CRIS LUTHER's RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES COMPILATION

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES …

RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
by Cris Luther, B.S.N.,R.N.

This material is a compilation of various information on generally acceptable knowledge, concepts, principles, theories and practices in RESEARCH. It adapts contents from various publicly acknowledged publications, authors, theorists, authorities and practitioners whose works are commonly utilized in the academe and practice, and are frequently-tested competencies locally and abroad.

The works of these authors, theorists, authorities and practitioners are indispensable in learning research methodologies as they are indispensable in the completeness of this compilation.

Care has been taken to confirm accuracy of the information presented and describes generally accepted practices. However the student who prepared this material is not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this compilation.

The primary goal of the student is to familiarize concepts in the subject RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES based on the COURSE OUTLINE provided by his Graduate School Professor DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO. It is not intended for commercial publication and resources were acquired legally.

It is his great pleasure that this compilation be reproduced for reference of other students aiming to thoroughly understand RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES.

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  • 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Course Outline Provided by DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO On the Subject, RESEARCH METHODS Philippine Colleges of Health Sciences, Inc., Manila School of Graduate Studies Prepared by CHRISTIAN LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Master of Arts in Nursing Major in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Scan with Qr Barcode (Android/iOS free App) to directly send email to the student
  • 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 2 As a Registered Nurse and a student at PCHS-Graduate School, I am expected to understand the basic to complex processes of scientific research in preparation to conduct my own scientific investigation in the future. This quest for higher learning I believe is intended to base professional practice on emerging evidences from research, that is, to adopt an evidence- based practice (which is broadly defined as the use of best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions), and such evidences typically come from research conducted by nurses and other health care professionals. Through the guidance of my mentors at the Philippine Colleges of Health Sciences, I am certain that I will be able to make a significant contribution to my profession through research. And, the realization of this aspiration begins with thoroughly understanding the concepts in Research Methods. The Student About the Compilation This compilation of various information on generally acceptable knowledge, concepts, principles, theories and practices in RESEARCH. It adapts contents from various publicly acknowledged publications, authors, theorists, authorities and practitioners whose works are commonly utilized in the academe and practice, and are frequently-tested competencies locally and abroad. The works of these authors, theorists, authorities and practitioners are indispensable in learning research methodologies as they are indispensable in the completeness of this compilation. Care has been taken to confirm accuracy of the information presented and describes generally accepted practices. However the student who prepared this material is not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this compilation. The primary goal of the student is to familiarize concepts in the subject RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES based on the COURSE OUTLINE provided by his Graduate School Professor DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO. It is not intended for commercial publication and resources were acquired legally. It is his great pleasure that this compilation be reproduced for reference of other students aiming to thoroughly understand RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES.
  • 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 3 - Contents - Part 1: Introduction to research and research utilization Definition and significance of research Link between research and practice Overview of research utilization Interdisciplinary and collaborative research Overview of research methods Part 2: Initial steps of the research process Purpose and problem statements Variables of the Study Literature review Framework and Paradigm of the Study Research questions and hypotheses Part 3: Research Design Ethical design of research Sampling Designing the Research Instrument Study validity and elements of good design Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument Part 4: Measurement and data collection Measurement concepts and strategies Data Collection Part 5: Data analysis Statistical theory review Types of statistics and their uses Qualitative analyses Interpretation of findings Part 6: Communication of Findings and Utilization of Research Ways to communicate research Critiquing research Theories of utilization Barriers and solutions to utilization Role in research utilization Part 7: Preparing the Research Report Technical Details: Style, Format, and Organization of the Research Report. Check these helpful Graphical Bullets: Means the concept proceeding is significant to Nursing Means the proceeding concept is important
  • 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 4 PART 1: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH AND RESEARCH UTILIZATION 1.1 Definition and Significance of Research The word research is derived from the old French word cerchier, meaning to seek or search. The prefix “re” means “again” and signifies replication of the search. One seeks new knowledge or to directly utilize knowledge specific to life situations. It is a systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or problems. Research is also defined as a studious inquiry or examination, investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical applications of such new or revised theories or laws. Research in the broadest sense is an attempt to gain solutions to problems so that its ultimate goal is to develop, refine and expand a body of knowledge. The Philippine Nurses Association defines research as: “An honest, scientific investigation undertaken for the purpose of discovering new facts or establishing new relationships among facts already known which will contribute to the present body of knowledge and can lead to an effective solution of existing problems. It involves careful or critical thinking to revise or revalidate accepted conclusions and previously held concepts or to establish generalizations or principles (PNA, 1995)”. Nursing research is a tool of science, its components are: a. Order and system- process wherein the researcher moves in a systematic fashion, from identification of the problem to the conclusions and recommendations. b. Control- means the imposition of conditions in the research situation, to minimize bias and maximize the precision and validity of data gathered. c. Empiricism- refers to the gathering of evidence and relying on one’s own senses. d. Generalizations- means that the research findings may be applied to a situation or population larger than the one studied. 1.2 Link between research and practice Research and its Significance to Evidence-based Practice (EBP) The ultimate goal of nursing is to provide evidence-based practice that provides quality outcomes for patients, healthcare providers and the healthcare system (Craig and Smythe 2007; Pearson et al., 2007). Evidence-based Practice is the conscientious use of current best evidence of making clinical decisions about patient care. It evolves from the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient needs and values (Institute of Medicine 2001; Sachett, et al., 2000) It is a problem-solving approach to clinical practice that integrates: Research- answering clinical questions utilizing relevant evidences (patient history, assessment methods, healthcare resources) and scientific approaches; Clinical expertise; Patient’s preferences and values Ultimately, the significance of research in nursing practice is to provide an evidence-based clinical decision for better patient outcomes and create best practices. Research and its Significance to Quality Assurance (QA) The goal of QA programs is to continually monitor the quality of care in an institution and thereby generate data that can be used as basis for determining institutional policies and procedures, administrative decisions and budget justifications. This database can be used for future planning.
  • 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 5 Nursing research therefore is a tool use to expand and generate knowledge through scientific investigation of healthcare issues. By building findings of reported research, a study can be replicated or the applicability of results to practice in a given institution can be determined. 1.3 Overview of research utilization   “Research utilization is a process by which scientifically produced knowledge is transferred to practice" (Brown, 1999). Utilization of research in nursing refers to the actual systematic implementation of a scientifically sound, research- based innovation in a health care setting with an accompanying process to access the outcomes of the clinical change. Three categories of utilization are identified:  Instrumental research utilization- Is a direct use of research knowledge, it is the concrete application of research in clinical practice; either in making specific decisions about patient care, or as the knowledge guiding specific interventions.  Instrumental use- Research is often translated into a useable form (e.g., clinical practice guidelines or protocols). Conceptual research utilization is the cognitive use of research where the research may be used to change opinion or mind set about a specific practice area, but not necessarily particular actions. This indirect application of research is believed to occur more often in practice than instrumental use, but in a less perceivable way.  Symbolic (or persuasive) research utilization- Addresses the use of research knowledge as a political tool in order to influence or legitimate policies and decisions. Important: Although, I have discussed in the previous section about the significance of research to Evidence-based practice as a tool of investigation, nurse researchers should not confuse EBP (Evidence Based Practice) with research utilization. While research utilization overlaps with some of the same philosophic threadworks of EBP, EBP goes beyond just the rigorous scientific research steps.  Research Utilization refers to the review and critique of scientific research, and then the application of the findings to clinical practice.  Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) represents a broader concept. When clinicians use the EBP approach, they go beyond the expertise of clinicians and researchers, and consider the patient's preferences and values to guide patient care. 1.4 Interdisciplinary and collaborative research Interdisciplinary involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g. a research project). It is about creating something new by crossing boundaries, and thinking across them. It is related to an interdiscipline or an interdisciplinary field, which is an organizational unit that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged. Originally, the term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training didactics to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study. Interdisciplinary involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies - along with their specific perspectives - in the pursuit of a common task. For instance, the epidemiology of AIDS or global warming require understanding of diverse disciplines to solve neglected
  • 6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 6 problems. Interdisciplinary may be applied where the subject is felt to have been neglected or even misrepresented in the traditional disciplinary structure of research institutions, for example, women's studies or ethnic area studies. The adjective interdisciplinary is most often used in educational circles when researchers from two or more disciplines pool their approaches and modify them so that they are better suited to the problem at hand, including the case of the team-taught course where students are required to understand a given subject in terms of multiple traditional disciplines. For example, the subject of land use may appear differently when examined by different disciplines, for instance, biology, chemistry, economics, geography, and politics. Interdisciplinary and collaborative research is needed in most nursing researches. Nurse researchers conduct studies that deal with human, his behavior, the environment and other factors affecting health in which, he needs ideas and information by other healthcare disciplines. 1.5 Overview of research methods Experimental and Non-Experimental Research Methods in Brief o Experimental research: In experimental research, the aim is to manipulate an independent variable(s) and then examine the effect that this change has on a dependent variable(s). Since it is possible to manipulate the independent variable(s), experimental research has the advantage of enabling a researcher to identify a cause and effect between variables. For example: The research subject is composed of 100 students completing a comprehensive exam in Nursing Management where the dependent variable was the exam mark (measured from 0 to 100), and the independent variables were completion time (measured in hours) and intelligence (measured using IQ score). Here, it would be possible to use an experimental design and manipulate the completion time of the students. The instructor could divide the students into two groups, each made up of 50 students. In "group one", the instructor would allow the students to complete the exam indefinitely. Alternately, "group two" could be asked to complete the exam in a definite time (eg. 1 hour maximum). The instructor could then compare the marks that the students achieved. o Non-experimental research: In non-experimental research, the researcher does not manipulate the independent variable(s). This is not to say that it is impossible to do so, but it will either be impractical or unethical to do so. For example, a researcher may be interested in the effect of illegal, recreational drug use (the independent variable(s)) on certain types of behavior (the dependent variable(s)). However, whilst possible, it would be unethical to ask individuals to take illegal drugs in order to study what effect this had on certain behaviors. As such, a researcher could ask both drug and non-drug users to complete a questionnaire that had been constructed to indicate the extent to which they exhibited certain behaviors. While it is not possible to identify the cause and effect between the variables, we can still examine the association or relationship between them.
  • 7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 7 PART 2: INITIAL STEPS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS 2. 1 Purpose and Problem Statements Introduction: Guidelines in the Formulation of a Research Problem The initial step in the research process involves the formulation of the problem which includes the conceptualization of the topic the researcher wants to study. There are two types of research problems, those which relate to states of nature and those which relate to relationships between variables. At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study, he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that he would like to inquire into. A topic may be conceptualized in various ways, major of which are:  Natural curiosity- a burning interest in a particular area may lead to formulation of a problem.  Intellectual curiosity- enables the researcher to conduct study in the most creative and productive ways.  Literature- the vast availability of literature allows the researcher to seek answers to questions and problems others have already identified.  Phenomena- in the nursing profession, topics are vast, such as those experienced in hospitals, communities or clinics- where the patients are cared for. Specific topics may focus on the kind of patient care being given in obstetrics, pediatrics, psychiatric, etc.. Other issues may involve health care costs, student training and continuing education of practitioners. A chosen research problem should satisfy the following criteria: 1. Feasibility- Means the probability for the study to be accomplished is great. This is determined by the following factors: a. Availability of the Study Subjects- The type and number of study subjects must be defined and their consent and willingness to participate in the study must be secured. In research studies involving the nursing profession, the subjects decision to participate most especially in health care institutions, depends to a large extent on the explanation the researcher gives. Informed Consent- includes the explanation of benefits and risks involved. The subject must be an adult of sound mind who can give consent freely and voluntarily. Mentally-ill, vulnerable, unconscious and children should have the consent of their guardian or significant other. b. Funding- Adequate supplies, tools and facility must be available. Possible expenses would include transportation, allowances, cost of materials, etc. c. Cooperation of Others- Cooperation of other personnel within the study setting can be easily gained if they view the study as important to them or their welfare. Full support of the people involved must be secured. d. Approval from Higher Authorities- If the study subjects are within the control of an institution (eg. Learning, Healthcare), permission must be sought from the highest authority within that agency. e. Adequate Time- Before a study is conducted, the amount of the time needed to finish the study should be estimated, factors are: - Type, number and availability of study subjects - Research design - Methods of collecting data - Study completion - Research report writing f. Other considerations- possible danger to the lives or physical and mental well-being of the subjects involved in the study. 2. Significance to One’s profession- It is important to conduct study within one’s specialty- eg. Nurses conduct researches that deal with healthcare delivery, diseases, drugs, etc. whereas teachers conduct study concerning student behaviors, learning styles, etc. 3. The concept to be studied must relate to observable events: Overt behavior- objectively verified (both by the researcher and other persons) Covert behavior- elicited by reliable instruments developed for that purpose 4. The findings of a good researchable problem may be generalized in other areas- The problem is derived from a sound conceptual framework or models to confirm, support, modify or reject the existing framework. 5. The purpose of the study is clearly defined- The study may possibly add to the field of nursing knowledge or new approaches in handling misbehaved elementary students. Whichever the case is, the problem should clearly state its purpose- to contribute knowledge, develop new procedures or replicate studies to confirm or modify findings. 6. The researcher must be interested and qualified to do the study- Competence, technical skills in research methodologies, sound judgment in coping with many decisions that have to be made throughout the research process and innovativeness are vital attributes of a qualified researcher.
  • 8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 8 A. PROBLEM STATEMENT Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem be resolved. Then, the feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the problem can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, thus, constitutes the first step in a scientific inquiry. Essentially two steps are involved in formulating the research problem, understanding the problem thoroughly and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view. Statement of the Tentative Problem A research problem is an enigmatic, perplexing or troubling condition, the purpose of which is to solve the problem or contribute to its solution. It articulates the issues to the addressee and indicates the need for a study. It indicates the specific research questions the researcher wants to answer or address Problem statement should be formulated as specifically as possible. It should represent an action or change. It may be geared toward practical real-life situation or it may represent a theoretical situation that would expand nursing knowledge. The problem may be stated in following ways: 1. A question and/or several questions An Example of a single-question: Do patients in open wards in general hospitals receive more nursing care than those in private rooms? An Example of Single question followed by a series of questions: What are the common methods of contraception practiced by 100 selected mothers in Brgy. X? 1. Is the selection of a particular method influenced by religion, socioeconomic status or education? 2. What implications does this study have for public health nurses in the area? 2. Sentence/ declarative form An Example of a single statement: The study aims to determine the knowledge of cancer, attitudes towards cancer care and cancer care practices among primary caregivers in Hospital G. An Example of series of declarative sentences This study seeks to assess the clinical learning experiences of nursing students of the college of nursing in two affiliated hospitals. Specifically it aims to determine: 1. The extent to which the hospitals complied with the requirements of the nursing school program in terms of philosophy and objective. 2. The extent to which clinical instructors have synchronized the learning experiences from classroom to clinical areas. 3. Declarative sentence followed by a series of questions: Eg.: The study seeks to determine the professional continuing education of nurses in Hospital Z. Speciafically, the study seeks to answer the following: 1. What are the professional and personal characteristics of nurses in Hospital Z? 2. What programs could be proposed for adoption by continuing education providers in Hospital Z?
  • 9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 9 B. PURPOSE The problem deals with “what” is to be studied, and the PURPOSE with “WHY” the study is being undertaken. Therefore, the purpose is the reason or justification why the study is being carried out. The purpose statement establishes the general direction of the inquiry and captures usually-in one or two clear sentences- the essence of the study In the nursing profession, the purpose of a research study may be to contribute to nursing education or administration. The objective differs from the purpose as it relates to realistic short-term goals but both evolve from the statement of the problem. Stating the Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is usually expressed as a declarative statement. Sometimes the investigator combines “what” is being done and “why” it is being done. The purpose must be precise, clear, concrete and easy to communicate. The statement usually contains an ACTIVE VERB preceded by the preposition “to”. Thus it is common that purposes begin with “to assess”, “to provide” and “to gain insight.” It is usually easy to identify a purpose statement because the word “purpose” is clearly stated (other explicitly used words are “aim”, “goal”, “objective” and “intention”. Statement of Purpose in a Quantitative Study A statement of purpose identifies the key study variables and their possible interrelationships, as well as the nature of the population of interest. Example- “The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and prevalence of lipodystrophy-related symptoms in persons with HIV and to determine the impact of these symptoms on health-related quality of life” Statement of Purpose in a Qualitative Study: In qualitative studies, the statement of purpose indicates the nature of inquiry, the key concept or phenomenon, and the group, community or setting under study. Example- “The purpose of this study was to explore the memories of patients who had a short term admission to the ICU, with particular focus on dreams, nightmares and confusion” Other Examples: “The purpose of this study is to determine if a specifically planned program of reality orientation would decrease the degree of confusion among elderly patients experiencing progressive dementia”. “To assess the post-surgical patient’s knowledge in caring for his colostomy bag”. “To provide information on how underlicensed nurses are being utilized in private hospitals”. “The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of health teaching to hospitalized cardiac patients at Philippine Heart Center.”
  • 10. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 10 2. 2 VARIABLES OF THE STUDY A. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES 1. Quantitative variable is a variable that can be measured numerically, two types are:  Discrete- Values are countable; can assume only certain values with no intermediate values (whole numbers); A quantitative variable with possible values of only specific points on a scale; (Eg.: number of nursing personnel; bed capacity; frequency of patient visit; heart rate 110 bpm)  Continuous- Can assume any numerical value over a certain interval; variable where the scale is continuous and not made up of discrete steps or distinct points on a scale; the values between the data have meaning; the data can be broken into parts; (Eg: Temperature- 37.8 deg celcius; age- 25.4 years; height 150.7 cm) 2. Qualitative/ categorical variable is a variable that cannot assume a numerical value but can be classified into two or more nonnumeric categories.  Nominal variables are variables that have two or more categories, but which do not have an intrinsic order; considered as the lowest level of measurement used when the data can be recognized but categories cannot be compared or ranked; for mutual exclusive, but not ordered, categories. Examples: gender, race, marital status, diagnoses  Dichotomous variables are nominal variables which have only two categories or levels. Examples: Sex-Male and Female ; Survey question like “Are you satisfied with the current policies and hospital procedures” having only two answers “yes” or “no”).  Ordinal variables are variables that have two or more categories just like nominal variables only the categories can also be ordered or ranked. Data may be arranged in some order but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless; the order matters but not the difference between values Example: If a nurse researcher inquires is the nursing staff liked the new policies of the Nursing Service on work schedules, responses on the list are: "Not very much", "They are OK" or "Yes, a lot" then you have an ordinal variable. Why? Because you have 3 categories, namely "Not very much", "They are OK" and "Yes, a lot" and you can rank them from the most positive (Yes, a lot), to the middle response (They are OK), to the least positive (Not very much). For example, you ask patients to express the amount of pain they are feeling on a scale of 1 to 10. A score of 7 means more pain that a score of 5, and that is more than a score of 3. But the difference between the 7 and the 5 may not be the same as that between 5 and 3. The values simply express an order. Related concepts: Other Levels of Measurement*  Interval is like the ordinal, with the additional property that meaningful amount of differences between data can be determined. For example, in measuring the patient’s body temperature, The difference between a temperature of 36.5 degrees and 37.5 degrees is the same difference as between 38 degrees and 90 degrees.  Ratio is the interval level modified to include the inherent zero starting point. For values at this level, differences and ratios are meaningful; has all the properties of an interval variable, and also has a clear definition of 0.0. When the variable equals 0.0, there is none of that variable. Variables like height and weight are ratio variables. Examples: - A weight of 4 grams is twice a weight of 2 grams, because weight is a ratio variable. - A temperature of 100 degrees C is not twice as hot as 50 degrees C, because temperature is not a ratio variable. (*There will be a more comprehensive discussion of these concepts in the proceeding sections)
  • 11. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 11 B. VARIABLES IN A HYPOTHESIS A variable in a hypothesis is a quality, property or characteristic of the person or thing to be studied that can be quantitatively measured. It is any factor that varies. Common specific variables used in conducting nursing clinical researches include temperature, vital signs, health status and anthropometric data. In a hypothesis, there is an INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (cause) and a DEPENDENT VARIABLE (effect). The independent variable is the one manipulated by the investigator while the dependent variable is the response. When a STIMULUS (INDEPENDENT) is applied to an ORGANISM (target population) will produce a RESPONSE (DEPENDENT). *Independent and Dependent Variables will be identified in the examples presented under hypothesis section. 2. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW The literature review is an organized written presentation of what has been published on a topic. Broadly, the review covers previous studies in the identified problem, background, studies, significance of the study and related theories. Significant terms: a. Theoretical literature- consists of concept analyses, models, theories and conceptual frameworks that support a research problem and a purpose. b. Empirical literature- comprises relevant studies in journals and books including unpublished studies such as master’s theses (M.A. course requirement) and dissertations (extensive and original research project as a final requirement for doctoral degree). c. Abstract- summary of the study usually found at the beginning of the research study, it includes: 1. The introduction and objective 2. The research problem 3. The rationale for the study and the hypothesis The methodology used is also included in the abstract and states the number and characteristics of the participants; the setting of the study (location); the research design and how the study was conducted. The abstract shows the relevance of the study to the one currently undertaken by the researcher in terms of methodology, as matched to the research question, the selection of the participants and the outcomes. What questions must be addressed? 1. What is known about the topic? 2. What research evidence is lacking, inconclusive or too limited? 3. What directions for the study are indicated by the works of other researchers? 4. What are the existing theories in the field of study? 5. What views need further testing? 6. What contribution can the present paper be expected to make? 7. What appropriate methods/ designs of previous studies seem unsatisfactory?
  • 12. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 12 Process of Literature Review 1. Initial review- is done to have an overview of the problem area and eventually develop a frame of reference (ideas, understandings, and background within which research will be done). A thorough review covers studies that are published for the last five years. There should be full awareness of the basic facts and issues on which there is agreement or disagreement, as well as on the theories that have attempted to explain behavior and interactions in the problem area. 2. Second review- should focus on tested research approaches and methods, data collection instruments and techniques of data analysis. Purposes: a. To define research questions, methods and tools that may prove useful in problem identification, research design and instrument development. b. To reveal difficulties experienced by previous researchers. c. To provide clear information on the tasks carried out by previous researchers. d. To locate findings that may be included in a similar study to confirm or refute earlier findings. e. To provide comparative data in the analysis and interpretation of one’s own. f. To identify studies that may be replicated or re-tested . g. To compare one’s findings with other theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Sources of Literature Review: a. Primary source- written by a person who originated and is responsible for generating the ideas published (eg: the person who conducted a research authors an article in a publication). b. Secondary source- summarizes or quotes content from primary sources (eg: authors paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists) For Nurse Researchers, there are three especially useful electronic databases: 1. CUMMULATIVE INDEX TO NURSING AND ALLIED HEALTH LITERATURE (CINAHL) 2. MEDICAL LITERATURE ON LINE (MedLINE) 3. INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION (ISI) Web of Knowledge Other helpful resources are: Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice; American Journal of Nursing; Nursing Research; American Journal of Nursing 2. 4 Framework and Paradigm of the Study Defining Theories, Models and Framework Many terms have been used in connection with conceptual context for research, including theories, models, frameworks, schemes and maps. There is some overlap in how these terms are used, partly because they are interrelated. 1. Theory (the terms is used in many ways). Theory in its broadest sense simply denotes an abstraction. Further, theory refers to an abstract generalization that offers a systematic generalization about how phenomena are interrelated. For example, nursing instructors and students frequently use the terms to refer to the content covered in subject areas, as opposed to the actual practice of performing nursing activities. Two Types of theories are:  Traditional Theory- Scientific theories that involve a series of propositions regarding interrelationships among concepts; two subtypes are: Grand theories/ macrotheories: account for large segment of human experience (eg.: Nursing Process) Middle-range theories: more restricted in scope; focusing narrow range of experience (eg.: Stress, self-care, health-promotion)
  • 13. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 13  Descriptive Theory- Less restrictive definition in which a theory can account for a single phenomenon and plays an important role in qualitative researches; describe or classify characteristics of groups, specimen, situations or events by describing commonalities found in discrete observations. 2. Model represents some aspects of reality, concrete or abstract, by means of a likeness that may be structural, pictorial, diagrammatic or mathematical. It does not focus on phenomena but rather on their structure or function. It is a symbolic representation of an idea, it may be complete but does not show how and why the parts are interrelated.  Conceptual Models (syn.: Conceptual Frameworks, Conceptual Schemes) Represent a less formal attempt at organizing phenomena than theories, like theories conceptual models deal with abstractions (concepts) that are assembled by virtue of their relevance to a common theme. These models provide a perspective interrelated phenomena, but are more loosely structured than theories Much of the conceptual work that has been done in connection with nursing practice falls into the category of CONCEPTUAL MODELS. These models represent conceptualizations of the nursing process and the nature of nurse-client relationships.  Conceptual Paradigm/ Schematic Models are often used in connection with symbolic representations of a conceptualization. These are visual representation of some aspect of reality. These models use concept as building blocks, but with minimal use of words. A visual symbolic representation of a theory or conceptual framework often helps to express abstract ideas in concise and readily understandable form. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, an example of schematic model 3. Framework Not every study is based on a formal theory or conceptual model, but every study has a framework- a theoretical rationale. In study based on a theory, the framework is referred to as theoretical framework; whereas in study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model, the framework is called conceptual framework. ________________________________________ The Five-step Process for Developing Conceptual (theoretical) Definitions: a. Develop preliminary definition b. Review relevant literature c. Develop or identify exemplars (good example/ model) d. Map the concept’s meaning e. State the developed conceptual definitions Criteria for Judging a Theory: It is suggested that a theory be evaluated before it is used as basis for a research project. The theory must be evaluated based on the following questions: 1. What is the significance of a theory? Does it address a problem of a particular interest to my profession and the society? 2. Does the theory offer the possibility of explaining or systematically describing some phenomena? 3. Is the theory testable? Can the concepts be observed and measured Internal and External Criticism in Evaluating a Theory (Stevens) Internal Criticism a. Clarity- theory is presented in such a way that concepts and propositions and their relationships are easily understood. b. Consistency- theory is must be consistent with the meaning of terms, interpretations, principles and methods of reasoning. c. Logical development- the reasoning process must lead logically to its conclusion. d. Level of theory development- the theory is understood within the context of existing knowledge about the subject. External Criticism If the criticism is used in nursing research, the theory is evaluated based on how it relates to the world of people, health environment and nursing.
  • 14. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 14 In general, the following are criteria in making an external criticism of a theory: a. Adequacy- adequacy of principles, interpretations and methods b. Utility- the theory is must be useful in education, research or practice, it must be operational and testable c. Significance- the theory must address issues that are basic and relevant to one’s profession and aim towards increasing knowledge d. Discrimination- the theory must clearly relate to one’s profession (Eg.: In nursing research, the theory must clearly discriminate between what nursing is and must be what it is not) e. Scope- the scope indicates whether the theory has a narrow or broad focus f. Complexity and Parsimony:  Complexity in a theory examines the relationships among many variables.  Parsimony is the decision criterion in which, when two or more theoretically sound solutions exist, the least complex solution with the fewest assumptions should be selected. 2. 5 Research Questions and Hypotheses A. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Research questions are, in some cases, direct rewordings of statements of purpose, phrased interogatively rather than declaratively. The Question form has the advantage of simplicity and directness and it invites and answer and help to focus attention on the kind of data that would have to be collected to provide that answer. Some research reports thus omit a statement of purpose and state only research questions. Other researchers use a set of research questions to clarify or lend greater specifity to a global purpose statement. Research questions are phrased interogatively rather than declaratively: Declarative The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship bewteen the dependency level of renal transplant recipients and their rate of recovery. Interrogative What is the relationship between the dependency level of renal transplant recipients and their rate of recovery? B. Defining Research Hypotheses A hypothesis is a sharp guess or inference that is formulated and provisionally adopted; It is a statement between the phenomenon and the variables being studied. Broadly: a. A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. b. A proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any assumption of its truth. A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis thus translates a quantitative research question into a precise prediction of expected outcomes; whereas in qualitative studies, researchers do not begin with a hypothesis. In part because there is too little known about the topic to justify a hypothesis, and in part, in qualitative studies, researchers want the inquiry to be guided by participants’ viewpoint rather than their own. (Based on the above explanation, the following discussion focuses on hypothesis in a quantitative research Its purposes are:  To explain observed facts or conditions and to guide further investigation.  To translate problem statements into predictions of expected outcomes and is a technique in answering a problem. Hypothesis is tested, and if found to be true, accepted. If not, rejected. It is not proved, it is only tested. Once proved, it becomes a theory.
  • 15. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 15 Attributes of a good hypothesis: 1. It is strong enough to compel an inquiry and serve as its focus. 2. When substantiated through research, it moves to the domain of theory. 3. It can be used to guide phenomena, guide actions and predict outcomes. 4. It adequately explains observed facts. 5. It offers the simplest explanation under the circumstances. 6. It offers an explanation that is complex as necessary under the circumstances. 7. It can be brought into an agreement or disagreement with observations. 8. Is easily understood, specific, conceptually clear and tangibly measured. 9. It should be related to a body of theories so that the findings will be relevant and can provide valuable information. Derivation of Hypotheses: Inductive and Deductive Inductive hypothesis is a generalization inferred from observed relationships. Researchers observe certain patterns, trends or association among phenomena and then use the observations as a basis for predictions; begin with specific observations and move toward generalizations. Example of the use of inductive hypothesis: A nurse might notice that presurgical patients who ask a lot of questions relating to pain or who express many pain-related apprehensions have a more difficult time. The nurse could then formulate a testable hypothesis such as: “Patients who are stressed by fear of pain will have more difficulty in deep breathing and coughing after their surgery than patients who are not stressed” Deductive hypothesis has starting point theories that are applied to particular situations. Since theories of how phenomena behave and interrelate cannot be tested directly, a researcher can develop hypotheses based on general theoretical principles. The following reasoning illustrate the process: 1. All human beings have red and white blood cells 2. Kris is a human being 3. Therefore, kris has red and white blood cells Example of the use of deductive hypothesis: In a qualitative study of PTSD due to childbirth, one of the researcher’s finding was that mothers suffering from PTSD were bombarded with terrifying flashbacks in which they relived their traumatic births. A hypothesis that can be formulated from this qualitative finding can be: “ Women who experience PTSD due to birth trauma experience more flashbacks of their labor and delivery than women who do not experience a traumatic birth” Sources of hypotheses: a. Observation of phenomenon within the environment (In nursing, sources of hypothesis can be hospital settings, drugs, healthcare delivery system, healthcare cost, nursing staff, etc.) b. Experiences c. Other hypothesis that have been tested Types of hypothesis: Type Description Example (underlined- IV/ in bold- DV) Associative Identifies the variables that occur or exist together in practice. Performance in the college of nursing is related to success in the NLE. Analysis: This merely states that there is a relationship between the two variables but it does not specify what it is (it does not specify passing or failing). Hence, this is a non-directional hypothesis. Causal Specifies the cause and effect between two or more variables. It is directional in nature People who smoke are more likely to have lung cancer than people who do not smoke. Analysis: While not all smokers get lung cancer, the hypothesis predicts the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Hence, this is a directional statement Both associative and causal hypotheses predict relationships between the variables being studied. However, while the associative hypothesis merely states there is a relationship (non-directional), the causal hypothesis specifies the prediction that the IV produces effects on the DV (directional).
  • 16. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 16 Simple Predicts the relationship between one IV and one DV. (It may be associative or causal) Pre-operative instructions minimize the pre-operative anxieties of patients facing major surgery. (directional) Pre-operative instruction is related to operative anxieties of patients scheduled for major surgery. (non-directional) Complex Predicts the relationship between two or more variables IVs and DVs. Heredity, home environment and quality of instruction are related to intelligence, motivation and performance in school. Null Is an assumption that there is NO DIFFERENCE between the studied variables. It is used for statistical testing outcomes. (It can be simple or complex/ associative or causal. There is no relationship between smoking and lung cancer. (Causal null hypothesis - the IV has no effect on the DV) No significant difference in the test measure will be found among students having a hospital clinical experience and those having a free day prior to test administration. (The researcher hopes to reject the statement of no difference) Testing the hypothesis The ultimate value of hypothesis is derived from whether or not it can be tested in real-life situation. A testable hypothesis contains variables that can be measured or manipulated in practice. a. Associative- tested and evaluated using statistical analysis b. Correlational- tested using analysis of ordinal level data, interval and ratio c. Null- tested to determine whether the IV has a significant effect on the DV. Research findings do not prove the hypothesis to be true or not- instead, the results of the research hypothesis are described as being supported or not supported. Findings can be:  Accepted is results indicate NO relationship exists  Rejected if there is difference/ relationship that exists
  • 17. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 17 PART 3: RESEARCH DESIGN Defining Research Design The research design is a blueprint that delineates the factors that would interfere with a study’s design outcome. It is a detailed outline of how an investigation will take place. A research design typically include how data will be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the intended means for analyzing data collected. The choice of the research design depends upon the problem, the purpose of the study, the researcher’s expertise and the desire to generalize the findings. In broadest sense, the type of design directs the selection of a population sampling procedure, methods of assessment and a plan for data collection and analysis (Burns and Grave, 2009) ______________________________________________ A. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research is a formal, objective and systematic process in which the numerical data are used to obtain information. It is a scientific method of research which is based on logical empiricism in which the researcher has no active interaction with the subjects to prevent bias. It is used to describe variables, examine relationships among variables, and determine the cause and effect interactions between variables. Quantitative research the most predominantly used method of scientific investigation in nursing. Quantitative research requires the use of the following that generate NUMERICAL DATA: a. Structured interviews, questionnaires or observations b. Scales c. Physiological instruments (eg: BP Apparatus) Statistical analyses are conducted to reduce and organize data, determine significant relationships and identify differences among groups. This process ensures that research findings may be applied not only to the study’s sample but to a larger population or from the sample situation to a larger situation. Types of Quantitative Research: Descriptive (Non- experimental) Is a very popular research approach. It provides an accurate portrayal or account of characteristic of particular individuals, situations or groups. It offers researchers a way to discover new meaning, describe what exists, describe the frequency of a phenomenon or categorize information. 1. SURVEYS Through a survey, data are gathered from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. Subtypes of surveys and purposes a. Community Survey- to determine the trends and possibly carry out improvements b. Normative Survey- conducted to determine the normal or typical condition of situations and people c. Social Survey- aim to study and diagnose current problem, situation or population within a definite place so as to formulate a social reform or constructive program
  • 18. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 18 d. School Survey- instruments for evaluating and planning school progress; seeks to formalize administrative planning for determining the next steps in school system and for evaluating efficiency of the system and its personnel; 3 three types of school survey are: Outside expert surveys- conducted exclusively by the research staff of a university/ institution in a particular school Self-surveys- conducted by members of a local school within the institution Combined surveys- joint efforts of the local school and an outside consultant 3 kinds of topics in school survey can be: Comprehensive- nature of pupils and their achievements, the curriculum, methods and instructional aides Educational- covers school activities related to the instructional program, policies and procedures, the setting and the learning conditions Building/ Structure- includes school plans and items such as location, lighting, ventilation, canteen, library, play area, etc. ___________________________________________ 2. Analytical Studies a. Job and Activity Analysis- This method describes the activities of persons who are observed, classified and analyzed. b. Document Analysis- This is a critical analysis of the content of written and printed materials as sources of data. (Eg.: The use of concurrent chart audit to determine if nurses comply with the set standards of quality nursing care) c. Causal Comparative Studies- This is to discover the factors that contribute to some observable facts. The method begins with the presence of several factors affecting certain observations from which the researcher selects some for analysis. Correlational Research Methods (Non- experimental) Correlational research examines relationship between two or more variables and determines the type (POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE) or degree (STRENGTH) of relationship: a. Ranges from -1 (perfect negative correlation) to; b. +1 (perfect positive correlation) c. 0 (indicates NO relationship) Positive relationship indicates that the variables either increase or decrease together Negative/ inverse indicates that the variables vary in opposite directions Eg.: There is a correlation between the leadership behavior of nurse managers and the performance of nursing staff Experimental Design In an experimental design, the researcher structures the situation so there will be a sound basis for determining the effect of the independent variable and how much is due to change. In an experimental research, the study subjects belong to either:  CONTROL group- subjects or group of elements NOT subjected or exposed to the experimental treatment (point of reference).  EXPERIMENTAL group- is the subject exposed to the experiment/ intervention. It has FOUR distinguished strategies: a. Manipulation of the independent variables. b. Random selection of sample members of the control or experimental groups. c. Use of an experimental group that is exposed to the independent variable or experimental factor and another group that is not exposed to the independent variable or experimental factor. d. Measurement of the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable before and after the manipulation of the independent variable. Common types of Experimental Research: 1. AFTER-ONLY EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE In this technique, the investigator assigns the subjects to an experimental group and a control group but collects the data only at the end of the treatment or exposure to the independent variable. 2. BEFORE AND AFTER EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE a. Single Group Design/ One-group Uses only one group of subjects, involving the following steps: i. pre-testing of the DV ii. exposure of the subjects to the experimental variable iii. post-testing of the subjects; and iv. comparison of the results of the two tests to determine the effect of the IV
  • 19. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 19 b. Two-group Before and After Technique This second type of group experimentation involves two or more groups that are AS NEARLY EQUIVALENT AS POSSIBLE. It makes use of two groups however, the EXPERIMENTAL GROUP is exposed to the experimental factor and the CONTROL GROUP to the ordinary treatment. This parallel-equated technique involves the following steps: i. matching the subjects on the basis of a matching variables ii. exposing the experimental group to the experimental factor and the control group to the ordinary treatment iii. testing both groups on the dependent variable, and; iv. comparing the results to determine the effect of the experimental factor *Diagrammatic examples are provided on the presentation for further understanding. Quasi- experimental Research (Experimental) The purposes are: a. identify causal relationships b. to determine the significance of causal relationship c. clarify why certain events happen (or a combination of above mentioned) In nursing research, these studies test the effectiveness of nursing interventions that can be implemented to control patient and family outcomes in nursing practice. Distinguished feature: There is NO CONTROL GROUP and the signature is the absence of randomization. Researchers are commonly UNABLE to manipulate or control certain variables when studying human behavior or in nursing research, clinical areas. Subjects are NOT randomly selected and are selected based on convenience. So that, it has lower level of control in at least one of these areas: - manipulation of the treatment or independent variable - manipulation of setting - selection of the subjects Concepts Relevant to Quantitative Research: 1. Pure or basic research- The search for new knowledge includes establishment of fundamental theories or relationships among facts not intended for immediate use in real-life situations. It usually precedes or is the basis for applied research. Eg.: Studies on newly-proposed interventions conducted on animals in laboratories (Cancer treatment tested in guinea pigs). 2. Applied Research- In nursing research, applied or practical research is common as it scientifically investigates to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve a clinical situation, make a decision, develop or evaluate procedure, program or product. Eg.: A nurse researcher studies the implementation of quality assurance programs in the nursing services of hospitals X and Y. ______________________________________________ B. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research is a systematic, interactive and subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning. It is an interpretative methodological approach to produce more of a subjective science than quantitative research. It evolves on behavioral and social sciences as a method of understanding the unique, dynamic and holistic nature of human beings. Its philosophical base is interpretative, humanistic and naturalistic.
  • 20. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 20 It believes that truth is both complex and dynamic and can be found only by studying persons as they interact with and within the sociohistorical settings (Marshall & Rossman, 2006; Munhall, 2001). In nursing research, it is commonly conducted to describe and promote understanding of human experiences such as pain, caring and comfort. The focus is broad and the researcher is an active participant in the study. It intends to give meaning to the whole and the researcher’s values and perceptions influence the findings. Distinguished characteristics are as follows: a. Uses unstructured observations and interviews to gather data. b. There is a shared interpretation of the researcher and the subject and no attempts to control the interaction. c. Data are collected and are analyzed in terms of individual responses, descriptive summaries or both. d. The findings are unique to the study and are not intended to be generalized to apply to a larger population. Types of Qualitative Research Phenomenological Research Is a humanistic study of a study phenomenon that is conducted in a variety of ways according to the philosophy of the researcher. The purpose is to explore an experience as it is lived by the study participants and interpreted by the researcher. During the study, the researcher’s experiences, reflections and interpretations influence the data collected from the study participants. Thus, the participants’ lived experiences are expressed through the researcher’s interpretation. In nursing research, this method is effective in discovering the meaning of a complex experience as it is lived by person, such as dealing with chronic illness and pain. Grounded Theory Research An inductive research method and is useful in discovering what problems exist in a social setting and the process people use to handle them. It emphasizes observation and the development of practice-based intuition to formulate, test and re-develop prepositions until theory evolves. The theory developed is “grounded” or has “roots” in the data from which it was derived. Ethnographic Research “portrait of a people” Provides mechanism for studying one’s own culture and that of others. It has been regarded as part of various disciplines in social psychology, sociology, education, political science and nursing. Ethnography describes and analyzes aspects of the way of life of a particular culture, subculture or subculture group. It enables the researcher to acquire new perspectives beyond his own ethnocentric perspective. In nursing, one of the major contributions of ethnography may be to promote culturally- specific care. Historical Research Is used if the researcher believes that the answer to his research lies in the past. It is believed that the greatest value of historical knowledge is greater self-understanding. This is valuable in community planning that leaders will be able to consider the relationships exist within a community- from its simple communal living to today’s complex living situations. Historical nursing research increases nurses’ understanding of their profession. Sources of data:  Primary- first-hand information serves as a clear evidence about the past (remains, relics, oral/written testimonies)  Secondary- second/third-hand accounts (history books, encyclopedias) Tools for Evaluation:  External criticism- authenticity/ genuineness of evidence/ originality (physical)  Internal criticism- credibility, validity and the trustworthiness of statements and facts in relation to the truth Case Analysis Involves an in-depth investigation of a single unit of study, such as person, family, group, community or institution or a small number of subjects who are examined intensively. The case itself is central, it focuses on study determining the dynamics of why an individual thinks, behaves or develops in a particular manner. This requires detailed study overtime.
  • 21. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 21 Determining the Research Setting (Essential to choosing the appropriate research design) a. Natural settings- uncontrolled, real-life environments (schools, homes, communities); descriptive and correlational studies are conducted in this settings. (Eg.: A Study on the Practices on Health and Nutrition of Pregnant Mothers in Brgy. Y) b. Partially-controlled settings- the environment is modified in some way by the researcher; usually used in quasi-experimental studies. (Eg.: Fears and Anxieties of Patients and Their Relatives Towards Major Surgery at Hospital X) c. Highly-controlled setting- done in laboratories to test new innovations (drugs, chemicals, treatments) (Eg.: Animal tests to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method in attacking cancer cells done in a laboratory using mice) 3.1 Ethical Design of Research Ethics is the science that deals with the nature of actions of intelligent beings in relation to their moral qualities. As nurse, I would like to focus on ethical research concepts concerning my profession. In this regard, I will thoroughly discuss Ethical Issues in Nursing Research. Ethical Issues in Nursing Research Ethics and Research: Nursing research focuses on people- their health attitudes, experiences, values, coping behavior, support systems, community networks and environmental stress. Thus, human subjects are almost always involved in nursing research. Awareness of the rights of human subject is a major part of the nurses’ responsibility when it comes to research studies or assisting one who is conducting research or evaluating a research article. It is important that: a. The nurse researcher’s desire for scientific knowledge is compatible with dignity and right of individual and social groups. b. When performing moral judgment, the nurse researcher decides what is right or good and what he must do. c. The nurses’ primary responsibility is to preserve life at all cost (PNA,Code of Ethics, 1993), therefore nurses involved in research should bear in mind the importance of the subjects’ safety and welfare. Characteristics of Ethical Research: a. Scientific objectivity- being aware of personal values and biases without preconceived outcomes without engaging in any acts of bad faith or misconduct/fraud in doing the research. b. Cooperation with authorized review boards- means that the proposal has been reviewed and approved by the appropriate review committee in the agency or institution so that the subjects’ rights may be protected (the approval is given in writing). c. Integrity of the nature of the study- The subjects’ right to information is upheld (eg.: possible risks and discomforts). d. Equitableness- Acknowledging the works of others. e. Nobility- Advocating the rights of human subjects, the researcher protect the subject from any harm , deceit, coercion or invasion of their right to privacy. f. Truthfulness- Reflected in in the study’s purpose, procedures, methods and findings. g. Impeccability- Observance of the researcher’s role to anonymity and confidentiality. h. Honesty- Disclosure about the study’s funding and sponsorship. i. Illumination- The research should yield a fruitful result (did the study add new knowledge? solve a problem? or improve skills?) j. Courage- needed to clarify publicly any distortions that others may make of the research findings. Basic Human Rights of Research Subjects: (Burns and Grove, 2009) 1. Right to self-determination (Informed Consent is of prime importance, the four elements are- 1.disclosure of essential information; 2.comprehension; 3. Competency; 4. Volunteerism Important- consent forms are stored with the master list of the subjects’ names and code numbers (it must be locked in a safe place).
  • 22. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 22 2. Right to fair treatment Study subjects should be treated fairly and the agreement should be respected both by the researcher and the subject (principle of justice). All subjects should receive benefits as promised and should be represented equally in the study. 3. Right to privacy It includes the privacy of one’s thoughts, opinions, physical presence and the privacy of one’s records. Important: Collection of data from observation without the subjects’ consent or knowledge is a clear violation of the right to privacy. 4. Right to confidentiality and anonymity of data Data entrusted by the research subjects must be protected and should be available ONLY to the research staff and reported anonymously for that research purpose only. Important: After the report is written, all data by which individuals can be identified should be destroyed (burned, shredded) 5. Right to be protected from discomfort and harm In the risk-benefit ratio, the risk should be outweighed by the benefits. The subjects must be well informed about the possible harm that be encountered during the process of research (physical, emotional, legal, financial, social harm). The subject has the right to refuse from participation if he experiences undue anxiety related to research activities. The 5th principle of Nuremberg’s Code* states that “No experiment should be conducted where there is a prior reason to believe that death or injury will occur, except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians (or other health professionals) also serve as subjects. * be thoroughly discussed on presentation 3.2 Sampling Delineation of the Population/s to be Studied (SAMPLING) The researcher proceeds to define the population to be studied from which the sample subjects are selected. The sample is selected on the basis of how much it reflects the characteristics of the population to be studied.  Population refers to the largest body of individuals, in the case being researched on, that conform to a specific set of particulars or eligibility criteria; It is the entire number or totality of the groups of people, objects, events or any form of things being studied.  Sampling is a process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population.  Sampling/ Eligibility Criteria include: - The list of individuals who are focused on the research - The list of characteristics essential to be a member of the target population Factors that Determine Sample Size 1. Accessibility of sample participants (a sample is taken when it is not feasible to study the whole population) 2. Cost (only a limited number may be studied if no funds are available) 3. Amount of time available (if the time is limited, only a small sample size may be gathered) A. Probability Sampling/ Sampling Methods- Developed to ensure some degree of precision to estimations of the population parameters. Technically, it refers to the fact every member or element of the population has a higher than zero probability of being selected for sample. 1. Simple Random Selection is done by chance (eg. Lottery draws) 2. Stratified Random Population is subdivided into areas/ section the random samples are taken from each area/ section (Eg.: dividing the students by year level and obtain random samples from each level)
  • 23. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 23 3. Systematic Done by taking every nth person in the population 4. Cluster A small sample size is taken from various sections of the total population (Eg.: obtaining small sample size from each hospital in Metro Manila to study attitudes of hospital employees towards work) B. Non-Probability/ Non-Random Sampling- This kind of sampling is purposely chosen for an in- depth understanding of a particular experience, situation, cultural element or misconduct. 1. Convenience/ Accidental Data are collected from anyone most conveniently available; considered to be the weakest from of sampling 2. Snowball/ Network Subjects suggest or refer other subjects who meet the criteria/ eligibility of the researcher 3. Judgmental/ Purposive The researcher selects and studies a specific number of a special group that represents the target population with regard to certain characteristics such as age, sex or economic status. (Eg.: the researcher taps the deans of nursing colleges for nursing education studies) 4. Cross-cultural The study is conducted in variety of cultural settings (eg.: Tagalogs, Visayans, etc.) 5. Longitudinal Given group of subjects is studied for an extended period of time , which is either: Retrospective- studies from the past to the present Prospective- studies from the present to the future (Eg.: Study of a mastectomy patient from time of operation up to five years after discharge) 6. Cross-sectional Subjects are observed at a given period (Eg.: Professional preferences of Senior High School Students Upon Graduation) 7. Quota sampling The researcher identifies the population to be studied and determines the proportion needed in the population. (Eg.: selecting 80% of the class to participate in the study) 3.3 Designing the Research Instrument Defining Research Instrument Once the specific method and technique are selected, the researcher then develops the tool or instrument to gather data. An instrument in a research study is a device used to measure the concept of interest in a research project. A research instrument is a survey, questionnaire, test, scale, rating, or tool designed to measure the variable(s), characteristic(s), or information of interest, often a behavioral or psychological characteristic. Research instrument is a major tool in a research study. "Careful planning for data collection can help with setting realistic goals. Data collection instrumentation, such as surveys, physiologic measures (blood pressure or temperature), or interview guides, must be identified and described. Using previously validated collection instruments can save time and increase the study's credibility. Once the data collection procedure has been determined, a time line for completion should be established." (Pierce, 2009) Instruments can be:  Observation scales  Questionnaires  Interview schedules
  • 24. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 24 An instrument must have the following qualities: a. Reliability- refers to the accuracy or precision of the tool; when administered twice, the instrument should provide identical data. b. Validity- Refers to the relevance of the measurement to the study being done. c. Sensitivity- Means that the fine lines of differences among the study subjects can be determined from the measurements (eg.: ratings and thermometers) d. Meaningfulness- Means that the measurement has a practical application. e. Appropriateness- applicability to the subjects being studied f. Objectivity- the tool is free from bias g. Ethical- the tools selected does not violate the right of the human subject (discussed). Where to Locate Instruments? Realize that searching for an instrument may take a lot of time. They may be published in a book or article on a particular subject. They may be published and described in a dissertation. They may be posted on the Internet and freely available. A specific instrument may be found in multiple publications and has been used for a long time. Or it may be new and only described in a few places. It may only be available by contacting the person who developed it, who may or may not respond to your inquiry in a timely manner. There are a variety of sources that may be used to search for research instruments. They include books, databases, Internet search engines, Web sites, journal articles, and dissertations. Permission to Use Instruments: If you plan to obtain an actual copy of the instrument to use in research, you need to be concerned not only with obtaining the instrument, but also obtaining permission to use the instrument. Research instruments are copyrighted. To obtain permission, contact the copyright holder to obtain permission in writing (print or email). Written permission is a record that you obtained permission. It is a good idea to have them state in writing that they are indeed the copyright holder and that they grant you permission to use the instrument. If you wish to publish the actual instrument in your paper, get permission for that, too. You may write about the instrument without obtaining permission. If someone posts a published test or instrument without the permission of the copyright holder, they are violating copyright and could be legally liable 3. 4 Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument Defining Validity and Reliability Validity and Reliability are two statistical properties used to evaluate the quality of research instruments (Anastasi, 1986). Hence, it is important that an instrument possess both: 1. Validity The validity of the instrument used and validity of the research design as a whole are important criteria in evaluating the worth of the results conducted. Internal validity refers to the likehood that experimental manipulation indeed was responsible for the differences observed, whereas; External validity refers to the extent to which the results of the study can be generalized to the larger population (Polit & Hungler, 1999) Four types of validity are used to judge the accuracy of an instrument: a. Content validity - High level of validity indicates that test items accurately reflect the trait being measured. Eg.: a questionnaire to assess anxiety would be high in content validity if it includes questions about known sysmptoms of which such as muscle tension and a rapid pulse rate. b. Predictive validity - An assessment measure with high predictive validity is capable of making accurate predictions of future behavior even in a different but related situation. c. Concurrent validity - If a test possess high degree of concurrent validity, then it can be expected to give results very similar to other measures of same characteristic. d. Construct validity - The extent to which a theoretical construct such as personality trait can be empirically defined.
  • 25. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 25 2. Reliability Reliability of an instrument reflects its stability and consistency within a given context, consistency over time and giving identical results on repeated tests. For example, a scale developed to measure intelligence might not be reliable for measurement of personality. Three qualities are evaluated to test the reliability of an instrument: a. Stability (Test-retest reliability) - An aspect of reliability that is concerned with the extent to which an instrument yields the same results on repeated administration (evaluated by test-retest reliability). - refers to degree to which research participants response to change overtime. - In this method, an instrument is given to the same individuals on two occasions within relatively short duration of time; A correlation coefficient is calculated to determine how closely the participants’ responses on the second occasion matched their responses on the first occasion. b. Internal consistency (half-split reliability) Refers to the extent to which all the instrument items are measuring the same attribute. c. Notion of equivalence (interrater reliability) - Applicable when different observers are using the same instrument to collect data at the same time. - Coefficient can be calculated to see correlation of values.
  • 26. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 26 PART 4: MEASUREMENT AND DATA COLLECTION 4.1 Measurement concepts and strategies Measurement in Quantitative Studies Measurement studies derive data through the measurement of variables. It involves the assignment of numbers to represent the amount of an attribute present in an object or person, using a specified set of rules (quantitation). Measurement involves assigning numbers to objects according to rules (eg.: measuring temperature, weight, blood pressure and other physical attributes). Rules for measuring many variables for nursing research studies however have to be invented. Whether the data are collected by observation, self-report, or some other method, researchers must specify criteria for assigning the numeric values to the characteristic of interest. Example: The nurse is studying attitudes towards distribution of condoms in school clinics and asked parents to express their extent of agreement with the following statement. “Teenagers should have access to contraceptives in school clinics.” __ strongly disagree / __disagree / __ slightly disagree / __ neither agree nor disagree __slightly agree / __ agree / __ strongly agree Responses to this question can be quantified by developing a system for assigning numbers to them. Note that any rule would satisfy the measurement- the most practical way is to assign 1 to “strongly disagree” and 7 to “strongly agree”.  Obtained scores from an instrument consist of a true score component (the value that would be obtained for a hypothetical perfect measure of the attribute, or error of measurement that represent measurement inaccuracies.  Reliability, one of two primary criteria for assessing a quantitative measurement, is the degree of consistency or accuracy with which an instrument measures an attribute. The higher the reliability of an instrument, the lower the amount of error in obtained scores. Assessment methods are: Reliability Coefficient based on the computation of relation coefficient that indicates the magnitude and direction of a relationship between two variables. Relation coefficient can range from -1.00, a perfect negative relationship through zero to +1.00, a perfect positive relationship. Higher values reflect greater reliability.  Methods The choice of instruments to be used in collecting data depends on: - The variables being studied - The sampling units to be included - The amount of time available to complete the study - The amount of resources available The instrument for data collection should be tested first before it is applied to subjects in actual study. The tests can be made with subjects, representatives or their actual counterparts. This allows sufficient time for analyzing results so that necessary changes can be made.  Pre-test A pre-test is used to validate the measures of the variables being studied by correlating them with outside criteria, and to provide a “dry-run” of the actual administration of data collecting.
  • 27. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 27 Strategies ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES APPROACH/CRITERIA 1. QUESTIONNAIRE It is the most common type instrument; written form and distributed to the study subjects to secure responses: Two Types: a. OPEN-ENDED/ FREE RESPONSE - why/ what/ how - allows complete freedom in answering - difficult in terms of time and expense for tabulating and summarizing the results. b. CLOSE-ENDED/ STRUCTURED FORM - Responses are prepared; the respondent merely checks, underlines or ranks the responses as directed. - time saving - responses are limited to the ones provided - simple method - less time is required - the researcher is able to gather data from a widely scattered sample - the researcher does not have to see the respondents personally - suitable for beginners questionnaires may lack depth; probing is not possible - respondent may omit/ disregard or forced to select some responses - costly in terms of printing - respondents/ sample is limited to those who are literate In constructing the questionnaire, the researcher should determine the content or information critical to the research problem- making it too lengthy may lose the subject’s interest leaving many item unanswered, other considerations include a. The questionnaire should not have too many items or take too much time for the respondent to answer. b. It should be interesting to the subject. c. It must not be too suggestive or stimulating. d. The questions are asked in such a way that the respondent is not embarrassed. e. Questions should elicit an in- depth but well-defined responses. Order of Questions 1. Each item should relate to the subject under study. 2. Items should be organized- progression from one type to another, from the simple to the complex, more difficult and thought-provoking. 3. General questions should lead to specific ones. 2. INTERVIEW - is the second most common method for data collection: a. Interview schedule- (structured) read to the respondent b. Interview guide- unstructured; the interviewer is allowed to pursue relevant ideas in depth; mp3 recording and other modern modes of recording can be used. - complete answers are possible - misunderstand ing can be minimized when questions are explained by the researcher - some topics can be pursued in- depth - higher percentage of response is possible - subject does not have to be literate - time and resources consuming - interpersonal relationship between the subject and the researcher is different for each interview Problems that may be encountered: - Responses may only be opinions. - The respondent may attempt to seek the interviewer’s approval. Categories Interviews can be categorized into 5 groups in which researchers may prefer one or two types to use, these are: 1. Standardized- interviewer uses exact wordings of the interview schedule; structured 2. Non-standardized- the interviewers has the freedom to ask further questions as he deems fit for data gathering. 3. Semi-standardized- specific number of questions may be asked by the interviewer who may probe these questions further as needed. 4. Focused interview-the interviewer asks a series of questions based on the previous understanding and knowledge of the subjects. The interview begins with an outline of topics and it allows freedom to deviate from the prepared agenda; partially- structured/ semi-standardized interview 5. Non-directive- subject is allowed to express his feelings without being questioned and without fear of disapproval; the interviewer is not allowed to suggest ideas; and since it allows complete freedom, the interview result is more comprehensive and that the respondent’s values and thoughts are more reflected. 3. OBSERVATION - Most direct means of studying the subjects when the researcher is interested in their behavior (common in nursing research wherein the researcher assume several roles in observing - inexpensive to employ - the researcher is not dependent on subjects who consent to answer - allows complete view - accurate prediction of a situation or event to be observed is unlikely; therefore it is difficult to be always present to observe key Approaches 1. Participant observation- the investigator blends in the activity of the group study (eg.: disguise as a patient, rating not only the services he receives but all other activities). 2. Non-participant- the observer uses quantitative instruments (weighing scales, thermometers, ECG monitor, etc.). The
  • 28. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 28 nursing situations- a visiting strager, a patient, an eager-learner, a partipant or a non- participant one) of situation as it develops and affords inclusion of a sequence of events - can be discontinued and resumed anytime events - researcher has to wait for the spontaneous occurrence of observed situation - biases based on the observer’s cultural background and personal interpretation is likely - the presence of an observer gives the subject a quality that is normally absent - some events occur so rapidly that recoding all the details can be difficult - requires intensive training observer stands outside the phenomena being studied. 3. The use of one-way mirror or hidden cameras 4. Anecdotal records- observation and recording of situations that are as natural as possible (eg.: classroom, nursing unit), free from limiting conditions imposed by a prepared record; written down at the time of occurrence (eg: personality traits, skills, quality of work, etc); Useful in continuing individual records that can be utilized for guidance and clinical studies of students or personnel. 5. Critical Incident Technique (a new technique); requires the written account of respondents on a particular observed situation. Factors to consider when performing interview: HALO EFFECT- the observer may have the tendency to rate certain subjects as consistently high or low on everything because of the good impression the subjects give the rater. HAWTHORNE’S EFFECT- The people may deliberately change their behavior because they know they are being studied or observed. 4. RECORDS Provides readily available and valuable source of information (libraries, offices, homes, institutions; correspondences, patient’s charts, census data, diaries) - records are unbiased - covers a long period of time - inexpensive, convenient and time-saving - it may be incomplete in which the researcher cannot add on it - accuracy is unknown - records were not collected from a specific study To establish authenticity and accuracy of records, 3 major criteria are necessary: 1. Authorship- identity of the person who conceived the material. 2. Body- is the outward form of the material. 3. Function- is the purpose for which it was compiled. Considerations in the use of Records: - Employees in an organization may not want an outsider (researcher) looking at their private files. - Files may contain names of individuals that the organization may not want to disclose. - Records may require special help in interpretation. - To gain access, the researcher may have to guarantee anonymity and present a copy of research findings to the organization. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT Common modality in nursing research 1. Self-documentation - Is used when the subject cannot be monitored closely. This includes experiences that cannot be measured by others such as pain, or degree of mobility. This may reveal information not previously known which could build knowledge in areas not yet explored which may contribute, modify or improve management of patient care. (Eg.: the use of Ambulatory BP Monitor) 2. Laboratory Tests- Provide direct, precise and accurate measure of various physiologic conditions. Informed consent must be taken and specific instructions must be given to ensure accuracy of results.
  • 29. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 29 4.2 Data Collection DATA COLLECTION The phenomena in which researchers are interested must ultimately be captured and translated into data for analysis. Any research project needs a high-quality data collection approach to ensure accuracy of findings. Data Sources One of the first decisions that investigators make with regard to research data concerns whether to use existing data or to collect data generated specifically for the study. Most researchers develop original data, but they often take advantage of existing information (secondary and metanalyses for example make use of data gathered by others, the same case with historical research). The major disadvantage of the use original data (obtained by the researcher) compared with the use of existing data or records is that obtaining data is expensive and time consuming. The Use Existing Data/ Record Advantages Disadvantages - Economical. - Permits Examination of trends overtime (if the data were obtained repeatedly). - Investigators do not have to rely on participant’s cooperation. - Bias in records (“selective deposit-selective deposit” by the record keeper). - Difficulty in gaining access to institutional records. - authenticity, authorship and accuracy issues The difference between using records and secondary analyses is that doing secondary analysis typically has a ready-to-analyze data set, whereas using records have to assemble the data set, and considerable coding and data manipulation usually are necessary. Major Approaches in obtaining original data Self-Reports, Observation and Biophysiologic Measures If existing data are not available for the research question, researchers must collect new data. When developing a data collection plans, researchers make many important decisions and consider multiple factors (discussed in the previous sections). In nursing research, three approaches have been used most frequently- self-reports, observation and biophysiologic measures. SELF-REPORTS (Questioning) The data collector must be able to communicate verbally. It requires directness and versatility. - A major advantage is that it yields information that would be difficult to gather by other means (Eg.: BEHAVIORS can be observed but only if the participants engage in them publicly. For example, it is usually impossible for a nurse researcher to observe behaviors as contraceptive practices). - Possibility to gather retrospective and prospective data whereas observation provides information occurring at the time of study. However, the data collector should also be aware of the limitations about the validity and accuracy of self-reports: Self-preservation happens particularly if the answers would reveal embarrassing or socially unacceptable behavior. It is one’s nature to preserve himself in the best light, and this may conflict with the truth. An effective approach to counteract this is:
  • 30. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 30 Projective technique is a way of obtaining data indirectly, this is done by providing stimulus of low structure (more relaxed, less demanding data collecting technique) which allows the participant to “read in” and describe their own feelings. (Eg.: A study to describe the feelings of a sexually abused children uses in-depth analysis through interview and analysis of their drawings). OBSERVATION (an alternative to self-reports to obtain information on objective behavior and characteristics) This requires effective use of human senses or with the use of technical apparatus such as video equipment. This is effective to use when the nurse researcher gathers evidences on the effectiveness of nursing measures and practices (eg.: how a psychiatric patient reacts when he is transferred to a seclusion to manage destructive behavior). Observations may also be needed when subjects cannot describe adequately their own behaviors or unable to articulate their actions (eg.: preoperative manifestations of anxiety; young children and mentally ill A possible challenge on the use of this approach is a phenomenon called: Reactivity* in which, the subject intentionally distorts behavior due to awareness that he is being observed. This can be eliminated if the observations are made without the subject’s knowledge through some type of concealment or one-way mirror (however, a truly informed consent is an issue associated with these techniques). (This was discussed and described as HAWTHORNE’S EFFECT in the previous section) BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES (quantitative- objective) The trend in nursing research has been toward increased clinical investigations result to greater utilization of this approach. The major advantage is that since it uses instruments that are readily available in heathcare settings (eg.: BP apparatus; spirometer), the costs of this measure is minimal or nonexistent. The major strengths are objectivity, relative precision and sensitivity. (Eg.: two nurses reading the same thermometer at the same time to measure the effectiveness of a drug on fever will produce identical readings; relative precision- eg.: the subject complains of extreme pain and the he is bradycardic further confirms the intensity of pain ). Yields exceptionally high quality data. Researchers’ decision about research design usually is independent of decisions about data collection methods. For example, a researcher using an experimental design can rely on self-report data- as researcher doing an ethnography (non- experimental). The RESEARCH QUESTION may dictate which specific method of data collection to use (but researchers often have vast approaches in data collection plan and sometimes go beyond the conventional ones). BIASES may interfere with obtaining data using any of the mentioned approaches. Particularly because of involvement of emotions, prejudices, attitudes and values of the researcher, personal interest, anticipation of what is to be observed among others. Biases cannot probably be eliminated but can be minimized through careful training. Dimensions of Data Collection: Structure, Quantifiability, Researcher Obtrusiveness and Objectivity Regardless of what specific approach is used, data collection methods vary among these four important dimensions. STRUCTURE Structured- used in quantitative studies; data are easy to analyze (data can be computed in terms of percentages for example) but limited in terms of explaining the underlying meaning of responses; a formal instrument must be developed (or borrowed) such as questionnaire. Unstructured- used in qualitative studies; it provides an opportunity for an in-depth examination of a phenomenon- it allows thoughtful and deeper responses; data are difficult to analyze and is not suited for respondents who are not good in expressing themselves; no formal instrument is needed although a list of the type of information needed. RESEARCHER OBTRUSIVENESS RESEARCHER obtrusiveness is most likely to be problematic/ triggered when: a. participants have underlying vested interest in the study outcome b. participant is engaged in socially unacceptable behavior c. participant does not comply with instructions d. participant have a strong need to “look good” Researcher obtrusiveness most likely can distort data collection undermining the value of research; when such is unavoidable, researchers should make an effort to make participants at ease, stress the importance of naturalistic behavior and maintain a neutral and nonjudgmental demeanor.
  • 31. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 31 QUANTIFIABILITY Data that will be analyzed statistically must be quantified. For statistical analysis, all variables must be quantitatively measured- although variables are abstract and intangible phenomena that represent qualities such as hope, pain and body image. Data that are analyzed qualitatively are collected in narrative form. OBJECTIVITY Objectivity refers to the degree to which two independent researchers can arrive at similar scores or make similar observations regarding participant’s attributes which are not biased by personal feelings or beliefs. Paradigmatic orientation requires a higher degree of objectivity whereas in; Naturalistic paradigm, the subjective judgment of investigators is considered an asset because subjectivity is viewed as an essential for understanding human experiences. Converting Qualitative and Quantitative Data as Technique in Data Collection The Use of Quantitative Data Qualitatively and Qualitative Data Quantitatively Qualitative data are sometimes converted into numeric codes that can be analyzed quantitatively and it is also possible to treat data collected in a quantitative data qualitatively. Quantitative to Qualitative: “Qualitizing data” Most data that are analyzed quantitatively actually begin as qualitative data, for example: If we ask cancer respondents if they have been severely, moderately or somewhat depressed- they answer in words not number. The words are transformed into numbers through coding into quantitative categories. Numbers are analyzed statistically to determine percentages of each category. (Qualitizing:) a researcher can extract data from above example and create an in-depth study focusing on the patterns emerging in such quantitative analysis. Such case study may reveal factors that lead to depression like life circumstances, problems and experiences of an individual suffering from cancer. Qualitative to Quantitative: “Quantitizing data” Some amount of quantitizing is almost inevitable, every time researchers use terms such as a “a few”, “some”, “many” or “most”, they are implicitly conveying quantitative information about the frequency of occurrence of a theme or pattern (Sandelowski, 2001). Quantitizing strategy is important in: a. Generating meaning from qualitative data (eg.: displaying frequencies of a certain phenomena; when qualitative data are analyzed in categories) b. Documenting and confirming conclusions- the use of numbers can assure readers that researcher’s assertions are valid; it addresses the major pitfalls of qualitative research which are (1)giving too much weight to dramatic or vivid accounts; (2) giving too little weight to disconforming cases; (3) smoothing out variation on human experiences. Example: A qualitative research which explored strategies nurses use to construct dying patient’s moral identities in palliative care settings; moral identity is indeed a subjective human experience and is subjected to qualitative approach, but it would be more accurate and reliable to collect data using numbers, eg: “difficult” was used 58 times; followed by anxious, 28; “bad”, 25; and “confused” 21. The use of numbers to confirm impressions like the example above is termed quasi- statistics. c. Re-presenting data and lives- Qualitative researchers are especially likely to use numbers to describe features of their sample. Thus, qualitative reports may contain tables that show characteristics of the sample as a whole (eg.: the average age) or characteristics of participants that are categorized. Developing Data Collection Plan in: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STUDIES A. DATA COLLECTION IN QUALITATIVE STUDIES In qualitative studies, data collection is more fluid than in quantitative research, and decision about what to collect evolve in the field. The researcher must be innovative enough as prearranged plans for data collection may suddenly fall through, in which, creative solutions and new strategies that are workable are needed. Data Collection Methods The primary method of collecting qualitative research is through SELF-REPORT (interview of study participants). Observation is often a part of many qualitative studies as well. Physiologic data are rarely collected in naturalistic inquiry, except if it requires description of participants’ characteristics. There are usually relatively few forms of and protocols needed for gathering demographic and administrative information. Preliminary questions to be asked or observations to be made during the initial collection are often useful.
  • 32. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 32 Field Issues in Qualitative Research  Gaining trust is needed to establish credibility among those being studied. “Be like” participants means that the researcher should be sensitive to style of dress, modes of speech, customs and schedules. In ethnographic research it is important NOT to take sides of any controversial issues and appear not to be too strongly affiliated with prominent member and leaders of the community (gaining trust is usually not possible if the researcher appears to be close with those in power).  The pace of data collection must be an utmost consideration- data collection in qualitative approach is both a powerful and exhaustive experience especially if the phenomenon being studied concerns an illness experience or other stressful events. It requires intense concentration and energy in which emotional strain may be experienced. This can be managed by setting realistic limits- for example; it may be prudent to conduct one or two interview a day and to engage in emotionally-releasing activities between interviews. Debriefing with colleagues or advisor may also be helpful.  Emotional involvement with participants needs to be guarded by the researcher himself. “Going native” is the term used to refer to this pitfall in which researcher gets too close to participants running several risks, including their ability to collect objectively the most meaningful and trustworthy data. It is important to be supportive and to listen carefully to people’s concerns and difficulties, but usually NOT advisable to intervene and try to solve their problems, or share personal problems with them. If they need help, it is appropriate to advice where they can get it than to give it directly.  Reflexivity refers to researcher’s awareness of himself as part of the data he is collecting. One must be conscious of the part he plays in the study and reflect on his own behavior and how it can affect the data collection.  Active listening techniques include the need to hear all what is being said rather than trying to anticipate what is coming next. The researcher must create an atmosphere that safely allows for the sharing of experiences and feelings. Respect and aunthentic caring are critical. Recording and Storing Qualitative Data To ensure that interview data are actual verbatim responses of study participants, it is recommended to record interviews using state-of-the art recording equipment then subsequently transcribe rather than relying on just the interviewer notes. Written notes tend to be incomplete and may be biased by the interviewer’s memory. Taking notes can also be distracting to both the researcher and the respondent. Time and environmental factors should also be considered- at the respondent’s convenience and a quiet setting is ideal. The use of observation to collect data may require video capture, in which the researcher must ensure the functioning of such equipment. TIP: Scan with Qr Barcode Scanner to install Easy Voice Recorder App (iOS/ Android)
  • 33. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 33 DATA COLLECTION IN QUANTITATIVE STUDIES *Note: The following diagrammatic table is originally prepared by the student based on narratively presented steps in valid resources. It ensures reliability. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES: Data collection plan for quantitative studies should ideally yield accurate, valid and meaningful data that are maximally effective in answering research questions. #1: DETERMINE what data need to be gathered Are data needs extensive? if yes, prioritize the needs then proceed to # 2 if no, proceed to #2 #2: DETERMINE the type of measure to be used for each variable (self-report, etc.), then proceed to #3 #3: DETERMINE if there are existing instruments to capture the conceptual definitions of variables YES, there is an existing instrument! Will the instruments yield high quality data? Yes, it does (proceed to #4) No, it doesn’t. Do I have skills and resources to develop new instruments? I do not have skills and resources. S T O P !!! DO NOT PROCEED (REVISE PROBLEM) Yes, I have skills and resources… develop pretest measure then proceed to step #4 NONE. There is no existing instrument Do I have skills and resources to develop new instruments? #4: DETERMINE the feasibility of the instrument in terms of: Cost; availability; norms, etc. NO. It is not feasible NO? Do I have skills and resources to develop new instruments? Can the instrument be modified and adapted to yield more suitable measures? If YES (do appropriate modification and proceed to #5) YES. It is feasible Is permission to use the instrument needed? YES. (Obtain permission, then proceed to #5) NO need. I have developed the instrument myself (proceed to #5) #5 Perform in sequential manner 1. Arrange measures in an appropriate sequence. 2. Make necessary revisions to instruments or sequencing 3. Develop data collection forms and protocols; develop data management procedures. Can data be collected by researcher alone? YES. Then proceed to #6 If NO. Identify, hire and train data collectors. Then proceed to #6 #6 PERFORM DATA COLLECTION AND MANAGE DATA ACCORDING TO DATA MANAGEMENT PLAN
  • 34. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 34 PRE-TESTING DATA COLLECTION PACKAGE Researchers who develop new instrument in methodologic studies must submit to pretesting to evaluate and refine the instrument. The adequacy of a data processing instrument can be best determined by pretesting it before it is applied to the subjects in the actual study, its purposes are: 1. To determine the time it takes to administer the entire instrument package, this estimation is important for developing budget plans. 2. To determine the extent of informed consent necessary. 3. To identify any instruments or questions which the respondent may find offensive or objectionable. 4. To determine needs of data collection staff. 5. To determine whether measures yield data with sufficient variability. 6. Allows necessary changes to be made in the data collecting procedures. 7. Validate the measures of the variable being studied by correlating them with outside criteria. 8. Provides a “dry run” of the total administration of the data as well as the tabulation phase. PRE-TESTING OF QUESTIONNAIRES: A very important part of the questionnaire contruction process is its piloting, known as pretesting. This involves testing your research instrument in conditions as similar as possible to the research, but not in order to report results but rather to check for glitches in wording of questions, lack of clarity of instructions etc. - in fact, anything that could impede the instrument's ability to collect data in an economical and systematic fashion. Pretests should be conducted systematically, with potential respondents and using the same method of administration. The temptation to hurry over them, using just a convenience sample, should be avoided. It is also beneficial to pretest the questionnaire with specialists in question construction, who may be able to pick up potential difficulties which might not be revealed in a pretest with respondents. If there are a variety of respondent types, all should be included in the pretest, and if the questionnaire is to be in several languages, it should be tested in each language. The validity and reliability of the data collecting instruments must be established during pre-test. Developing Data Collection Forms and Procedures After the instrument packages have been finalized, the researcher performs administrative tasks.  APPROPRIATE FORMS that are attractively designed and formatted, legible and inviting to use must be developed, these include: Screening forms to determine eligibility; Informed Consent forms; Records of attempted contact with participants; Forms for recording actual data; Contact information sheets; Administrative logs for recording receipt of data Care should be taken to design forms to ensure confidentiality (eg.: a page containing names and other personal information of the respondent is detached and is separated from the data sheet/ “coding system.  The Right Research Personnel/ Data Collectors The research personnel should have prior experience in data collection, and if not, he must be able to readily acquire the necessary skills. The staff should match certain characteristics of the subject like cultural background. They should not be too young or very old, they should dress appropriately- not extremely casual or very formal. They should be available during the entire period of data collection.  Training of the Data Collectors The personnel should be briefed on the background and the purpose of the study and they should be trained on how the data will be collected, skills include: Proper documentation; Locating study subjects; Arranging appointments; Take informed consent to participate in the study; Answer the respondent’s questions; Establish appropriate relationship; Avoiding bias; Obtaining full responses; Observing confidentiality of data  Seeking Permission to Collect Data The researcher himself should seek permission to collect data from the authorities concerned, the letter should contain: - The purpose of the study and how it will benefit the subjects concerned. - Assurance of anonymity of the respondents and confidentiality of information that will be gathered. - Pre-arranged schedule of probable visit or appointment.  Pilot Study Involves a small scale test of the entire study, which is a testing not only of instruments but also of the sampling plan, the intervention and the study procedures. TIP: Whenever possible, try to avoid reinventing the wheel. It is inefficient and unnecessary to start from scratch- not only in developing instruments but also in creating forms, training materials, etc. Ask seasoned researchers or your mentors at the PCHS Graduate School if they have materials you could borrow or adapt.
  • 35. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 35 PART 5: DATA ANALYSIS 5.1 Statistical Theory Review The Theory of Statistics The theory of statistics provides a basis for the whole range of techniques, in both study design and data analysis that are used within applications of statistics. The theory covers approaches to statistical-decision problems and to statistical inference, and the actions and deductions that satisfy the basic principles stated for these different approaches. Within a given approach, statistical theory gives ways of comparing statistical procedures; it can find a best possible procedure within a given context for given statistical problems, or can provide guidance on the choice between alternative procedures. Apart from philosophical considerations about how to make statistical inferences and decisions, much of statistical theory consists of mathematical statistics, and is closely linked to probability theory, to utility theory, and to optimization. Statistical theory provides an underlying rationale and provides a consistent basis for the choice of methodology. The Importance of Statistics Without statistics, quantitative data would be a chaotic mass of numbers. Statistical procedures enable researchers to organize, interpret and communicate numeric information. Its applications are: 1. To explain cause-and-effect phenomena 2. To relate research with real-world event 3. To predict/ forecast the real-world phenomena based on research 4. Finding answers to a particular problem 5. Making conclusions about real-world event based on the problem 6. Learning lesson from the problem Mathematical talent is not required to use or understand statistical analysis- only logical thinking ability is needed. 5.2 Types of Statistics and Their Uses Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Statistics are either descriptive or inferential. Descriptive statistics are used to describe and synthesize data. Examples are averages and percentages. Inferential statistics are based on the laws of probability, provides a means for drawing conclusions about a population.  Parameters are indexes (from descriptive statistics) that are calculated from a population.  Statistic is a descriptive index from a sample. Research questions are about parameters, but researchers calculate statistics to estimate them and use inferential statistics to make inferences about the population.
  • 36. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 36 A. Descriptive Statistics *Note: Although, I have mentioned the following concepts in relation to variables in the previous section (part 2, section 2), I am reiterating the same and comprehensively present these concepts in relation to statistics. LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT Nominal Lowest level of measurement Involves assigning numbers to classify characteristics into categories. These assigned numbers have no quantitative meaning- numbers are merely symbols. Eg.: coding MALE (1) and FEMALE (2)- the number 2 does not mean more than 1 Nominal measurements provide NO information about an attribute except equivalence and non- equivalence. For example, if we are to measure the gender of BEN, LEILA, TONY and FE- we assign the codes 1,2,1,2 respectively, this means BEN and TONY are equivalent on the gender attribute but are not equivalent to LEILA and FE. The numbers in NOMINAL measurement cannot be mathematically treated, given the above example, it is nonsensical to calculate the average gender of a sample but we can state the frequency of occurrence within the categories- we can say that 50% are male and 50% are female . No further mathematic operation is meaningful with nominal data. Ordinal Next in the measurement hierarchy Involves sorting objects based on their relative ranking on an attribute. It goes beyond mere categorization and attributes are ordered according to some criterion. So that ordinal measurement captures information not only about equivalence but also about relative rank among subjects. Eg.: Measuring patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living- we use a scheme for coding as follow- (1) completely dependent; (2) needs assistance- person/mechanical; (3) completely independent. The numbers signify incremental ability to perform activities of daily living meaning if patients X and Y were both assigned with numbers (3)- they are equivalent in terms of functional ability but not with Z and A who were both assigned with number (1). However, it does not tell us anything how much greater one level is than another, given the above example, we do not know if being completely independent is twice as good as needing some assistance- another person/mechanical. It only tells us the relative ranking of the attribute’s levels. Mathematical operation is restricted- averages are usually meaningless. Frequency counts, percentages and other statistical procedures may be used. Interval Occurs when the researchers can specify the rank ordering of objects on an attribute and can assume equivalent distance between them. Interval measures are more informative than ordinal; Eg.: (Fahrenheit scale) a temperature of 60 deg F is 10 deg F warmer than 50 deg F. A 10 deg F differences similarly separates 40 deg F. However, interval measures do not give absolute magnitude; Eg.: It cannot be said that 60 deg F is twice as hot as 30 deg F, or three times as hot as 20 deg F. And that zero on the thermometer does not signify a total absence of heat- in interval scales, there is no real or rational zero point. Most psychological tests are based on interval scales. Ratio Highest level of measurement Ratio scales have rational, meaningful zero. It measures provided information concerning the ordering of objects on the critical attribute, interval between objects and the absolute magnitude of an attribute. Many physical measures provide ratio-level data; Eg.: A person’s weight is measured on a ratio scale because zero weight is an actual possibility- it is acceptable to say that someone who weighs 200 pounds is twice as heavy as someone who weighs 100 pounds. Because ratio scales have an absolute zero, all arithmetic operations are permissible. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division can be applied in a ratio scale. All statistical treatments suitable for interval-level data are also appropriate on this measurement.
  • 37. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 37 TO FURTHER UNDERSTAND THE RATIO as the highest level of measurement, take this example: (The example presents people’s weight) SUBJECTS RATIO-LEVEL (LBS) INTERVAL-LEVEL* ORDINAL-LEVEL** NOMINAL*** BEN 125 LBS 15 4 2 LEILA 110 LBS 0 1 1 TONY 120 LBS 10 3 1 FE 115 LBS 5 2 1 RATIO-LEVEL shows the actual weight in pounds- it is the highest level of measurement and as the table proceeds to interval, ordinal and nominal, there is information loss making nominal the lowest level of measurement. * Interval-level: I assigned the lightest individual a score of 0 and 5 to the subject who is 5 lbs heavier and so forth, note that the results are amenable to addition and subtraction; differences in in pounds are equally far apart, even though they are in different parts of the scale. However, the data no longer tell us anything about the subject’s weight, for example, is TONY a 10 lbs infant? Or a 120 lbs adult? ** Ordinal-level: I did rank the subjects according from the lightest (1) to heaviest (4) to yield an ordinal measure. Now, even more information is missing. The data does not indicate how much heavier is BEN compared to LEILA. *** Nominal- I presented the subjects in which they are classified as either (2) heavy (121 lbs and above ) and (1) light (120 lbs and below). Within a category, there is no information as to who is heavier than whom. Therefore, LEILA, TONY & FE are equivalent with regard to the attribute heavy/light as defined by the classification criterion. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS, CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY A set of data can be described in terms of three characteristics: the shape of distribution of values, central tendency and variability. a. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Unanalyzed quantitative data are overwhelming. It is not even possible to discern general trends until some order is imposed on the data. Consider the example below: Anxiety Scores of 10 Preoperative Patients: 30 27 26 27 26 29 29 29 30 28 Construction Frequency Distributions: Frequency Distribution of Patients’ Anxiety Scores Score (X) Tallies Frequency (f) Percentage (%) 26 II 2 20% 27 II 2 20% 28 I 1 10% 29 III 3 30% 30 11 2 20% N= Total sample size X= observed values f= frequency of cases at each value N=10=∑ ∑ 100% Note: The sum numbers in the frequency column must equal the sample size ∑ means the sum of (signified by the Greek letter sigma) the frequencies (f) equals the sample size (N).
  • 38. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 38 b. CENTRAL TENDENCY Because an index of “typicallness” is more likely to come from the center of a distribution than from an extreme (either of two ends), these indexes are called measures of central tendency. Lay people use the term “average” to designate central tendency , this is an ambiguous term because there are three types of which- these are the mode, the median and the mean. MODE Most frequently occurring score value in a distribution. The mode is determined by inspecting a frequency distribution. In the same example below, we can readily see that the mode is 29: Anxiety Scores of 10 Preoperative Patients: 30 27 26 27 26 29 29 29 30 28 Modes are a quick way to determine a “popular” score, but are rather unstable. It means that modes tend to fluctuate widely from a sample to sample drawn from the same population: (given this values: 59 13 13 86 92 59 59 75 29 23- the mode is 59 but the other values seem to be too apart from other values in the same set of data). The mode is used primarily to describe typical values for nominal-level measures (Eg: “The typical (modal) subject is a married, tagalog woman” If there is no number is repeated in the set of values, then there is no mode for the list. MEDIAN The median is the point in a distribution above which and below which 50% of cases fall. Anxiety Scores of 10 Preoperative Patients: 30 27 26 27 26 29 29 29 30 28 The median is the middle value, so I will have to re write the above list in order: 26, 26, 27, 27, 28, 29, 29, 29, 30,30 Formula: (number of data points)+1/2 Using this formula to find the median, 10 + 1 / 2 = 5.5 (So the median is the 5th number and the fraction .5), giving us 28.5 as the median However, you can just count in from both ends of the list until you meet the middle. Either way will work. MEAN The mean- often symbolized as M or ; average; It is the most widely used measure in central tendency. When researchers work with interval-ratio or ratio-level measurements, the mean rather than the median or mode is usually the statistic reported. It is the most stable and most useful measure of central tendency. Formula: = sum of all scores/ number of scores Anxiety Scores of 10 Preoperative Patients: 30 27 26 27 26 29 29 29 30 28 30 + 27 + 26 + 27 + 26 + 29 + 29 + 29 + 30 + 28 10 Mean = 28 c. VARIABILITY Variability of distribution pertains to how spread out or dispersed the data are. Researchers compute an index of variability to express the extent to which scores in a distribution differ from one another. The most common indexes are the range and standard deviation. RANGE The range is simply the highest score minus the lowest score in a distribution. The chief virtue of range is its computational ease, it is just a difference between the highest and lowest values. Highest score – Lowest score = RANGE Anxiety Scores of 10 Preoperative Patients: 30 27 26 27 26 29 29 29 30 28 Highest score= 30 Lowest score = 26 30-26 = 4 However, range being based on only two scores is highly unstable. From sample to sample drawn from the same population, the range tends to fluctuate widely. Another limitation is that it ignores variations in scores between the two extremes, for this reason it is widely used as a gross descriptive index. given the two examples below:
  • 39. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 39 Obtained scores of sections A and B in the Preliminary Examination, Nursing Care Management 205, PCHS BSN Level 4 Section A Section B 60 75 85 92 98 98 92 94 95 96 55 72 56 59 93 90 65 62 89 56 Range = 98 – 60 = 38 Range = 93 – 55 = 38 Despite clear differences in heterogeneity (in terms of scores obtained by each section) the range is the same for both. Standard Deviatio n With interval or ratio-level data, the most widely used in measure of variability is the standard deviation. It in indicates the average amount of deviation of values from the mean. Like the mean, the standard deviation is calculated using every score. Standard deviation (represented by the Greek letter sigma, σ) shows how much variation or dispersion exists from the average (mean), or expected value. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean; high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values. Formula Anxiety Scores of 10 Preoperative Patients: 30 27 26 27 26 29 29 29 30 28 Note: The mean of the above data as computed earlier was 28 The first step in calculating the standard deviation is to compute the deviation scores of each subject. A deviation score (symbolized as x) is the difference of an individual score minus the mean and square the result of each (col. 2); compute the average of these values and take the square root. X x = X – mean x2 26 26 – 28 = -2 1.41 26 26 – 28 = -2 1.41 27 27 – 28 = -1 1 27 27 – 28 = -1 1 28 28 – 28 = 0 0 29 29 – 28 = 1 1 29 29 – 28 = 1 1 29 29 – 28 = 1 1 30 30 – 28 = 2 1.41 30 30 – 28 = 2 1.41 ∑ = 10.64 SD = 10.64 = √ = 1.0315 10  VARIANCE (SD2 ) is simply the value of STANDARD DEVIATION before a square root has been taken, in the above example, the variance is 1.064 (or 1.03152 ) Significance of Standard Deviation: A standard deviation is more difficult to interpret than other statistics, like the mean or range. In our example we calculated SD=1.0315, but what does the number mean? Standard deviation as earlier defined is a variability index for a set of scores or simply standard deviation is an average deviation from the mean. SD tells the researcher how spread out the responses/ values are -- are they concentrated around the mean, or scattered far & wide? Did all of your respondents/ values are in the middle of your scale? To appreciate the importance of SD, we compare it with mean, take this example*: Obtained scores of sections A and B in the Preliminary Examination, Nursing Care Management 201, PCHS BSN L2 Section A Section B 89 89 87 75 74 72 90 74 72 85 99 99 97 95 94 32 90 54 52 95 Mean= 80.7 Mean = 80.7 SD= √ = 1.63 SD= √ = 2.10 ANALYSIS: At first glance (looking at the means only) it would seem that both sections performed equally, when in fact the highest obtained score in Section A was 89 only compared to the 99 highest score in Section B. How about the lowest score of Section B that is 32, significantly lower than the lowest score of Section A which is 72? Thus, Looking at the mean alone tells only part of the story, yet all too often; this is what researchers focus on.
  • 40. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 40 The distribution of scores is important to consider and the SD provides a valuable descriptive measure of this. Looking at the SDs of both, you can already tell that SECTION A is more homogenous in terms of obtained grades- meaning the scores of each student in the sample set are closer to the mean (80.7) compared to section B- whose scores are more scattered along the scale. Again: Standard deviation is a number used to tell how measurements for a group are spread out from the average (mean), or expected value. A low standard deviation means that most of the numbers are very close to the average. A high standard deviation means that the numbers are spread out. Other Uses of Standard Deviation: Standard deviation is also used to measure how close a reported number is to being exactly right. For example, the standard deviation is used to find margin of error in opinion poll numbers. The reported margin of error is usually two times the standard deviation and gives the range for the true poll number. Scientists commonly report the standard deviation of numbers from the average number in experiments. They often decide that only differences bigger than two or three times the standard deviation are important. Tiring isn’t? But we have a long way to go to master research and its vital concepts including statistics- it will be all worth it!, REMEMBER…this in not about mathematics, this is about common sense and a lot of hardwork… Take a coffee break!... __________________________________________________ B. Inferential Statistics Researchers usually want to do more than describe their data. Inferential statistics, which are based on the laws of probability, provide a means for drawing conclusions about a population based on a given data from a sample; they offer a framework for deciding whether the sampling error that results from sampling fluctuation is too high to provide reliable population estimates. To clearly understand Inferential Statistics, I first focus on: Comparing Inferential with Descriptive Statistics Both descriptive and inferential statistics rely on the same set of data. Descriptive statistics rely solely on this set of data, whilst inferential statistics also rely on this data in order to make generalizations about a larger population. As thoroughly discussed in the previous section, Descriptive Statistics is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data. Descriptive statistics do not, however, allow us to make conclusions beyond the data we have analyzed or reach conclusions regarding any hypotheses we might have made. Descriptive Statistics is simply a way to describe our data. In the previous example* (*Obtained scores of sections A and B in the Preliminary Examination, Nursing Care Management 205, PCHS BSN L4), We have seen that descriptive statistics provide information about our immediate group of data (Obtained scores of ten BSN Students) . For example, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of the exam marks for the ten students and this could provide valuable information about this group of ten students. Any group of data like this, which includes all the data you are interested in, is called a population. A population can be small or large, as long as it includes all the data you are interested in. For example, if you were only interested in the exam marks of ten students, the ten students would represent your population. Descriptive statistics are applied to populations, and the properties of populations, like the mean or standard deviation, are called parameters as they represent the population (ten students). For example, you might be interested in the exam scores of all students at PCHS College of Nursing. Often, however, you do not have access to the whole population you are interested in investigating, but only a limited number of
  • 41. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 41 data instead. It is not feasible to measure all exam marks of all students in the whole of PCHS (assuming there are 500 students and the feasibility is low) so you have to measure a smaller sample of students (e.g., 20 randomly selected students), which are used to represent the larger population of all PCHS-BSN students. In this case, properties of samples, such as the mean or standard deviation, are not called parameters, but statistics. Inferential statistics is concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses of a sample. These are techniques that allow us to use samples to make generalizations about the populations (Eg.: All PCHS BSN Students) from which the samples (20 randomly selected BSN Students) were drawn. It is, therefore, important that the sample accurately represents the population. In other words, Inferential Statistics tell us the probability that the results of the analysis could have occurred by chance when there is no relationship at all between the variables we studied in the population we studied. Inferential statistics arise out of the fact that sampling naturally incurs sampling error and thus a sample is not expected to perfectly represent the population. Methods of Inferential Statistics The methods of inferential statistics are (1) the estimation of parameter(s) and (2) testing of statistical hypotheses. 1. Parameter Estimation Is used to estimate a population parameter- for example a mean, a proportion or a mean difference between two groups (eg.:experimental and control subjects). Two forms are:  Point estimation- involves calculating a single statistic to estimate the population parameter. For example: To continue with the previous example, if we calculated the mean scores in that specific exam of five sections at PCHS College of Nursing and found out it was 80, then this would be the point estimate of the population mean.  Interval estimation- indicates a range of values within which the parameter has a specified probability of lying. With interval estimation, researchers construct a confidence interval (CI) around the estimate; the upper and lower limits are called confidence limits. Constructing a confidence interval around a sample mean establishes a range of values for the population value as well as the probability of being right- the estimate is made with a certain degree of confidence. Researchers usually use either a 95% or a 99% confidence interval purely by convention. 2. Testing of Statistical Hypotheses Statistical hypothesis testing provides objective criteria for deciding whether hypotheses are supported by data. Example: Suppose we hypothesized that participation of PCHS-BSN Level 4 in a non-conventional course audit program before the final examination would increase their scores in the said examination. The sample is 25 control group students who did not participate in the program and 25 experimental subjects who do. The mean and post experimental exam score for experimental subject is 83 and that for control is 78. Should we conclude that the hypothesis was correct? Group differences are in the predicted direction, but the results might simply reflect sampling fluctuations. The two groups might happen to be different by chance regardless of the intervention. Perhaps with a new sample, the group means would be nearly identical. Statistical hypothesis testing allows researchers to make objective decisions about whether study results likely reflect chance sample differences or true differences in a population.  Null Hypothesis Hypothesis testing is based on negative inference. In our example, we found out that the subjects participated in the intervention have higher mean scores than control group subjects. There are two possible explanations: (1) the intervention was unsuccessful in increasing the exam scores ; or (2) the differences resulted from chance factors, such as group diffrences in terms of comprehension level among subjects even before the experimentation. The first explanation is our research hypothesis and the second is the null hypothesis (may be recalled as a state of no relationship between variables):  Statistical hypothesis testing is basically a process of rejection  It cannot be demonstrated directly that the research hypothesis is correct, but by using theoretical sampling distributions, it can be shown that null hypothesis has a high probability of being incorrect.  Researchers seek to reject the null hypothesis through various statistical tests. The Null hypothesis is that the mean population score for experimental group subjects is the same as that for controls The alternative hypothesis (research hypothesis) claims the means are not the same
  • 42. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 42 Type I and Type II Errors Researchers decide whether to accept or reject a null hypothesis by determining how probable it is that observed results are due to chance. Researchers lack information about the population, and so cannot know with certainty whether a null hypothesis is or is not true. They can only conclude if that hypothesis are probably true or probably false, and there is always a risk for error; the following figure summarizes this concept: Outcomes of Statistical Decision making The actual situation is that the null hypothesis is: TRUE FALSE The researcher calculates a test statistic and decides that the null hypothesis is: TRUE (Null Accepted) Correct Decision Type II error (false negative) FALSE (Null Rejected) Type I error (false positive) Correct Decision 5.2 Qualitative Analyses Noticing, Collecting and Thinking model (Seidel 1998) Is a useful model to explain the basic process of qualitative data analysis. The model consists of 3 parts: Noticing, Collecting, and Thinking about interesting things. These parts are interlinked and cyclical. For example while thinking about things you notice further things and collect them. Seidel likens the process to solving a jigsaw puzzle. Noticing interesting things in the data and assigning ‘codes’ to them, based on topic or theme, potentially breaks the data into fragments. Codes which have been applied to the data then act as sorting and collection devices. In this section, I will dissect this model and present concepts that are useful in the course of learning research methods Qualitative Analysis The purpose of data analysis is to organize, provide structure to, and elicit meaning from research data. In qualitative studies, data collection and analysis usually occur simultaneously, rather than after data are collected. The search for important themes and concepts begins from the moment collection gets underway. Qualitative analysis is a labor-intensive activity that requires creativity, conceptual sensitivity and sheer hard work. Quantitative analyses mostly deal with numeric data in which information are summarized in tables, graphs and tables. Whereas in Qualitative analysis data are forms of information gathered in a nonnumeric form. Common examples of such data are; Interview transcript, field notes (notes taken in the field being studied), video, audio recordings, images and documents (reports, meeting minutes, e-mails). Such data usually involve people and their activities, signs, symbols, artifacts and other objects they imbue with meaning. The most common forms of qualitative data are what people have said or done. The Three Challenges 1. No universal rules for analyzing qualitative data. The absence of standard analytic procedure makes it difficult to explain how to do such analyses, and how to present findings in a way that their validity is apparent. 2. Enormous amount of work required in which the analyst must organize and make sense of every page of narrative materials. 3. Data reduction for reporting purposes considering the need to be concise with the need to maintain the richness and evidentiary value for their data. Unlike in quantitative analysis where results can be summarized in a few tables. Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of processes and procedures whereby we move from the qualitative data that have been collected into some form of explanation, understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are investigating. QDA is usually based on an interpretative philosophy. The idea is to examine the meaningful and symbolic content of qualitative data. For example, by analyzing interview data the researcher may be attempting to identify any or all of:  Someone's interpretation of the world  Why they have that point of view  How they came to that view  What they have been doing  How they conveyed their view of their situation  How they identify or classify themselves and others in what they say
  • 43. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 43 The Process of QDA The process of QDA usually involves two things, writing and the identification of themes. Writing of some kind is found in almost all forms of QDA. In contrast, some approaches, such as discourse analysis or conversation analysis may not require the identification of themes. Nevertheless finding themes is part of the overwhelming majority of QDA carried out today. 1. Writing Writing involves writing about the data and what you find there. In many cases what you write may be analytic ideas. In other cases it may be some form of précis or summary of the data, though this usually contains some analytic ideas. 2. Coding into themes Looking for themes involves coding. This is the identification of passages of text (or other meaningful phenomena, such as parts of images) and applying labels to them that indicate they are examples of some thematic idea. At its simplest, this labelling or coding process enables researchers quickly to retrieve and collect together all the text and other data that they have associated with some thematic idea so that they can be examined together and different cases can be compared in that respect. Coding I find this concept, coding to be very important in qualitative analysis, allow me to present an example and further discuss ideas that I find relevant and useful. Example of a coded text: In this example a wide margin on the right is used, so that code labels and other comments can be written there. Print out your transcriptions in whatever way supports your preferred approach to coding the text. The codes used in this example are still essentially descriptive but begin to move away from simply summarizing what the respondent has said. Using brackets to the right of the transcribed text, they also code much larger chunks or passages of text. This form of coding is most useful when you go on to make retrievals, (eg.: gather together all the text about one topic – that is to say, all the text that is coded the same way). With larger chunks, the retrieved text is less likely to be decontextualized. The analyst has also used a highlighter to identify words that refer to feelings and these words suggest that the passage about living alone is actually about the emotions and feelings associated with living alone. Coding Coding is the process of combing the data for themes, ideas and categories and then marking similar passages of text with a code label so that they can easily be retrieved at a later stage for further comparison and analysis. Coding the data makes it easier to search the data, to make comparisons and to identify any patterns that require further investigation. Codes can be based on the following that are found on the data:  Themes, Topics; Ideas, Concepts  Terms, Phrases; Keywords Usually it is passages of text that are coded but it can be sections of an audio or video recording or parts of images. All passages and chunks that are coded the same way – that is given the same label – have been judged (by the
  • 44. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 44 researcher) to be about the same topic, theme, concept etc. The codes are given meaningful names that give an indication of the idea or concept that underpins the theme or category. Any parts of the data that relate to a code topic are coded with the appropriate label. This process of coding (associating labels with the text, images etc) involves close reading of the text (or close inspection of the video or images). If a theme is identified from the data that does not quite fit the codes already existing then a new code is created. As the researcher reads through their data set the number of codes they have will evolve and grow as more topics or themes become apparent. The list of codes thus will help to identify the issues contained in the data set. What to look for when you are coding (Charmaz, 2003) Most typically, when coding, researchers have some codes already in mind and are also looking for other ideas that seem to arise out of the data.  What are people doing?; What is going on?; What is the person saying? What do these actions and statements take for granted?  How do structure and context serve to support, maintain, impede or change these actions and statements?"  A more detailed list of the kinds of things that can be coded are Table 1 below. The examples of each kind tend to be descriptive because it makes it easier to explain the phenomena. However, when you are coding it is advisable to move from descriptive codes to more analytic ones as quickly as possible. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ NO. WHAT CAN BE CODED EXAMPLES 1 Behaviours, specific acts Seeking reassurance, Bragging 2 Events – short once in a lifetime events or things people have done that are often told as a story. Wedding day, day moved out of home for university, starting first job 3 Activities – these are of a longer duration, involve other people within a particular setting Going clubbing, attending a night course, conservation work 4 Strategies, practice or tactics Being nasty to get dumped, Staying late at work to get promotion 5 States – general conditions experienced by people or found in organisations Hopelessness “I’ll never meet anyone better at my age” settling for someone who is not really suitable 6 Meanings – A wide range of phenomena at the core of much qualitative analysis. Meanings and interpretations are important pars of what directs participants actions. a. What concepts do participants use to understand their world? What norms, values, and rules guide their actions The term ‘chilling out’ is used by young people to mean relaxing and not doing very much b. What meaning or significance it has for participants, how do they construe events what are the feelings Jealousy “ I just felt why did she get him” c. What symbols do people use to understand their situation? What names do they use for objects, events, persons, roles, setting and equipment? A PhD is referred to as ‘a test of endurance’ (because finishing a PhD is a challenge) 7 Participation – adaptation to a new setting or involvement About new neighbours “In my new house I have to keep my music down at night as the neighbours have young children”. 8 Relationships or interaction Seeing family “ Now my sister lives in the next road she visits more and we’ve become much closer. 9 Conditions or constraints Lose of job (before financial difficulties), moving away (before lost contact with old friends) 10 Consequences Confidence gets dates, positive attitude attracts opportunities 11 Settings – the entire context of the events under study University, work place, housing estate 12 Reflexive – researcher’s role in the process, how intervention generated the data Probing question “How did you feel when he said that?” ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Other techniques to identify themes and codes (Ryan and Bernard, 2003)  Word repetitions – look for commonly used words and words whose close repetition may indicated emotions  Indigenous categories (what the grounded theorists refer to as in vivo codes) – terms used by respondents with a particular meaning and significance in their setting.  Key-words-in-context – look for the range of uses of key terms in the phrases and sentences in which they occur.  Compare and contrast – essentially the grounded theory idea of constant comparison. Ask, ‘what is this about?’ and ‘how does it differ from the preceding or following statements?’  Social science queries – introduce social science explanations and theories, for example, to explain the conditions,
  • 45. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 45 Interpreting and Organizing Interpreting It is easy, when starting QDA both to write and code in ways that are nothing more than descriptive summaries of what participants have said or done. Inevitably even description involves some level of interpretation though the trick is to move away from the kinds of descriptions and interpretations that people would use in the milieu, community or setting you are investigating to a categorization and analytic understanding that begins to explain why things are as you have found them. Organizing The data sets used in QDA tend to be very large. Though samples may be quite small compared with those used in quantitative approaches such as surveys, the kinds of meaningful data collected (field notes, video recordings and interviews, for example) tend to be very lengthy and require the kind of intensive examination, understanding and reading that only humans can do. In order to keep a clear mind and not become overwhelmed by the sheer amount of data and analytic writings, the analyst needs to be organized. Researchers tend to approach this organization in one of two ways. a. Manual methods Notes and interviews are transcribed and transcripts and images etc. are copied. The researcher then uses folders, filing cabinets, wallets etc. to gather together materials that are examples of similar themes or analytic ideas. This facilitates easy retrieval of such linked material, but necessitates two things: 1. Making multiple copies of the original data as the same data may represent two or more themes or analytic ideas. 2. A careful method of labeling the material in the folders or files so that it is possible to check back and examine the broader context in which that data occurred. The analyst needs to know where the snippets of data in the files came from so that they can be re-contextualized. b. Computer based With the advent of the personal computer, mobile applications (Android and iOS) that are proven excellent at manipulating text, it was clear that with the right software or application, much of the manual organization could be done efficiently with a computer or mobile application. Thus many researchers have replaced physical files and cabinets with computer based directories and files along with the use of word processors to write and annotate texts. Many analysts now also use dedicated computer assisted qualitative data analysis (CAQDAS) packages that not only make the coding and retrieval of text easy to do, but can add other functions like searching that computers do quickly but which takes humans ages to do or in some cases, which humans have never done. At first the focus of CAQDAS was on text since that was easy to handle on PCs, but now that much audio and video is in digital form too, software has been developed to support the analysis of audio and video data. TIP: Check the annex of this compilation for direct download of my suggested mobile apps which I find useful in data collection and analysis. These Apps can be freely downloaded with iOS or Android with Qr Barcode reader. 5.4 Interpretation of findings Interpretation of Findings Interpretation of findings refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analytical and or experimental study. It is concerned with relationships within the collected data, partially overlapping analysis. It also extends beyond the data of the study to inch the results of other research, theory and hypotheses.  Significance of Interpretation It is through interpretation that the researcher can well understand the abstract principle that works beneath his findings. It leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that can serve as a guide for future research studies; it opens new avenues of intellectual adventure and stimulates the quest for more knowledge. Researcher can better appreciate only through interpretation why his findings are what they are and make others understand the real significance of his research findings.  Technique of Interpretation Interpretation involves the following steps: a. Researcher must give reasonable explanations of the relationships which he has found and he must interpret the lines of
  • 46. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 46 relationship in terms of the underlying processes and must try to find out the thread of uniformity that lies under the surface layer of his diversified research findings. b. Extraneous information, if collected during the study must be considered while interpreting the final results of research study, for it may prove to be a key factor in understanding the problem under consideration. c. Consultation will result in correct interpretation and, thus, will enhance the utility of research results. d. Researcher must accomplish the task of interpretation only after considering all relevant factors affecting the problem to avoid false generalization. Precautions in Interpretation a. Researcher must pay attention to the following points for correct interpretation: - The data are appropriate, trustworthy and adequate for drawing inference - The data reflect good homogeneity; and that - Proper analysis has been done through statistical methods b. The researcher must remain cautious about the errors that can possibly arise in the process of interpreting results. He should be well equipped with and must know the correct use of statistical measures for drawing inferences concerning his study. c. Interpretation is intertwined with analysis and cannot be distinctly separated. d. He must never lose sight of the fact that his task is not only to make sensitive observations of relevant occurrences, but also to identify and disengage the factors that are initially hidden to the eye. This will enable him to do his job of interpretation on proper lines. Broad generalization should be avoided as most research is amenable to it because the coverage may be restricted to a particular time, a particular area and particular conditions. Such restrictions, if any, must invariably be specified and the results must be framed within their limits. e. The researcher must remember that ideally in the course of a research study, there should be constant interaction between initial hypothesis, empirical observation and theoretical conceptions. It is exactly in this area of interaction between theoretical orientation and empirical observation that opportunities for originality and creativity lie. He must pay special attention to his aspect while engaged in the task of interpretation. Presentation of Findings The order of presentation of results should be systematic and logical. This part of of the study should never contain raw data and should begin with a statement of more general findings then move to the more specific data results. More important results should be described first. The reported data must be relevant to the research problem and sufficient to answer the research question. For this, the outcome measures or dependent variables should be clearly defined. Statistics appropriate to the research design must be reported. It should be clear from the designs which statistics are relevant to each research question. Results should be organized and presented in a way that the reader would clearly understand which statistics bear on which research hypothesis. How the scores are obtained should be described explicitly. The report should also show if some aspects of the method used to analyze the data appear to have violated some of the assumptions of the statistical tests used. If an analysis of variance is performed, the investigator must check the data for homogeneity of variance, if this is not done, interpretation of results becomes problematic and conclusions drawn should be regarded with skepticism. Care should be taken in the presentation of tables and figures. Titles, labels and captions should be appropriate and complete. The information in each table or figure should be referred to in narrative report. As with other sections of the report, this too, should be presented in a reasonable, logical order. Ideally, the discussion should follow the same sequence as the one used to report the results of the study. Discussion of more general and important results should precede discussion of specific and less important rules. Each finding should be discussed in terms of the original problem. All reported findings should be discussed. Conclusions should be stated followed by a discussion of the relevant data and the argument that establishes the conclusion. The findings should be compared with other relevant findings in the literature in terms of implications for further research. If data do not seem to warrant discussions, they probably should not have been included in the reported results. Acceptance or Rejection of Hypothesis When looking at the data, the researcher should be able to say if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. If the researcher is using statistics, he should say at what level the hypothesis is accepted or rejected and what are the correlations are. Testing the hypothesis is the whole point of the research effort, so it is extremely important that the investigator is able to report, in definite terms, just what the test reveals. Suppose a null hypothesis is used and findings reveal that it is rejected, then the difference should be stated. On the other hand, is a directional hypothesis is used, it should also be reported whether such is accepted or rejected.
  • 47. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 47 PART 6: COMMUNICATION OF FINDINGS AND UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH 6.1 Ways to Communicate Research Communicating Research Reports A research report is not an essay. It is an account on how and why a problem was studied, and what was discovered as a result. The report should not include overtly subjective statements, emotionally laden statements or exaggerations. This is not to say that the researcher’s story should be told in a dreary manner. Indeed, in qualitative reports, there are ample opportunities to enliven the narration with rich description, direct quotes and insightful interpretation. Authors of quantitative reports, although somewhat constrained by structure and the need to include numeric information, should strive to keep the presentation lively. Quantitative researchers often avoid personal pronouns such as “I”, “my”, and “we” because impersonal pronouns, and the use of passive voice suggests greater impartiality. Qualitative reports, by contrast are often written in the first person and in active voice. I f a direct presentation can be made without suggesting bias, a more readable product usually results. It is not easy to write simply and clearly, but these are important goals of scientific writing. The use of technical jargon does little to enhance the communicative value of the report, and should especially be avoided in communicating findings. The style should be concise and straightforward. If writers can add elegance to their reports without interfering with clarity and accuracy, so much the better, but the product is not expected to be a literary achievement. A common flaw in reports of beginning researchers is inadequate organization. The overall structure is fairly standard, but the organization within sections and subsections needs careful attention. Sequences should be in an orderly progression with appropriate transitions, Continuity and logical thematic development are critical to good communication. TRIVIA: Methods and results should be described in the past tense. For example it is inappropriate to say “Nurses who receive special training perform triage functions significantly better than those without training.” In this sentence, “receive” should be changed to “received” and perform to “performed” to reflect the fact that the statement pertains only to particular sample whose behavior was observed in the past. Types of Research Reports I will be describing four major approaches in communicating research reports: theses and dissertations, traditional journal articles, online reports and presentations at professional meetings. Theses and Dissertations Most universities have a preferred format for their dissertations. Until recently, most schools used a traditional IMRAD format: IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Research [and] Discussion) is a mnemonic for a common format used for academic ['scientific'] research papers. While used primarily in the hard sciences, like physics and biology, it is also widely used in the social and behavioral sciences. The IMRAD format is also known as the APA format, as the American Psychological Association uses the IMRAD headings in its APA stylesheet. IMRAD is simply a more 'defined' version of the "IBC" [Introduction, Body, Conclusion] format used for all academic writing. A Brief IMRAD Research Example Following is an example of using the IMRAD format for a report based on field research concerning the “FOUR O’CLOCK HABIT AS A PREVENTIVE MEASURE TO DENGUE MOSQUITO”. The research question is: How did the students feel about the activities related with the program: FOUR O’CLOCK HABIT? Your research — based on observation, interviews and/or surveys — will provide the data to answer the question. Your answer will be a hypothesis (proposed thesis) that you will attempt to prove. Your data will be the evidence for your 'proof'. The IMRAD format would include the following basic sections. Introduction (including a title) The title is centered at the top of the first page. Below the title, but without a heading of its own, is the introductory section. This comprises one or several paragraphs which outline the research question and its significance within the topic being discussed, making it clear what the relevance of the question and topic are for readers of the paper.
  • 48. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 48 (*Review of Background, Known Information) *This section is not part of the 'IMRAD' mnemonic, as it is considered to be self-evident] What is the history of the PROGRAM? Who sponsors it, and why? Who/what are these organizations? How long have there been programs related to dengue prevention? How widespread is the program being implemented in the Philippines? How 'successful' have past programs were (as defined by what criteria)? In what sense might the program or its concept be controversial (in whose eyes, and why)? (etc.) Method Describe how you gathered the information. What events did you observe involving students, teachers and staff during the program implementation? Who did you interview? Why did you interview these particular people? What sort of information did you expect to get from them? If you interviewed people who didn't observe the program, where did you find them? What did you expect they'd tell you? Were attitudes of students, teachers and staff different from those outside the school vicinities? In what ways? How do you know? If your paper includes interviews or surveys, here is where you would describe their design and procedure. Results What did you find out from the method you had employed? Here's where you would include your description of the program implementation, and the various opinions received by different means from different respondents. This is the main section of your paper. Discussion What do the findings presented under "Results" above mean? Specifically, how do your findings prove your thesis? What patterns do you see in the data? How do they correlate with what had been 'known' about the event, and/or what you had expected to find? Did you find what you had expected to, or were you surprised? (Often the parts that surprised you are the most significant, and the most interesting.) Is further research desirable? If so, what, and how? Researchers often use this section to promote interest for their next research project. Limitations on the Research Design and Material Often a separate subdivision of the research discussion is a description of the limitations inherent in your research method, the material available for the research, or other such factors. Viewed after the fact, what would you have done differently (if you had been able to) to obtain more objective and 'reliable' results? All research projects will have such "limitations": this does not diminish the findings of what was discovered, confirmed or disproved with the plan and material which was used; it simply recognizes that, had it been possible to conduct the project differently (with more complete material, a longer time frame, etc.) the results could or would have been different. Conclusion, Notes, Works Cited and Appendices While the IMRAD format presumes the paper's conclusion to be a subsection of the Discussion, there should be a distinct closing to the paper of several paragraphs that briefly summarize what the paper has proposed, discussed and concluded. Following this would be) possible [author] Notes, the paper's Works Cited, and possible Appendices. ------------------------------------------------------------ Converting a Traditional Dissertation to an acceptable Manuscript format. If an academic institution does not use paper format theses, students will need to adapt their dissertations before submission to a journal: Suggested changes to convert theses to manuscripts (Johnson, S.H. 1996) Thesis Style Manuscript Style Long literature review Summary of past literature Thesis headings like “definitions” Headings follow journal’s research format Focus on the past Focus on the future Detailed descriptions of statistical measures Statistical measures explained Short implications section Detailed implications section Focus on school requirements Targeted to the reader Excessive use of references Uses selected references References in school style References in journal style Academic writing style Scholarly but not pedantic style Excessive number of charts Selected charts summarize data 50 or more pages long Target of 10-20 pages long
  • 49. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 49 Journal Articles Progress in evidence-based practice depends on research efforts to share their work. Dissertations, which are too lengthy and inaccessible for widespread use, are read only by handful of people. Publication is a professional journal that ensures broad circulation of research findings, and it is professionally advantageous to publish (Eg.: Philippine Nurses Association’s Quarterly Journal). It may be useful to send a query letter to a journal to ask the editor whether there is interest in a manuscript. It should briefly describe the topic and methods, a preliminary title and submission date. Consider that journals differ in prestige, acceptance rates and circulation. The researcher should adhere to the publication’s guidelines- eg.: typically a manuscript for journals must be no more than 15-20 pages , double-spaced with one-inch margin. In a typical article, the greatest space is allocated to methods and results. Care should be taken in suing citations. Electronic Publication Electronic publication is advantageous in that dissemination can occur more rapidly, cutting down on publication lag time. One can publish his findings by creating his own website or publish in already existing ones (Eg. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing) with minimal fee of any. Most journals that are published in hard copy formats now also have online capabilities. Presentations at Professional Conferences The mechanism for submitting a presentation is simpler than for journal submission. The association sponsoring the conference ordinarily publishes an announcement or Call for Abstracts in its newsletter, journal or website 6-9 months before the meeting date. Most conferences require prospective presenters to submit abstracts of 500 – 1000 words rather than complete paper. Abstracts are evaluated based on the quality and originality of the research and appropriateness of the paper for the conference audience. If accepted, researchers are committed to appear at the conference to make presentation. Presentation usually follows the IMRAD FORMAT. The time allotted for presentation in most scientific meetings I attended was an average of 10-15 minutes, with up to 5 minutes for questions from the audience. Thus, only the most important aspects of the study, with special emphasis on the results can be included. Familiarity and comfort with the script is important to deliver effectively in an informal and conversational manner rather than verbatim. 6.2 Critiquing research Research Critique A research critique is a critical estimate of a piece of research using scientific criteria, to carefully and systematically appraise its general features. A research review on the other hand, merely identifies and summarizes the major features and characteristics of a study. A research critique determines what the researcher has tried to do and evaluates the strategies selected. It presents both criteria and evidence for its judgments. The purpose of the research critique is to help refine and improve an investigation’s method of inquiry. The critique helps consumers decide how to use the findings from the study. It therefore represents a contribution to knowledge. Constructive criticism should offer insightful, stimulating comments that would motivate the researcher to continue his work on the study. In contrast, destructive criticism tends to dampen the researcher’s interest in work. The careful choice of words in a critique is one of the most important features of artful and sensitive criticism, including the researcher to benefit from rather than be defensive about the study. Educating oneself to be a consumer is a continuous process. Each reader is different, with his/ her own experiences, expertise and degrees of interest. Reports, too, vary widely with respect to subject, methodology and statistical treatment of data. Regardless of the type and terminology, all research reports have the following major sections: problem, review of literature, method (procedures used to carry out the research), results or findings, discussion and conclusions. The study should explain clearly the reason why it was done and indicate its importance. The potential value of a research can be easily judged if it can solve a problem relevant to nursing, if the facts collected are useful nursing and contribute to nursing knowledge. Nurses should be able to analyze reports of healthcare research to judge the applicability of findings to their practice. A knowledgeable consumer is able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of published research reports.
  • 50. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 50 Research Report Evaluation Checklist Although, the following present a step by step checklist by which reports are evaluated, they may not include complete guideline. By knowing what each section of a research report should contain in general, and by mentally asking oneself a number of questions as one reads the report, the reader can draw some conclusions about the value and validity of the study. GUIDELINES FOR CRITIQUING A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY Elements influencing the believability of the research Elements Questions Writing style Is the article well written- concise, grammatically correct, avoids use of jargon? Is it well laid out and organized? Title Is the title clear, accurate and unambiguous Abstract Does the abstract offer a clear overview of the study including the research problem, sample, methodology, findings and recommendations? Elements influencing the robustness of the research Elements Questions Purpose/research problem Is the purpose of the study/research problem clearly identified? Logical consistency Does the research report follow the steps of the research process in a logical manner? Do these steps naturally flow and are the links clear? Literature review Is the review logically organized? Does it offer balanced critical analysis of the literature? Is the majority of the literature of recent origin? Is it mainly from primary sources and of an empirical nature? Theoretical framework Has the conceptual or theoretical framework been identified? Is the framework adequately described? Is the framework appropriate? Aims/objectives/research question/hypotheses Have aims, objectives, a research question or hypothesis been identified? If so are they clearly stated? Do they reflect information presented in the literature review? Sample Has the target population been clearly identified? How were the sample selected? Was it a probability or a non-probability sample? Is it an adequate size? Are the inclusion/exclusion criteria clearly identified? Ethical considerations Were the participants fully informed about the nature of the research? Was the autonomy/confidentiality of the participants guaranteed? Were the participants protected from harm? Was ethical permission granted for the study? Operational definitions Are all the terms, theories and concepts mentioned in the study clearly defined? Instrumentation Is the instrumentation used to assess subjects described? Were instrument reliability and validity discussed? Procedures Is there a description of the procedures used to administer the instrument? Are any of the study’s administrative or procedural limitations discussed? Variables Are variables adequately described? Was a rationale provided for their use? Were the variables chosen appropriate for answering the research question(s)? Data analysis/results What type of data and statistical analysis was undertaken? Was it appropriate? How many of the sample participated? Were tables and graphs presented in clear and understandable fashion? Significance of the findings? Discussion Are the findings linked back to the literature review? If a hypothesis was identified was it supported? Were the strengths and limitations of the study including generalizability discussed? Was a recommendation for future research made? References Were all books, journals and other media alluded to in the study accurately referenced?
  • 51. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 51 GUIDELINES FOR CRITIQUING A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY Elements influencing the believability of the research Elements Questions Writing style Is the article well written- concise, grammatically correct, avoid use of jargon? Is it well laid out an organized? Title Is the title clear, accurate and unambiguous Abstract Does the abstract offer a clear overview of the study including the research problem, sample, methodology, finding and recommendations? Elements influencing the robustness of the research Elements Questions Purpose/research problem Is the purpose of the study/research problem clearly identified? Logical consistency Does the research report follow the steps of the research process in a logical manner? Do these steps naturally flow and are the links clear? Literature review Is the review logically organized? Does it offer balanced critical analysis of the literature? Is the majority of the literature of recent origin? Is it mainly from primary sources and of an empirical nature? Theoretical framework Has the conceptual or theoretical framework been identified? Is the framework adequately described? Is the framework appropriate? Method and philosophical underpinnings Has the philosophical approach been identified? Why was this approach/method chosen? Does the author describe or reflect upon their role or positionality? Research setting Was the setting properly and completely described? Were the circumstances under which the data was collected described? Sample Is the sampling method and sample size described? Is the sampling method appropriate? Were the participants properly and completely described? Were the participants suitable for informing the research purpose as described? Ethical considerations Were the participants fully informed about the nature of the research? Was the autonomy/confidentiality of the participants guaranteed? Were the participants protected from harm? Was ethical permission granted for the study? Data collection/data analysis Are the data collection strategies described? Are the strategies used to analyze the data described? Did the researcher follow the steps of the data analysis method identified? Was data saturation achieved? Rigor Does the researcher discuss how rigor was assured? Were credibility, dependability, and transferability described? Findings/discussion Are the findings presented appropriately? Was sufficient descriptive information given to allow the reader to conclude that the author’s interpretations were grounded in the data? Does the researcher address internal validity through “triangulation,” that is, verification of the findings via member checks/other documentation/other sources/other researchers? Does the author acknowledge the lack of generalizability of the study findings, and/or suggest a replication of the study? Has the original purpose of the study been adequately addressed? Conclusions/implications and recommendations Are the importance and implications of the findings identified? Are recommendations made to suggest how the research findings can be developed? References Were all books, journals and other media alluded to in the study accurately referenced?
  • 52. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 52 6.3.Theories of Utilization We first understand: The Difference between Dissemination and Utilization (D&U) Many researchers, when they begin planning for dissemination and utilization, think primarily about the "D." Dissemination (D) is the important item on most people's agendas: how to get research results to intended audiences in the most effective, cost-efficient manner. But utilization (U) is a critical element in increasing the effective reach of research outcomes. Focusing only on the "D" in D&U is like dialing nine numbers of a ten-digit telephone number: You may be 90 percent finished, but unless you dial that last digit, you'll never make the intended connection. So it's helpful to pull the two ideas apart, to assure that each can be addressed explicitly. I have thoroughly made research and came up with the following statements in which ideas are from reliable resources, you will find them useful in a way of thinking about D&U:  Dissemination speaks primarily to the process of knowledge transfer – the who, what, when, and how of moving ideas and information from the source(s) to intended recipient(s).  Utilization speaks primarily to purpose and to impact—why you want people to get the research outcomes you're putting forth, what use you want people to make of the ideas, information, or products, and how people are actually using them. Both dissemination and utilization activities must be planned and conceived to meet the needs of a specific user if each is to be efficient and ultimately successful. Utilization that may occur through activities that are not structured—for example, through dissemination activities—may just happen. This approach to utilization is not, however, desired for researchers to consistently use and assume will be effective in moving research to practice. A need exists for clear ways to link dissemination and utilization for the purpose of moving research findings into the hands and minds of those that can most benefit from them. Facilitating such utilization requires a structured, planned approach. Theories of Utilization “User” Model Theory Traditionally, D&U theories and strategies have focused primarily on the message, or content, to be disseminated (the specific "innovation," in terms of new research findings, programs, or devices) or on the medium of dissemination (the channels used to get the message out including news releases, electronic networks, webcasts, or interactive video). Traditional approaches acknowledge that utilization is affected by characteristics of the dissemination source (including intermediary information sources, called linking agents). But the primary determiners of utilization are the "users" themselves. They are the most critical element in the D&U process. The effectiveness of any "utilization model" rests upon the degree to which it "fits" a particular potential user group. The degree to which an intended user group has diversity and wide-ranging characteristics, the greater the necessity of having a range of "utilization models" to accommodate those differences (Douthitt, 1995; Flowers, Edwards & Pusch, 1996). Experts now perceive knowledge use as a cognitive function or, in other words, as a learning activity. Research on utilization and social cognition has converged to provide deeper understandings about how people process new information as well as what is required for utilization to occur. Constructivist Learning Theory and Utilization Current perspectives on knowledge utilization draw from a theory of learning known as constructivism. According to constructivist principles, knowledge is not a "thing"—a static, inert object to be sent and received. Rather, knowledge is a fluid set of understandings shaped both by those who originate it and by those who use it. "This casts the user as an active problem-solver and a constructor of his or her own knowledge, rather than as a more passive receptacle of information and expertise" (Hutchinson and Huberman, 1993). This implies that utilization is most likely to occur when potential users determine that they have a need for particular information. This constructivist orientation is the basis for modern day evaluation of procedures (eg.: clinical or educational approaches in nursing) as well as in marketing research and associated techniques designed to influence a user's perception of "need," and similarly, utilization models must recognize "need" as a powerful force in producing and shaping outcomes. Past and faulty "models of knowledge utilization" have been based upon a variety of beliefs about how learning takes
  • 53. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 53 place. For example one "model" suggested the human mind was a blank slate to be written upon. This knowledge utilization model also has been called "the bucket theory of the mind" (Buchman, 1982), in which the brain was viewed as an empty vessel into which knowledge was poured. Another common and, again, faulty "utilization model" was the notion that people acted as sponges, "soaking up" knowledge, a role that is somewhat more active than that of an empty vessel. However, this model fails as well as the learner is considered to absorb knowledge taken in wholesale, without filtering or processing. Yet another notion often used in this era of technology is that of the brain as a computer, which processes in an orderly, systematic fashion the information that is received from outside sources. None of these "models" adequately describes the ways in which learners process information. New knowledge is not merely filtered and sorted, but transformed by the learner's pre-existing experiences and understandings. This conceptual framework suggests the building and shaping of new structures as a part of the knowledge utilization process. 6.4 Barriers and Solutions to Utilization Identified Barrier in Research Utilization: GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE COMMUNITY The purpose of research is to be of use—to change current practice, or to confirm it. Yet the process of moving new understandings and new products from research to practice usually takes years, decades, or even generations. Although there are good reasons for moving carefully—new research needs to be evaluated, replicated, and refined—too often the pace of change is set, not by a rigorous process of review and refinement, but by the gap between the research community and the world of practice. Research on dissemination, or knowledge utilization as it is sometimes called, has yielded a wealth of information about what does and does not work. But, due to this gap, those understandings for the most part have not moved from the research community—those who study the process of knowledge use—to the practice community—those responsible for adopting and applying research outcomes. As a result, most dissemination practices are still based on a mechanistic, linear conception of dissemination as a process of "getting the word out." Suggested Solution to Barrier: “AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION” MODEL (An approach to Information Dissemination) Approaches designed to promote knowledge utilization traditionally have been drawn from the agricultural extension model, whose basic presumption is that people will use research-based products only if they have access to information about them. The success of the agricultural extension model, along with other experience, tells us that this presumption is true, in some cases, and under specific circumstances. However, the agricultural extension system has proved to be much less effective when the research-based outcomes to be disseminated stray from agricultural production technology into areas calling for attitudinal or behavioral changes. Identified Barrier in Research Utilization: COMPLEXITY As a number of experts point out, most research "is not used as a can opener is used" (Huberman, 1987). A good research may fail to communicate its outcome and its intention to its target users. In cases where change is conceptually complex, and in cases where substantive change is demanded in individual or organizational beliefs or behaviors, the process of knowledge use is vastly more complicated. Suggested Solution to Barrier: ADDRESING UTILIZATION GOALS Below is a list of findings from research on knowledge use that suggest a few of the complexities in identifying utilization "models" and encouraging their application by others. Researchers are frequently not addressing utilization goals with sufficient detail to overcome these complexities:  The actual quality of a research design is less important, in terms of its likelihood of being adopted and used, than the extent to which it fits with users' established beliefs and experience.  The source producing research outcomes is more important than the quality of the research design. People tend to trust sources with whom they have established relationships and/or for whom they have high levels of respect.  The degree of credibility of information sources is related to two factors: perceived expertise and perceived trustworthiness. The more intensely people are involved with an issue; the more likely they are to question both the expertise and the trustworthiness of those whose information contradicts their own current understandings.  When research outcomes do get used in real-world settings, the resulting practices, programs, or products are often quite different from the researcher's original conception. While researchers often produce new information, they do not routinely provide demonstrations or other utilization assistance to interpret how it "fits" into real-world
  • 54. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 54 environments. Additionally, utilization requires that some adaptations be made to apply new models into existing contexts.  The extent to which the intended beneficiaries of particular research are involved in the research process, the more likely a researcher will have stories, examples, and general information that is couched from the "user" perspective. This information is often critical in promoting utilization. Knowledge Transfer Models Many researchers (Dixon, 2000; NCDDR, 2001) in the knowledge utilization and management area describe the appropriate choice of knowledge transfer activity to be critically linked to the leveraging of knowledge from one group to another. Some examples and descriptions of knowledge transfer models follow: 1. Serial knowledge transfer model – in this model, transfer is leveraged from one work "team" to a very similar work team in another similar work setting. Knowledge is transferred from individual members of the team, to the team as a whole, i.e., integrated into a commonly–held perception of what worked. This constitutes the basis of what can then be transferred to another similar team member or group. 2. Best practice knowledge transfer model – in this model, transfer of knowledge occurs from a team with commonly—held knowledge to all elements of the organization within which the team exists. This transfer model is usually inspired within a competitive organization that is looking to increase its "edge" on the competition. Knowledge that is transferred is generally accepted as "best practices" within the organization, thus, encouraging utilization. 3. Exemplary knowledge transfer model – in this model, the knowledge transfer is from the organizational level, and the transfer is intended to impact other organizations that may or may not be similar in scope and function. In this case, what an organization has done well is the "knowledge" subject to transfer, and generally, competitive secrets are not given away in the process. 4. Strategy–based knowledge transfer model – in this model, the knowledge encompasses an overall strategy or approach in addressing a specific and often non–routine problem. Transfer is based around other entities that may recognize a similar problem and be in need of developing a responsive and effective strategy. 5. Expert knowledge transfer model – in this model, individuals that may have been known to have experienced and overcome similar problems, are viewed as experts. This expertise becomes known and valued and is called upon when "problems" generally related to the original "problem" occur. These examples of knowledge transfer models provide a conceptual framework upon which the dissemination and utilization of research results can be based. Some of these knowledge transfer models can be accomplished best through face-to-face contact. Others, however, do lend themselves to the use of electronic network and Web-based information sharing techniques. 6.5 Role in Research Utilization The Role in Information Dissemination The person whose responsibility includes dissemination for the purpose of utilization of research outcomes must consider that dissemination is not synonymous with publication. Merely creating documents or innovations and sending out information, whether via an article in a scholarly journal or the World Wide Web, will not create a "utilization model." This type of model must be developed around the intended users—their worries, beliefs, constraints, and priorities, and the people and organizations whose opinions they tend to value. Utilization models must incorporate intended users' needs, contexts, and readiness for change for application of the new research-based knowledge to occur. The degree of detail in this portion of a utilization model rests upon the level of detailed understanding about the intended user group(s) and the nature of the research result being disseminated for use. The level of diversity and options in a utilization model depends upon the extent of diversity within a particular target audience. A successful utilization model must rely on effective and well-defined interactions between basic process elements of the potential user, the content of the message, the context required to obtain the message, the medium of the message, and the source of the message/research result(s).
  • 55. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 55 Suggested Researcher’s Guide in Research Utilization Elements/User Questions Characteristics Determining Utilization of Research Results SOURCE Where does it come from? • Perceived competence of researchers and research organization • Credibility of experience of researchers • Credibility of motive • Sensitivity to user concerns and applications • Relationship to other sources trusted by users • Orientation toward use or application CONTENT What is it about? • Credibility of research and development methodology • Credibility of outcomes • Comprehensiveness of research outcomes • Utility and relevance for potential users • Capacity to be described in terms understandable to users • Cost effectiveness • Research design and procedures • Relationship between research outcomes and existing knowledge or available products • Competing or similar research-based knowledge or products CONTEXT How does it relate? • Relationship between outcomes and existing knowledge or products • Current issues in the field • Competing knowlege or products • General economic climate MEDIUM How can I get it? • Physical capacity to reach intended users • Timelines of access • Accessibility and ease of use, user friendliness • Flexibility • Reliability • Credibility • Cost effectiveness • Clarity and attractiveness of the information "package" USER How can I benefit from it? • Perceived relevance to own current needs • User's readiness to change or try something new • Information sources trusted and valued • Format and level of research-based information needed • Level of contextual research-based information needed • Dissemination media preferred • Capacity to use and benefit from research-based information or product (resources, skills, and support)
  • 56. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 56 PART VII: PREPARING THE RESEARCH REPORT Technical Details: Style, Format, and Organization of the Research Report Research Proposal Before a research study is done, the researcher prepares a tentative working outline for discussion with the head of the Graduate School, his professor or the head of the agency. This outline is called research proposal. A proposal is a written document specifying what a researcher intends to study; proposals are written both by students seeking approval for dissertation and theses and by seasoned researchers seeking financial or institutional support. The set of skills associate with learning about funding opportunities and developed proposals that can be funded is referred to as grantsmanship . Good proposals quickly and easily answer the following questions:  ● What do you want to do, how much will it cost, and how much time will it take?  ● How does the proposed project relate to the sponsor's interests?  ● What difference will the project make to: your university, your students, your discipline, the state, the nation, the world, or whatever the appropriate categories are?  ● What has already been done in the area of your project?  ● How do you plan to do it?  ● How will the results be evaluated?  ● Why should you, rather than someone else, do this project? These questions will be answered in different ways and receive different emphases depending on the nature of the proposed project and on the school or agency to which the proposal is being submitted. Most colleges, universities and agencies provide detailed instructions or guidelines concerning the preparation of proposals (and, in some cases, forms on which proposals are to be typed); obviously, such guidelines should be studied carefully before you begin writing the draft. Parts of a proposal Graduate School of different colleges and universities has variations and follow specific format in both research proposal and thesis writing. Proposals for sponsored activities generally follow a similar format, although there are variations depending upon whether the proposer is seeking approval, support for a research grant, a training grant, or a conference or curriculum development project. The following outline covers the primary components of a research proposal. Your proposal will be a variation on this basic theme. The proposal is not a fixed blueprint. One cannot predict one's findings beforehand or mechanically stick to an argument since the research will inevitably alter or even unseat one's initial expectations. There is no fixed formula for writing a proposal. However, your challenge is to convince members of the scientific community that you  have identified a scientific problem  have a theoretical background and a methodical approach to solve the problem  within a realistic time frame and at reasonable expenses. First, consult your advisor on length, layout (typeface, line spacing, font, etc.), format, as well as a table of contents and page numbers. Members of the selection committee may have to read a large number of research proposals so good construction and legibility of your proposal is to your advantage. At the time of writing of this compilation, I have sought the help of the Office of PCHS- Graduate School to obtain a copy of the school’s standard format on research proposal and thesis writing, I will post it in my website as soon as I have a copy.
  • 57. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 57 Suggested Format for Preparing Research Proposal Title Page Titles should be comprehensive enough to indicate the nature of the proposed work, but also be brief.  Personal data (name, academic title, your position at your own university, date of birth, nationality, your contact information, institutional contact.  (Working) Title of your planned dissertation or research report. words in the title should be chosen with great care, and their association with one another must be carefully considered. While the title should be brief, it should be accurate, descriptive and comprehensive, clearly indicating the subject of the investigation. In order to develop a clear title, you must also be clear about the focus of your research! Strive for the title to be ten words or 60 characters: focus on or incorporate keywords that reference the classification of the research subject Abstract This section focuses on the research topic, its new, current and relevant aspects. Strive for clarity; your greatest challenge might be narrowing the topic. It is a brief summary of the proposal. It should contain the statement or purpose or objective. Narrative The narrative part states the problem and purpose of the study and the procedure or specific design. The problem and purpose should be clearly expressed, including the hypothesis, the definition of terms and the variables to be studied.  The specific aim should lead towards contribution to knowledge.  The significance of the study relates to the background and the problem and its importance.  The theoretical framework and review of related literature present the basis of the study, including its assumptions, definitions and methodological procedures.  The literature should be relevant to the important and recent developments in the area being studied. It should be clear how the proposed study evolved from prior work.  The narrative should also state whether the study is experimental or otherwise. The selection of the sample population and tools for data collection are included.  A timetable of workplan should show that proposed research has been carefully and realistically made. Selection of personnel, budget, facilities and resources- the people who will participate in the study, the estimated expenses and the facilities and equipment to be used such as libraries and computers, are also stated in the proposal. The required secretarial support and other organizations or institutions to be tapped, aside from the setting in which the study will be conducted are also identified. Enclosures Also enclosed in the proposal are related literature,; agreement with the agencies concerned; and data gathering instruments. Usually the professor or a group of teachers, evaluate the proposal. Their criteria include scientific and technical significance, originality, adequacy of the research methodology, qualifications of the principal investigator and staff, availability of resources, justification for the proposed budget, time frame and protection of study subjects. The reviewers then recommend either approval or disapproval of the study. Is the study is disapproved. The researcher meets with the review panel to determine the basis of disapproval. Otherwise, another study may be proposed.
  • 58. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 58 Thesis Proposal The biggest problem perhaps, of graduate students is the preparation of their thesis proposal. May students finish their academic requirements but are bogged down in the thesis writing stage. The success in thesis writing depends on several factors:  Determination and persistence in seeing the proposal through  Time- it may be necessary to take a leave to have enough time to make the proposal, conduct the study, analyze the results, make the necessary recommendations and proofread the manuscript several times before submission and defense.  Adequate resources to be used  A good background in research and statistics  Mastery of the English Language The content and structure of the thesis proposal is usually contained in the first three chapters of the study In an attempt to emphasize the standard format of The PCHS-Graduate School, I am attaching the Table of Contents of the DISSERTATION AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H.B. Aggabao, 2002) TECHNICAL DETAILS in the actual paper the EXAMPLE SOURCE (in Microsoft Word Format) Font: Times New Roman Font Size: 14 Line Spacing: 2.0 Margins: Top 1.9” / Left 1.8” / Bottom 1” / Right 1.1” Paper Size: 8.5” x 11” Title Page The title of the study must be brief, concise and researchable; it contains the title, the kind of research work or paper (research proposal, thesis or dissertation) the faculty/ person whom it will be presented or submitted, the school or agency, the degree granted, the full name of the researcher, and the month and year the proposal was submitted. The title is typed in an inverted pyramidal style. AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 ___________________ A DISSERTATION Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate Studies and Research Philippine College of Health Sciences, Inc. Manila ___________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education __________________ by Helen B. Aggabao 2002
  • 59. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 59 The Table of Contents is a helpful guide to picture the chronology and technical details. I am presenting the FIVE CHAPTERS of the said dissertation to be able to understand and appreciate the context. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Title Page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i Approval Sheet …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii Acknowledgement …………………………………………….………………………………………………………………… iii Thesis Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xvi List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xviii List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... xxiii Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Statement of the Problem ……………………………….………………………………………………………………….. 9 Scope and Delimitation of the Study ... ……………………………………………………………………………… 11 Research Locale……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11 Importance of the Study…….…………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Definition of Terms………………………………...………………………………………………………………… 19 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Foreign Literature ……………………………………….………………………………………………………………… 28 Local Literature ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 Foreign Studies …………………………………………. 44 Local Studies …………………………………………… 55 Relationship of the Reviewed Literature and Studies ……………………………………….….………………………………………………………………… 65 3 RESEARCH DESIGN Methodology …………………………………………….………………………………………………………………… 67 Selection of Respondent ……………………………….………………………………………………………………… 69 Instrument Used …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70 Statistical Treatment of Data ………………………… 72 1. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………… 78 2. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary ………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………… 112 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………. 123 APPENDICES 128 Research Instrument………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128 Letter of Request to the Division Superintendent ……….………………………………………………………………… 134 Approval of Permit to Conduct Study…………………………………………………………………………………… 135 CURRICULUM VITAE ………………………………………...…………………………………………………… 136
  • 60. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 60 1. The Problem and Its Background It is common in some research papers to use such titles as “INTRODUCTION”. The function of the introductory chapter is to focus attention on the background of the problem and to give “bird’s eye” view of the study. The problem and its background are contained in the first chapter of the proposal which also includes:  The problem statement- must be stated clearly and expressed explicitly: Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Statement Of The Problem: This study determined the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology -oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City for the school year 2001-2002. It likewise looked into the differences in the affective behavior profiles such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth , identity and accepting attitudes of the students enrolled in the Regional Science High School and in the Engineering and Science Education Program in Olongapo City National School , Olongapo City. The following research questions were raised: 1. What is the profile of senior students in the science and technology –oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of the following variables such as; a. Age b. Gender c. Parents’ educational attainment and d. Family Income ? 2. What are the perceptions of the senior students in the science and technology –oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of the following affective behavior profiles such as ; a. scientific attitudes b. self –concept with factors on emotionality, personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes 3 . Are there significant differences in the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology –oriented secondary schools as regards their scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality, personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes ? 4. What educational implications the study can offer in terms of the developmental goals and needs of the students ? *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002)  Hypothesis- Is based on the problem statement; The null hypothesis is commonly used because it denies that there is difference in effect that is otherwise easy to accept (please see comprehensive discussion on previous sections). Hypothesis In connection with the foregoing problems, the following null hypothesis was tested at the .05 level of significance: There are no significant differences in the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology –oriented secondary schools as regards their scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002)  Scope and Limitations- Scope means the extent of the study while the limitations are it perceived weaknesses, which are beyond the control of the researcher. The scope of the study includes previous researches, issues and concerns, the duration of the study, and its constraints. Scope And Delimitation Of The Study This study determined the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City for the school year 2001-2002. Likewise , it determined the significant differences on the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of their affective behaviors such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes . The subjects of the study were the senior students enrolled under the Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP) in the Olongapo City National High School and the Special Science Curriculum in the Regional Science High School both in Olongapo City. These groups of respondents were selected using the random sampling method. In order to elicit the desired information on the affective behavior profiles and variables such as age, gender, and parents’ educational attainment, and family income of the respondents , three instruments were developed and tried out in order to determine the internal consistency of the items. The final forms of the scientific attitude inventory and self-concept scale were administered to the subjects of the study in order to obtain the needed data as regards their self-concept and scientific attitudes. The final form of the questionnaire was also administered to the subjects to obtain the variables such as age, gender, parents’ educational attainment, and family income. For statistical treatment, frequencies, percentages , means and standard deviation of the obtained data were computed. The t-test was employed to obtain the significance of differences in terms of the affective behavior profiles such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on the emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002)
  • 61. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 61  Significance of the study- The significance of the study determines its importance to the agency; to the nursing service, to its administrators and staff; to nursing education, to the college, dean, faculty members and students; to the clients; to the community; and to nursing in general. Significance of The Study This study aimed to determine the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology -oriented schools. It focused on the premise that the graduates of these schools offering the special science based curriculum are really producing scientifically inclined students equipped with positive affective behavior who will comprise the new breed of Filipinos prepared for the challenges of the new millennium, adept at critical thinking , creative and humane individuals. Experts in the field of education believe that the gifted and the talented youth are ideally suited for scientific and technological leadership. Piagetian research has shown that the stage of formal operations, which is essential for scientific and mathematical understanding comes earlier for talented children. It further shows that hypothetical-deductive reasoning, and separation and control of variables emerge as early in upper elementary grades in talented students with scientific interest. However, in scientific leadership , human abilities alone tell only part of the story. Like plants , these bright youngsters will flower and flourish only in a fertile environment. Several studies show that there are certain elements in the environment that relate to scientific achievement. Roe (1995) studied factors in family background and individual development of eminent scholars . Knapp and Goodrich (1993) checked the educational background of individuals listed in the American Men of Science and discovered unexpectedly large proportions of scientists coming from particular undergraduate institutions. From these data, one can infer, that early stimulation in a particular program is of great significance. These researches as well as those of Piaget, suggest that there is a need for an early programming in the science and mathematics for talented children. It is in this context that the researcher pursued this study, because it is her belief that these students who are products of these science-based curriculum are expected to provide leadership in science and technology. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002)  The theoretical/ conceptual framework- The theoretical framework, being the basis of research problem, is carefully evaluated to show congruity with the proposed problem (please see comprehensive discussion on previous sections). Conceptual Framework The concept of “creativity” and “critical thinking ability” are considered the bases of the framework of this study. The framework is drawn from the conceptions on the characteristics of scientifically -inclined students . It is a common knowledge that for a student to thrive and survive in a school with science–based curriculum, he is equipped with all the potentials of a creative, intelligent and critical thinking individual . Creativity according to Michael Drury, “is not so much of an aptitude but as an attitude”. Creativity is thus applicable anywhere ,whether one is a cook, a clerk, a bank teller, a homemaker, a teacher, an author or an astronaut. Creativity, psychologist and progressive educators maintains not a special gift of a favor edge few just as productivity is not a monopoly of the talented. Creative products no matter how crude they may look to adults reveal much of the inner works of their young minds, Through his work. The child reveals his desires, dreams, fears, frustrations and ambitions. In children, creativity is a universal factor, no human being is born without some creative potential. Children’s creativity is manifested early and takes a variety of forms of expressions. It is generally agreed that all children are potentially creative, that creativity can be nurtured, that all curriculum areas are embryos of creativity and that the nurture of all children is a major responsibility of the educational enterprise. In some children, the creative urge is so strong that it seeks expressions very early. In others, it is under surface ; If creativity is nourished, it thrives and it flourishes, if it is oppressed it declines and withers. Considering the theories and studies made by Cagle (1995) gives a detailed progression of the creative process : (1) perceiving the problem ;(2) modifying the problem ; (3) suspending judgment; (4) incubation effect; (5) sticking with an idea ; (6) envisioning results; (7) selecting the best solution; (8) acceptance of uncertainty. Each step involves a creative divergent , or expanding part followed by converging or decision making which provides the input formation for the next step in the process. This suggests that creative processes are used to supplement the basic scientific processes. Thus, scientifically inclined students are creative and possesses high critical thinking skills . It further suggests that creative process consists of three dimensions of thought operating within an abstract and a concrete domain of thought . These dimensions, in general, are mental attitudes, stages of creative thought and types of creative thought. Man has sought to enrich his life by engaging in a variety of creative activities. He has used creativity for substantial learning and as a means of fostering mental health. Creativity flowers most where there is freedom and encouragement. Individuals who can create works of art in spite of an atmosphere of repression and discouragement exceedingly there's no stopping them, Creative experiences also contribute to emotional development which is inseparable part of basic concepts, attitudes, appreciation and the thinking process. Thus creative activities should be made a part of instruction. Figure 1 presents the conceptual paradigm of the research study . It portrays the interplay of variables in nurturing the innate creative thoughts of a child. These variables are considered to be contributory to the total development of the child into a productive, useful and right thinking individual which will contribute to the development of the nation. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002) Science-Based Variables Creativity Affective Behavior Environment al Variables Student with Creativ e Socio- Demographic Profile Figure 1. conceptual Paradigm
  • 62. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 62  Assumptions- Assumptions are statements describing facts or conditions that are accepted as true Research Locale This study was conducted in the two science –oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo city during the School Year 2001-2002 namely Olongapo City National High School with its curricular offering , the Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP) and the Regional Science High School based in Kalayaan, Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority . Olongapo City Olongapo, according to history, was formerly identified as part of the municipality of Subic, Zambales before the U.S. Reservations Administration times. It was consisted of several sub-barrios and sitios when the U.S. Naval Station was established and expanded several of these sub-barrios and sitios were embraced within the area occupied by the U.S. Naval Station. Some were relocated to other sites of the town to facilitate administration and control. Later on, these sub-barrios were reclassified and divided into regular barrios comprising the town of Olongapo. By now, Olongapo has seventeen barrios called by virtue of Presidential Decree no. 557 promulgated on September 21, 1974, occupied by more than 200,000 residents speaking different languages, but bound by common ideas and aspirations: that making Olongapo a progressive and ideal place to live in. Figure 2 shows the map of the city which highlights the two (2) science - oriented secondary schools . Olongapo City National High School Olongapo City National High School was established in 1946, the time when Filipinos were at the height of rehabilitation from World War II. It started as the Reservation High School with an initial enrolment of 320 students under the United States (US) Naval Reservation Administration. The growth and development of the school runs parallel with the growth and development of the city of Olongapo. The school was later turned-over to the Republic of the Philippines by virtue of RP-US base agreement in 1954, and was renamed Olongapo High School. By virtue of Executive Order number 336 issued by President Carlos P. Garcia , the school was reconverted to a municipal school under the division of Zambales. It later became a provincial high school in 1962. When Congressman Ramon Magsaysay worked for the approval of Republic Act 4645 converting Olongapo into a chartered city on June 1, 1966, the school was renamed Olongapo City High School. It became a national high school on September 2, 1972, carrying its present name. Olongapo City National High School is located in the central part of Olongapo City along Rizal avenue corner 14th street, East Tapinac, with a total service area of 18,993 square meters. It is 2.3 kilometers away from the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) Division Office, Olongapo City. Today the population of the school after 53 years has reached 6,000 . The school has four (4) curricular offerings the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) under the SEDP which started in 1989, Engineering and Science Education Project started on June 7, 1993; Special Program for the Arts (SPA ) which started last June ,2000 ; Special Education for the Hearing Impaired (SPED-HI) started last June 1999 and to commence on June, 2001 is the Distance Learning Program (DLP) which will cater to the out-of school youth who are deserving, less privileged who can not attend regular classes due to economic reasons. Presently, the school likewise caters to the needs of the Regional Science High School, a newly established secondary school specializing in science curriculum for secondary students in terms of its faculty and personnel requirement. In spite of the fact that the school receives allocations from the government which is intended only for the needs of the students in the New Secondary Education Curriculum, the administration has successfully implemented and provided the needs of students enrolled under the special curricular offerings ,thus has accomplished much out of the meager funds from the government. The faculty is composed of competent teachers who have taken up Masters and doctoral course subjects and have been recommended as scholars in Science and Mathematics(PASMEP) Foreign Fellowship grants (HRD), Values Education (MAVE) and other local scholarship programs in Music and Arts. With the present set-up, OCNHS has 235 teaching staff, 52 personnel headed by the principal. Giving assistance to the administrative post is an administrative officer and 13 department heads. Four private security guards being paid by the Parents-Teachers association . This association strongly supports the administration by augmenting the meager fund releases of the government. The administration strives to provide an environment wherein the students discover their skills, sharpen and refine their talents to equip them with the intellect to face the challenges of the innovations of the world today. It is therefore the target of the school to produce graduates who will be prepared and ready to face the demands of the 21st century. However, the school, big as it is, is still in dire need of more buildings and classrooms to house the growing enrolment which is divided into two shifts of class sessions to solve classroom shortage. It has 106 academic classrooms for 129 sections, each having 42-45 students. Buildings are a combination of the old and new structures. The new ones were completed in 1992, giving a new image after the wrath of the historical eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991. Recently, another building was handed over by the city government despite the shortage of facilities, OCNHS was proclaimed Outstanding Secondary School of Region III and the seat for the 7th regional press conference and national secondary schools press conference during the school years 1985-1986 and 1997. In the school year 1988-1989, it was chosen as the regional leader school in Mathematics and Science and Technology for the NSEC program.On November 4, 1992, the school was elected as an outstanding regional leader school (RLS). The school ranked second place in the regional search for the most effective public high school in 1992 and this year 2001 .To date the school continuously reaps laurels for its outstanding accomplishments in all key results areas and has been chosen to pilot almost all major projects of the Department of Education Culture and Sports. Olongapo City National High School is the pioneer high school in the city where the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) Freeport zone is established. It used to be a school where a mixture of American and Amerasian children study when the US Naval Base was in existence until November 1992. The community is a melting pot of families who came from all sectors of the country. Table 1 List of Secondary School Principals of Olongapo City National High School SCHOOL YEAR 1946-1947 1947-1949 1949-1950 1950-1952 1952-1962 1962-1965 1965-1966 1966-1972 1972-1983 1983-1990 1990-1991 1991-1997 1997-present NAME OF PRINCIPAL Maximo Adamos Guillermo Alonzo Alfredo Pascasio Zacarias Beltran Martin B. Austria Quirino Barbo Zacarias Beltran Filemon Legaspi Filemon Legaspi Lydia de leon Salas Veronica L. Cava Norma P. Castillo Rosalina N. Gabrito Helen B. Aggabao OFFICIAL NAME OF SCHOOL Reservation High Reservation High Olongapo Reservation High Olongapo High School Division of Zambales Olongapo High School Olongapo High School Olongapo Provincial High Olongapo City High Division of Olongapo City Olongapo City National HS Olongapo City National HS Olongapo City National HS Olongapo City National HS Olongapo City National HS Table 1 presents the list of Secondary School Principals who served the school from 1946 and the incumbent school administrator who is also the author of this research proposal. The school is a contributor to the popularity of the SBMA because of the work volunteerism performed by the students and the men and women behind this school. Regional Science High School The Regional Science High School in Central Luzon has become operational since 1994 by virtue of DECS Order 69 s. 1993 signed by the Honorable Secretary Armand V. Fabella. This institution was temporarily house at Olongapo City National High School on June 1994. The growing number of students prompted the Mother school to request its transfer, so on September 23, 1996 the Regional Science High School later transferred to the former sub-com building of the Subic Bay Freeport Zone through the efforts of the City Mayor and the former Chairman of SBMA. Then, after two years, the facilities of the Sub-com building could no longer accommodate the increasing needs of the school; thus, on June 1998, the school moved its temporary house in East Kalayaan also in the Freeport zone, occupying the former Kalayaan Elementary School. It sprawls in a 1.5 hectare lot with six buildings and has the following function rooms for students use: Science and Mathematics laboratories, computer rooms, library, extensive reading room, audio-visual room, museum, gymnasium, CAT headquarter and an office of the Supreme Student Council. The Regional Science High School occupies the said site in the next five years as agreed upon in the Memorandum of Agreement duly signed on November 11, 1999 by Dr. Vilma Labrador, DECSROIII Regional Director and Hon. Felicito Payumo, Chairman of the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. Though the school remains to be under the umbrella of the Mother School, OCNHS, it has an approved papers for legal separation signed by the Acting Secretary Erlinda Pefianco lasr February 6, 1998. It has already a plant site as certified by the donation of the city through the approval of Mayor Katherine H. Gordon. Six years ago, the RSHS started from the bundles of nothing. Up to now it has nothing except the prestige, laurels of honor and recognition out of loaned buildings, loaned teachers and students who are still seeking their right place under the sun. Despite the above – mentioned conditions, the RSHS affirms its commitment to support the ideals of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in the promotion of quality education and academic excellence. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002)
  • 63. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 63  Definition of key terms.- The key terms used in the study are defined operationally for better understanding by the readers. These are arranged alphabetically. Definition Of Terms To facilitate understanding of this study, terms that were consistently used are hereby defined in relation to the research context. Affective Behavior Profiles. Refers to the self-concept and scientific attitudes of the students in the science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City . Environmental Variables. Refers to the socio-demographic factors such as ; age, gender , parents occupation , socio-economic status ,educational attainment , birth order and family size. Science and Technology- Oriented Secondary Schools. Refers to the two secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City who are offering the science-based curriculum namely the Olongapo City National High School and the Regional Science High School.. Engineering and Science Education Project. An educational program initiated by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and subsequently transferred the supervision to the Department of Education, Culture and Sports .The Olongapo City National High School, Olongapo City is currently implementing this program. Regional Science High School. . A DECS supervised secondary school with science and technology enriched curriculum presently based at SBMA, Olongapo City. Scientifically –Inclined Students. Refers to the students who are inclined in science concepts and those possesses scientific attitudes. Scientific Attitudes. Refers to the ability of an individual to interpret a situation according to its empirical support. It likewise refer to learned disposition to evaluate in certain ways objects, actions, situations or propositions involved in the learning of science, as well as rationality, honesty and styles of thinking. Self-Concept. Refers to the dimension of personality which is related to a student’s personal adjustment and concept of knowing one’s self. It concerns the following factors on emotionality, personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes Critical Thinking Ability. Refers to the ability of a student in the conception and organization of educational activities . It is the very source of serious intellectual activity and means of getting nearer to the truth. It is a way by which one cares deeply what the answer of a question is, and exercises even greater care to examine the evidence than if the answer is of no personal consequence. Environmental Influences. Refers to the factors in the environment which are needed in the nurturance of human potential . It is on based on the premise that the type of environment available will determine the kinds of talent that society is willing to make in cultivating them. These societal conditions are critical in stimulating the gifted child’s pursuit of excellence. Socio-Economic Status. This refers to the living conditions of the family in terms of income and standards of living. Parents Occupation. This refers to the occupation of parents as the source of income and livelihood for the family. Educational attainment .This refers to the educational level profiles of parents which are indicators that correlates positively there was also some indicators that children's scholastic achievement test scores were more directly associated with fathers’ than mothers’ level of education. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002) 2. Review of Related Literature The review of related literature is usually placed in Chapter II. This section enables the researcher to focus on tried approaches and methods, instruments that have been developed, techniques of data analysis, and how best to utilize these to conduct the proposed research. The arrangement of related literature, readings and studies may be chronological. The proponent has to cite the relationships, bearing or difference of the literature cited for the proposed study. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following were presented in the example source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002), PLEASE OBTAIN FULL TEXT. Foreign Literature Local Literature Foreign Studies Local Studies Relationship of the Present Study With the Reviewed Literatures and Studies A comparative review of the foregoing studies indicated that the study of Wallach and Kogan is found related to the present study with respect to both writers approach to treat the methodology statistically. However, Wallach and Kogan’s study pertained comprehensively on the creativity and intelligence while the present study dealt with the affective behavior aspect of the child. . Like the previous investigator, Pagaro and Arlin’s work concentrated on the nature of the general concept of intelligence. This however differed with the present sudy which dealt with the social and demographic variables. . Similarities were noted between the present investigation and those studies made by Baumer ,Berger and Vitrogen which likewise dealt with the scientific attitudes of the students. They differed however with the respondents because the present study involved the secondary students while the former utilized primary grades . One study that clearly showed similarities with the present study, was presented by Brookhaus ,Dean ,Beery and Louvister which dealt with the self –concept and achievement level of the students . It only differed on the aspect that the present study utilized the variables such as age, gender , parents’ educational attainment , socio- economic level of family ,birth order and family size. The present study was found similar to Zaratan ,Socrates and Perez, which conducted an investigation of the parental correlation, socio-economic status , educational attainment of the parents . The only difference showed in the present investigations was the choice of the subjects and other variables such as family size, birth order , age and gender . *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002) 3. Research Design The researcher chooses the design most appropriate to conduct the study and explains why he has chosen this. Research design is either experimental or non-experimental. It also presents the following which were comprehensively discussed in the previous sections: Methodology; The sample size, type and sampling technique; Study Subjects; The Research Instrument; Validation of the Research Instrument; Data Gathering Procedure; Statistical Treatment of Data
  • 64. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 64 Chapter 3 RESEARCH DESIGN This part of the study deals on the research methods and materials used in the study. It discussed specifically the method of research to used, the subjects, the instruments and their preparation and administration. Methodology This study made use of the descriptive method of research.. According to John Best (1992) descriptive research involves relationship between existing non-manipulated variables. In addition, Good and Seates (1990) pointed out that a descriptive investigation includes facts concerning the nature and status of anything whether it be a group of persons, a met of objectives, a set of conditions, a class of events, a system of thoughts or any kind of phenomenon which one may wish to study. In the same vein, Cannu ( 1999), stressed that the descriptive method involves collection of data to test the hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of a subject. It is a direct source of knowledge. . .The method is necessary to gather information about existing condition. He further explained that it follows the broad method of arrangement or outline of research procedure that is basically the same no matter what academic discipline gives rise to the research. This research used a descriptive method in the sense that it determined the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology - oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City for the school year 2001-2002. This study determined the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City for the school year 2001-2002. Likewise , it determined the significant differences among the senior students in the science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of their affective behaviors such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes. The subjects of the study were randomly selected from the total enrolment of senior students for the school year 2001-2002 in the two (2) science - oriented secondary schools in Olongapo City namely in Olongapo City National High School with its curricular offering , the Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP) and the Regional Science High School based in Kalayaan, Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority . The distribution of respondents by school is shown in table 2: Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by School Gender OCNHS- ESEP RSHS Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Male 61 39.1 37 43.5 Female 9 60.90 48 56.5 Total 156 100 85 100 Sampling Technique The random sampling procedure was utilized to choose the subjects of the study. The subjects of the study were drawn from the total enrolment of senior students for the school year 2001-2002 in the two (2) science - oriented secondary schools in Olongapo City namely in Olongapo City National High School with its curricular offering , the Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP) and the Regional Science High School based in Kalayaan, Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority . Research Instruments In order to elicit the desired information on the affective behavior profiles and variables such as age, gender parents’ educational attainment, and family income of the respondents , three instruments were developed and tried out in order to determine the internal consistency of the items. The initial draft of the questionnaires were presented to her dissertation adviser. Suggestions and comments were incorporated in the questionnaire. The improved draft was tried out to the third year students enrolled in the ESEP curriculum in Olongapo City National High School, Olongapo City. The final forms of the scientific attitude inventory and self-concept scale were administered to the subjects of the study in order to obtain the needed data as regards their self concept and scientific attitudes. The final form of the questionnaire was also administered to the subjects to obtain the variables such as age, gender, parents’ educational attainment, and family income . Data Collection Technique Problem No.1 was answered by determining the profile of senior students in terms of the following variables ; age , gender, parents’ educational attainment, and family income. A questionnaire-checklist was utilized to collect the data for this particular problem. Problem No. 2 was answered in terms of the following affective behavior profiles such as ; scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth , identity and accepting attitudes . The Self Concept Rating Scale and Scientific Attitude were utilized to determine the self – concept and scientific attitude profiles of the subjects of the study. Problem No. 3 was described as to the existence of significant differences between the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology -oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of their affective behavior profiles such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality, personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes . Statistical Analysis For statistical treatment, the frequencies , percentages , means and standard deviation of the data obtained were computed. The data on the affective behavior variables such as self- concept and scientific attitudes were obtained using the final forms of the self-concept scale and scientific attitude inventory which were administered to the subjects of the study. The average weighted point (AWP) of each item and the average of the AWPs of all the items in the two instruments were computed. This represented the overall AWP . The equation for the AWP is as follows: AWP = (fA x 2 ) + (fS x 1 ) + (fN + 0 ) No. of Respondents- The responses were tallied according to the respondents answers to the items in the instruments. Each response in the two instruments such as the scientific attitude inventory and self- concept scale were given a numerical value such as : Scientific Attitude Inventory “ Strongly Disagree” - 1 “ Disagree “ - 2 “ Uncertain “ - 3 “ Agree “ - 4 “Strongly Agree” - 5 The maximum and minimum items of the two (2) groups of students in the science-oriented secondary schools in Olongapo City were compared and analyzed. The responses were compared to identify congruence and commonalities in the responses. The Self-Concept scale was used through a 5-point frequency scale ranging from “ never” to a ”always” .In this instrument the respondent is asked to indicate how often he feels the trait applied to him. The statements indicated in the scale were divided into groups of identified factors such as “Emotionality”, “Personal Worth”, “Identity”, and “Accepting Attitudes”. Under these factors were statements pertaining to personal characteristics of the respondents which appropriately describe their self- concept . Self-Concept Scale “ Never “ - 1 “ Rarely “ - 2 “ Sometimes” - 3 “ Often “ - 4 “ Always” - 5 The obtained AWPs in each of the instruments were interpreted using the following scales. Scientific Attitude Inventory DescriptivE Category Assigned Weights Scale Strongly Agree (SA) 5 4.20 - 5.00 Agree (A) 4 3.40 - 4.19 Uncertain (U) 3 2.60 - 3.39 Disagree (D) 2 1.80 - 2.59 Strongly Disagree 1 1.00 - 1.79 Self -Concept Scale Descriptive Category Assigned Weights Scale Always (A) 5 4.20 - 5.00
  • 65. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 65 Often (O) 4 3.40 - 4.19 Sometimes (S) 3 2.60 - 3.39 Rarely (R) 2 1.80 - 2.59 Never (N) 1 1.00 - 1.79 The data on the variables such as age, gender , parents’ educational attainment, and family income were analyzed using means , frequencies and percentages . 1. Percentage f P = ------ x 100 N where : P = Percentage F = Frequency N = Total Number of Respondents 100 = Constant Number 2. Mean X M = - - - N where : M = Mean X = Total Weighted Average N = Total Number of Item Evaluated 3. Weighted Average was employed to determine the quantitative analysis EXw Xw = -- - - - X where: Xw = Weighted Average E = Summation or Sum of X = Responses The t– Test. was used to find out if there is any significant difference between the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology -oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City relative to their affective behaviors such as scientific attitudes and self concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes . Downie and Heath (1984) proposed that the t-test often results in probability statements that are extremely of homogeneity of variance and normality of the underlying distribution are untenable. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002) 4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Results should be interpreted in a systematic, logical order with the data relevant to the research problem and sufficient to answer the research questions. Each finding should be presented in terms of the original problem. The findings should be compared with other relevant findings in the literature to establish references for further research. Honesty should be observed in analyzing data. The results of analysis is presented in verifiable form. Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA The tabulated data which were gathered largely through the questionnaire and supported by the unstructured interviews and personal observations are contained in this chapter. The analysis and interpretation of the collected data were likewise presented. Implications Of The Study In The Developmental Needs Of The Students A caring and nurturing curriculum views the child in his totality as an integral organism who internalizes and implements moral values with his entire being. It identifies the basic developmental goals and needs of the child. The focus is on the critical areas of child development : the physical ,emotional , social , and spiritual which includes moral. It carefully considers and adjusts to the socio-economic needs /environment of the child without compromising universal truths and an objective of morality. In the education of values what the child needs are inductive and deductive lessons in how to reason out the meaning and purpose of sensory knowledge and experience . Trained to do so , the child is more likely to choose and act rationally when he is faced with difficulties or conflicting values or when he confronts an emotionally charged issue which requires an ethical decision. Too often overlooked or neglected in the education of values is the importance of the child’s emotional stability , self-confidence and self-worth. These factors affect significantly the child’s willingness to uphold universal truths. Building and strengthening the child’s self-confidence are best achieved when the most important in his life ---- parents , relatives , teachers , peers – express open , sincere respect for his dignity through understanding and good manners . If the child is expected to obey and respect others , he must , from earliest childhood , be treated with politeness and dignity . During ordinary circumstances and most especially during periods of struggle when the child fights to overcome personal weaknesses , he needs positive reinforcement , given sensibly and moderately through praise and success experiences. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002) Please refer to the complete text of the example source to fully understand and appreciate this section. Comprehensive discussion for this chapter was presented in the previous sections. 5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations The last chapter presents the general summary of the research study, its findings, conclusions and recommendations:  General Summary – includes summary of the research problems, hypothesis, research design, determination of the sample size, the research instruments and its validation, the data gathering and processing procedure and the statistical treatment.  Findings- summarize the results and present them in logical order according to the problems earlier stated.
  • 66. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 66  Conclusions- should be congruent with the findings of the study. They are arranged and sequenced according to the problems earlier stated.  Recommendations- are based on conclusion. One may undertake further actions to make the study more meaningful, eg.: action plans that may serve as bases for further research or that may help improve the hospital services, nursing services, nursing practice or nursing education. Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter contains a presentation of the investigations’ primary objectives and specific problems and a description of the research methodology. It includes the summary of findings, conclusions drawn and recommendations offered. SUMMARY Statement Of The Problem This study determined the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology -oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City for the school year 2001-2002. It likewise looked into the differences in the affective behavior profiles such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth , identity and accepting attitudes of the students enrolled in the Regional Science High School and in the Engineering and Science Education Program in Olongapo City National School , Olongapo City. The following research questions were raised: 2. What is the profile of senior students in the science and technology –oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of the following variables such as; e. Age f. Gender g. Parents’ educational attainment and h. Family Income ? 2. What are the perceptions of the senior students in the science and technology –oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of the following affective behavior profiles such as ; a. scientific attitudes b. self –concept with factors on emotionality, personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes 3 . Are there significant differences in the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology –oriented secondary schools as regards their scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality, personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes ? 4. What educational implications the study can offer in terms of the developmental goals and needs of the students ? Hypothesis In connection with the foregoing problems, the following null hypothesis was tested at the .05 level of significance: There are no significant differences in the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology –oriented secondary schools as regards their scientific attitudes and self- concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes. Scope And Delimitation Of The Study This study determined the affective behavior profiles of senior students in the science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City for the school year 2001- 2002. Likewise , it determined the significant differences on the perceptions of the senior students in the two (2) science and technology oriented secondary schools in the Division of Olongapo City in terms of their affective behaviors such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes . The subjects of the study were the senior students enrolled under the Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP) in the Olongapo City National High School and the Special Science Curriculum in the Regional Science High School both in Olongapo City. These groups of respondents were selected using the random sampling method. In order to elicit the desired information on the affective behavior profiles and variables such as age, gender, and parents’ educational attainment, and family income of the respondents , three instruments were developed and tried out in order to determine the internal consistency of the items. The final forms of the scientific attitude inventory and self-concept scale were administered to the subjects of the study in order to obtain the needed data as regards their self concept and scientific attitudes. The final form of the questionnaire was also administered to the subjects to obtain the variables such as age, gender, parents’ educational attainment, and family income. For statistical treatment, frequencies , percentages , means and standard deviation of the obtained data were computed. The t-test was employed to obtain the significance of differences in terms of the affective behavior profiles such as scientific attitudes and self-concept with factors on the emotionality , personal worth, identity, and accepting attitudes. Findings 1. Profile of the Respondents 1.1 Majority of the senior students in the Engineering and Science Education Program in the Olongapo City National High School clustered at 16 years old and above 45 % (N= 108 ) percent respectively with age ranges from 15 years old and over . On the other hand, majority of the senior students in the Regional Science High School were at age 16 24 ( N=57) percent of the total number of respondents , the average age of students in the Fourth Year level. It could likewise be observed that 10 (N=25 ) percent students belong to 14-15 years old age range. 1.2 Majority of the students in the ESEP curriculum were female (N=95 ) or 60.90 percent while the male population registered at (N=61 ) or 37.17 percent of the total number of respondents. On the other hand , the senior students in the RSHS was likewise female dominated population, with 56.5 ( N=48) per cent of the total number of respondents and only 43.5 (N= 37 ) percent were male. 1.3 Majority of the ESEP students clustered at P100,000 pesos to P99,000.00 at 56.41 (N= 88) percent . It could likewise be observed that 14.10 (N= 22) percent of the students’ families were at the family income bracket of P200,000 .00 pesos above ,followed by 15.38 (N=24) percent belonging to P199,,000 .00 below annually. On the other hand ,majority of the senior RSHS students’ family income level clustered at 150,000 to 200,000 above annually with 24.1 (N= 58) . Only a meager 11.2 (N= 27) belong to 99,000.00 below to 100,000.00 annual income. 1.4 Majority of the parents of the senior students in the ESEP curriculum finished the secondary school while their counterparts in the RSHS finished Baccalaureate degree. 2. Perceptions of the Senior Student Respondents on their Scientific Attitudes 2.1 The ESEP students were really equipped with values inherent to intelligent and creative individuals which are the true characteristics of students in the science –oriented curriculum. All other indicators of scientific attitudes were rated by them as “Agree” with an AWM of 4.24 . Likewise , the RSHS students like their counterparts in the ESEP curriculum were also critical thinkers in the sense that they This suggests that these students were really equipped with values inherent to intelligent and creative individuals which are the true characteristics of students in the science –oriented curriculum. All other indicators of scientific attitudes were “strongly agreed” upon by them as an indication that these are being practiced by them . 3. Perceptions of the Senior Student Respondents on their Self – Concept With Factors on Emotionality, Personal Worth , Identity , and Accepting Attitudes. 3.1 The ESEP and RSHS students perceived themselves as persons equipped with positive self-concept . They are both positively motivated in terms of emotional behavior , they have personal identity , self-worth and accepts realities in life as it is . They are emotionally balanced individuals. 4. Significant Differences Between the Perceptions of the ESEP and RSHS Senior Student - Respondents on their Scientific Attitudes 4.1 There is no significant difference in the scientific attitudes between ESEP and RSHS students. Both possess the same scientific attitudes and are both equipped with the knowledge, skills and attitudes of a student in the science-oriented curriculum. 5. Significant Differences Between the Perceptions of the
  • 67. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 67 ESEP and RSHS Senior Student - Respondents on their Self- Concept With Factors on Emotionality, Personal Worth, Identity and Accepting Attitudes. 5. 1 There are no significant differences in the self-concept of the ESEP and RSHS students in terms of emotionality , identity and personal worth. However, there exists significant differences in their accepting attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Based on the foregoing findings, the following conclusions are hereby presented : 1. A typical Fourth Year ESEP RSHS senior student was a female , 16 years of age, at the early stage of adolescent ,she belongs to a family with an annual family income of P 100,000.00 pesos more or less. The highest educational attainment of his parent is Baccalaureate degree . 2. The senior students in the ESEP and RSHS curriculum possess the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes inherent to their creative potentials as students in the science – oriented secondary schools. 3. The senior students in the ESEP and RSHS curriculum are both equipped high self-concept with positive emotional behavior , personal identity , self-worth but differ in accepting attitudes. RECOMMENDATIONS In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following are highly recommended. 1. Continuous development programs for the nurturance of creative potentials of students should be provided in the curriculum for science oriented secondary schools . Programs can be formulated to increase the developmental qualities that are so needed for national development. 2. Since education is the very purpose of a school, the reinforcement of values formation for the WHOLE family must be achieved in the curriculum and activities of the school. This would help in the sustenance of the positive behaviors of students . 3. Continuous development programs for intermediate grade school children be fully varied and relevant in order to help facilitate their mental, social and emotional growth. 4. Re-evaluation of the curricular programs of the school is necessary to determine relevancy to the needs of the students. 5. Emphasis on teaching – learning process should be placed upon helping each student grow to the fullest of their capabilities and capacities. The emotional intelligence should be given priority as with their intelligence quotient . 6. Similar studies may be launched to include other variables which were found to have a bearing in the scholastic performance , behavioral profiles of students in the science –oriented secondary schools. *Example Source: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE –ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (H. B. Aggabao, 2002) PLEASE SEE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE PROCEEDING SECTIONS OF THE EXAMPLE SOURCE. I highly recommend that you obtain the full text copy of this dissertation. You will find it helpful and informative. I did! Oral Defense When the thesis is completed, the adviser testifies that the researcher is ready for an oral defense of his thesis. The researcher is then given a list of requirements to be complied with before the oral dense is scheduled, such as the result of the written comprehensive examination, the transcript of records, enrolment in thesis writing , among others. Six copies of thesis are distributed to the Dean of the Graduate School, the members of the oral defense panel, and the researcher’s adviser. Schools may vary in evaluating oral defense. The three aspects to be evaluated with their respective ratings are: content (40%); presentation (30%); and defense (30%).  Content refers to the study itself. The investigation should be comprehensive enough and should satisfactorily answer the questions posted in the study. Focus should be on the substance. The problem must have been justified by the theoretical framework , methodology, findings and recommendations.  Presentation refers to the way the candidate presents, elaborates on the content of the thesis in an organized and logical manner. This means mastery of the thesis.  Defense shows the researcher’s ability to justify his research design, findings and conclusions. He can readily locate tables and pages to support his answers. Post-Defense After the oral defense, the researcher revises the manuscript according to the comments and suggestions of the panel and under supervision of the adviser. The revised copies are then submitted or distributed to the Dean’s Office, to the Library, the Commission on Higher Education, the agency where the study was conducted, and the thesis adviser.
  • 68. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 68 Florence Nightingale: The First Nurse Researcher (1820-1910) Hailed as the matriarch of modern nursing, a linguist, had a vast knowledge of science, mathematics, literature, the arts, philosophy, history and economics, Florence Nightingale proved that she can do more than allowing herself to be an aristocrat’s wife. At a time when Germany was establishing the first school of nursing called the Fleidner School of Nursing in Kaiserwerth, Nightingale was at the crossroad of making decisions in her life. After a trip to Egypt in 1850, she applied for admission to Fleidner and showed her interest of becoming a nurse by writing a 12-page “curriculum”. She entered the nursing program on July 6, 1851. During her three months of stay at the school, she obtained and developed skills in both nursing care and management and was therefore considered to be educated as a nurse. Upon her return to England, armed with nursing skills, she proved her cause as a reformer for the well-being of the people. Florence Nightingale is best remembered in history for her role in the Crimean War – the battle of English versus Turkish. She healed and consoled wounded soldiers. On her 19th month of stay at the military, the hospital barracks were infested with fleas and rats, and sewage flowed under the wards. With a dreadful situation where the mortality rate at the hospital reached 42.7% of those treated, she managed to drastically reduce the rate to 2.2% by attending to the environment of the soldiers. Her statistical and managerial skills were well applied. Nightingale’s concern for the comfort of the English soldiers, her efforts to improve the very poor sanitary conditions in the hospital wards in Scutari, her courage to fight the bureaucracy in order to get food, bandages, fresh bedding and cleaning supplies for the soldiers earned for her the label as a Heroine of Great Britain. Beyond her work in the Crimean War, Nightingale harnessed her skills in statistics, became a pioneer in the graphic display of statistics, and was selected a fellow of the Royal Statistical Society in 1858. Nightingale used statistics to present her case for hospital reform by depending on observable data. The American Statistical Association conferred to her an honorary membership in 1874, and would become the FIRST NURSE RESEARCHER. From June 1869 to June 1870, she published the following: Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army, Notes on Hospitals, and Report on Measures Adopted for Sanitary Improvements in India. “To give hints for thought of women who have personal charge of the health of other” (Nightingale 1859) she wrote NOTES ON NURSING, which became her most popular and frequently cited work. She was bestowed with numerous awards from Great Britain and other countries. She was the first woman to be granted the Order of Merit (OM) by no less than Queen Victoria. She became the second most famous British person, after the Queen herself. Nightingale then became eligible to use the post-nominal letters (PM-RRC) on her name. Her death on August 13, 1910 at the age of 90, although unexpected, was a peaceful death as she died on her sleep and was cheerful before she fell really ill. May 12, 1820, Florence Nightingale’s Birthday, is celebrated as International Nurses’ Day.
  • 69. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 69 - References - The student mainly utilized Textbooks as his resources in completing this material. The example cited in PART 7 was unselfishly shared by his college professor DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO- he desires to express his sincerest gratitude! He limited the use of internet resources in citing examples and sought collaboration with a statistician in order to thoroughly understand and present DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS. He also utilized RESEARCH notes he acquired at Philippine Heart Center- Nursing Education Department in which he completed a course on Research- Nursing Research Level 1 in 2011. Dissertation: AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR PROFILES OF SENIOR STUDENTS IN THE SCIENCE – ORIENTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF OLONGAPO CITY SY 2001-2002 (Author: Dr. H. B. Aggabao, 2002) Textbooks: Introduction to NURSING RESEARCH, Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (Authors: Denise F. Polit, PhD; Cheryl Tatano Back, DNSc, CNM, FAAN NURSING RESEARCH, Quest for Quality Nursing (Author: LYDIA M. VENZON, RN, MAN, FPCHA) Internet Resources: http://www.surrey.ac.uk/sociology/research/researchcentres/caqdas/support/choosing/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14753069 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pmresources.html To acquire the complete text of the cited dissertation, please send an email to: christianluther0309@yahoo.com (Subject: REQUEST FOR DR.AGGABAO’s DISSERATATION)
  • 70. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Prepared by C.LUTHER FABIA, B.S.N.,R.N. Subject: RESEARCH METHODS, Professor: DR. HELEN B. AGGABAO Philippine Colleges of Health and Sciences Inc., School of Graduate Studies | 70