instruction, and language) may be so overwhelming that mentioning the objectives at the beginning of class may be lost in all of the “hubbub” of the lesson. Posting objectives gives CLD students additional processing time.
End of Day: Daily Review ActivityIn small teams, create your own content and language objectives.Use the reading books material available to create these objectives.Discuss your objectives in your team.Include activities alongside your LSRW.Share out loud.
Day 5: Using Supplementary MaterialsToday we will: Using supplementary materials Text adaptation Curriculum goals
Additional instructional materials or realia selected by the teacher to support CLD students comprehension of the lesson.For example: maps, visuals, hands-on manipulatives, technology, etc.
• Grade-level texts can be overwhelming to CLD students.• Therefore, CLD students need text to be scaffolded in a manner that he/she will understand.• Effectively adapted text allows the CLD student to explore the content concepts and make meaningful connections.
Scaffolding the text is not dumbing down or watering down the curriculum.Scaffolded text allows the students to read the curriculum by highlighting the most critical concepts.
Chapter Outlines Highlighted TextGraphic Organizers Taped TextStudy Guides Adapted TextPeer Reading Jigsaw Text Reading of Text
Activities are made much more meaningful for CLD students when explicit links are made between background knowledge/personal experiences and new learnings.
Pre-production: I have no/little knowledge of language acquisition and/or the ability/willingness/time to deal with it in my class.Emergent: I teach language objectives incidentally on an “as-needed” basis to meet my content-related instructional needs.Intermediate: I give considerable thought and focus to content-related language learning without formalizing it in my instruction.Advanced: I select and use content-related language objectives to support and facilitate my curriculum, writing them down, sharing and reviewing them with students, and evaluating them for progress.Wiped Out: I use my very limited class time dealing with so many language objectives and issues, discipline, and other student problems that I can’t remember what I teach…. Visionary: Since so much of my class time is spent teaching language, I have decided to quit teaching here, go back to college, get my TESOL certificate and teach English in a beautiful exotic land for the rest of my career….
Round Table Writing• Think about the pros, cons, and questions you have about implementing Content Objectives and Language Objectives.• As a group, individually list the pros, cons, or questions you have on one sheet of paper.• Pass the paper until everyone in the group has written a pro, a con, and a question. Pros Cons Questions
Day 6: Bridging and ConnectingToday we will: Discuss we will connect experiential and academic knowledge Discuss vocabulary instruction
Key VocabularyVocabulary Quilt CognateFold a piece of chart Background Knowledgepaper to make eight Environmental Printboxes. Incidental VocabularyWrite or draw what Intentional Vocabularycomes to mind whenyou read the Sensory Memoryfollowing words. Working Memory Permanent Memory
Experiential and Academic BackgroundTaking into consideration andexplicitly linking CLDstudents existing knowledge/ Throughoutbackground and new learning. every lesson CLD students may not have the background knowledge and experiences needed to fully Take what CLD students participate and comprehend know and build a bridge academic tasks. to facilitate transfer. CIMA (c) 2012
The Six Must Do’s1. Plan instruction based on students strengths.2. Examine cultural and linguistic background.3. Collect data on experiential background.4. Look at the stage and pattern of acculturation (U- Curve).5. Assess sociolinguistic development and language transfer.6. Examine culturally different cognitive and learning styles.
What students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to the content being presented by the teacher. (Marzano, 2004)
Current Research Synopsis Poverty, Ethnicity, and Opportunities to Learn: May each negatively influence background/vocabulary knowledge. Poverty and ethnicity’s effect on vocabulary and background: Many learners come to the school (at least to Kindergarten and/or first grade level): Without ever having had a birthday party; Without ever having been on a family vacation; Without ever having been to a circus; Without ever having been to a parade; Without ever having been to a museum; Without ever having been shopping with their parents; and Without ever having had a story read to them. Successful instruction is connected to the student’s background knowledge (vocabulary). Schools can enhance the background knowledge of students through explicit vocabulary development. (Marzano, 2004).
Definition of VocabularyVocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively: oral vocabulary reading vocabulary. Oralvocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening.Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. ( Reading First)
Building Background: Vocabulary and ConnectionVocabulary knowledge correlates to comprehension.It takes 12 meaningful interactions with a word to create mastery.Comprehension depends on 90-95% knowledge of words in a text.To overcome vocabulary deficit in CLD students, we must explicitly teach it daily. Margarita Calderon
Incidental & Intentional VocabularyNo one single instructional strategy is sufficient for optimal vocabulary learning.Effective instruction includes opportunities for both incidental word learning and intentional word teaching throughout all grades.Incidental: Exposure to & interaction with increasingly complex and rich oral language and by encountering lots of new words in text (own reading or being read to).Intentional: Specific words are selected for explicit and in-depth instruction.
Cognate Challenge! Vocabulaire Educación Kognitiv Comunicativo Conexión Akademisch Colegas Seminario Développement de langue Modelo del prisma Kritisches konzept
Cognate Challenge!Vocabulaire • VocabularyEducación • EducationKognitiv • CognitiveComunicativo • CommunicativeConexión • ConnectionAkademisch • AcademicColegas • ColleaguesSeminario • SeminarDéveloppement de langue • Language DevelopmentModelo del prisma • Prism ModelKritisches konzept • Critical Concepts
CognatesWhat is a cognate?How can you begin to use cognates with your CLD students?Share your ideas with your team.Select one to share out with the group.
Cognate Activities Put book pages on an overhead and point out cognates. Have students work in pairs to find cognates in a text. Create a cognate wall. Create a cognate classroom dictionary. Have students work together to find and then categorize cognates. Same spelling-colonial Predictable variation - civilization/civilizacion Same root - sport/deporte
Day 7: Memory ReviewToday we will: Discuss the functions of memory Continue with vocabulary instruction Revisit out Vocabulary Quilt
Three Func tions of Mem o ry (Marzano, 2004)Sensory Ωο ρκινγ Περ α µ νεντMemory → Μεµ ορψ → Μεµ ορψ Building Πραχτιχε & Ρεϖιεω&Background Αππλψ ← Ασσεσ σVocabulary & Concept Development = KNOWLEDGE
Three functions of memory… Sensory Memory Working Memory permanent Memory 74
Before the Lesson: Sensory Memory• Sensory memory deals with the temporary storage of data from the senses.• The Sensory memory serves as a (very) temporary repository for this information from our senses.• However, we cannot process all of the information from the senses. Rather, we pick and choose. (Marzano, 2004)
Activating Sensory MemoryExplicitly linking to background knowledgeExplicitly linking to cultural knowledgeProvide visual/sensory cues 76
Linking LanguageHave students list descriptive words that support your concept vocabulary.Have students find cognates.Link languages by drawing lines between native language and English language to provide label for already known words.Have students write a predictive paragraph about the topic.
Throughout the Lesson: Working Memory Working memory can receive data from sensory memory (where it is held only briefly), from permanent memory (where it resides permanently), or from both. If processing goes well in working memory, information makes it to permanent memory. If processing does not go well, information does not make it to permanent memory.
Vocabulary Effective InstructionTeachers Use explicit instruction to teach key words and technical vocabulary prior to reading. Limit the number of new words taught at one time. Provide multiple exposures to words across contexts. Provide opportunities for students to discuss and use new words in and out of class.Students Use words meanings in a variety of contexts. Discuss the relationships between words. Use strategies to figure out the meanings of new words.
Environmental PrintEnvironmental print (logos & picture symbols) helps students understand that print carries meaning.Environmental print in the classroom including current student work, print featuring aspects of the curriculum currently under study, word walls, and labeled areas and items throughout the room.
Environmental PrintLabel centers and materials with picture symbols in the languages represented in the classroomProvide a variety of genres of books reflecting diverse children, workers, and cultures.Children who come from cultures that do not use the Roman alphabet may need additional support to learn the print.
Developing Content Vocabulary Learning new words for already known concepts. Learning new words for new concepts. Building and retaining content-specific vocabularies. Learning textbook vocabulary.
Vocabulary Strategies for Diverse LearnersFour-Dimensional Study (Stejnost & Thiese, 2001) Four-Dimensional Study Choose 5 to 10 words that are This lawsuit is not about banning a product but about unfamiliar. banning a fraud. 1. Sentence from the text. Instruct students to do the 2. From the dictionary. following on an index card: 3. From my life. My favorite Copy a sentence from the text baseball player, that uses the word. To forbid Pete Rose, has or to stop. been banned Write the dictionary meaning. from election Write a personal knowledge 4. Symbol/picture to to the Baseball or experience. represent the word. Hall of Fame! Draw a picture. Word:
Review & Assessment: Permanent Memory Permanent memory contains information that has been stored in such a way that is available to us. Permanent memory is the repository of our background knowledge- academic and experiential.
Quilt Review As a group revisit your vocabulary quilt. On a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions: 1. Discuss meaningful connection from your own background knowledge/experience to help you remember the words as a group. 2. How are you going to apply this knowledge in your future classroom? 3. Why is it important to vocabulary development or to building background? 4. In what way will knowing this information improve your future practice with CLD students?