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Edited su 2012miki logical reasoning

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• A way to make this easier is to look at the cause as being an action and the effect as being a result of that action.
• Sometimes, the effect becomes a new cause that, in turn, creates a new effect.
• “Consequently” is used to show the results of an action.
• In order to increase text comprehension while also scaffolding instruction, you can incorporate …
• Can apply the use of GOs to teaching other discourse patterns (e.g., problem-solution, comparison-contrast)
• Edited su 2012miki logical reasoning

1. 1. Logical Reasoning: Cause and Effect Summer, 2012 Miki Loschky
2. 2. Understanding Complex Relationships in Logic• Content Objective: Interpret cause and effect statements• Language Objective: During reading academic text, identify cause and effect patterns, while also paying attention to signal words CIMA © 2008
3. 3. Different Ways in Which Cause-Effect Relationships Can Be StatedCause  EffectEx. I was caught in traffic (action); therefore,I missed my first class (result).Effect  CauseEx. I missed my first class (result) because Iwas caught in traffic (action)
4. 4. Signal Words (Yaworski Chapter 9)Words that Signal Words That SignalCauses EffectsCause ThereforeReason ThusSince … Resulting in …Many factors .. .is the result of …Due to … SoIf…, then … ConsequentlyBecause (of) … EffectThis prompted … Then Affect
5. 5. Identifying Cause and Effect Statements• Underline the signal words that are related to cause and effect relationships in the following paragraph: Cosmic radiation is reduced at seal level because of the protective blanket of the atmosphere. Thus, at higher altitudes cosmic radiation is more intense. For instance in Denver, the “mile-high city,” a person receives more than twice as much cosmic radiation as at sea level.
6. 6. Cosmic radiation paragraph continuedA couple of round-trip flights between NewYork and San Francisco cause us to beexposed to as much radiation as we receivein a chest X ray. The air time of airlinepersonnel is limited because of this extraradiation.
7. 7. Answer• Cosmic radiation is reduced at seal level because of the protective blanket of the atmosphere. Thus, at higher altitudes cosmic radiation is more intense. For instance in Denver, the “mile-high city,” a person receives more than twice as much cosmic radiation as at sea level. A couple of round-trip flights between New York and San Francisco cause us to be exposed to as much radiation as we receive in a chest X ray. The air time of airline personnel is limited because of this extra radiation.
8. 8. Exercise 1• Identify the cause-effect relationships for the following sentence:• 1) Anita missed breakfast, which made her hungry, so she stopped at the coffee shop for a donut.A caused B: Anita missed breakfast (cause), and ________________ (effect)B caused C: _________________ (cause), and she stopped at the coffee shop for a donut (effect).
9. 9. Exercise 1 Answer KeysA caused B: Anita missed breakfast (cause),and she felt hungry (effect)B caused C: Anita felt hungry (cause), andshe stopped at the coffee shop for a donut.Chain of Reasoning:Cause  Effect (Cause)  Effect
10. 10. Exercise 2 (Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL Test)Complete the following sentence bychoosing the phrase/clause that would likelyfollow the underlined word.According to dental researchers, a vaccinethat could significantly reduce the number ofmicroorganisms thought to cause cavitieswill soon be ready for human trials.Consequently, _____________________
11. 11. Exercise 2 Answer Choices• A) cavity prevention program may soon be eliminated.• B) immunization of test animals will no longer be necessary• C) children will be able to consume more sugary foods and drinks.• D) long-term protection against tooth decay could soon be available on the market.
12. 12. Exercise 2 Answer KeyAccording to dental researchers, a vaccine that couldsignificantly reduce the number of microorganismsthought to cause cavities will soon be ready forhuman trials. Consequently, D) long-term protectionagainst tooth decay could soon be available on themarketVaccine (Cause)  Reducing microorganism(Effect)Microorganism (Cause)  tooth decay (Effect)
13. 13. Exercise 3: The Invasion of Alien Species In many parts of the world, alien species areharming the environment and causing other problems. Analien species is a species of plant or animal that has movedfrom its original home to a new area. Sometimes peoplehave purposely introduced the new species; sometimes itarrives accidentally, as a side effect of international trade.In its new location, the alien species has no naturalenemies, so it can grow and multiply without limit. Overtime-sometimes decades, sometimes a few years-the newspecies takes living space and food away from the nativeplants and animals. The result can mean drastic change inthe natural landscape and problems for people.
14. 14. Partially Completed Discourse GraphicOrganizers to Increase Text Comprehension (Adapted from Grabes & Jiang, 2010)Cause 1: New Effect 1: ______species are _____________introduced _purposely oraccidentally _____________ _____________Cause 2: Effect 2:_____________ therefore ______________ __________________________ ______________ Effect 3:______________
15. 15. Completed Discourse Graphic Organizers Effect 1: Grow and multiply without limitCause 1: Newspecies are Effect 2: Takeintroduced living space andpurposely or food away fromaccidentally the native plantsCause 2: The “therefore” and animals.alien species Effect 3:has no natural Change inenemies in its landscape andnew location. problems.
16. 16. References• Gear, J. & Gear, R. (2012). Cambridge preparation for the TOEFL test• Grabe, G., & Jiang, X. (2010). Reading comprehension of text structure.• Yaworski, J. (2006). Getting ahead: Fundamentals of college reading.
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