Economic development aboriginal


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  • The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996
  • Doubling and tripling of qualified first nations workers
  • Source: AHRDCC
  • First Nation Human Resource Development Agreements There are 47 First Nation Human Resource Agreements with HRDC to deliver both Employment Insurance and labor market initiatives, including youth, disability, childcare, capacity building and labor market programs. These agreements expire March 31, 2004. From a First Nation working age population of almost 500,000, approximately 30,000 Aboriginal participants participated in Aboriginal Human Resource Development Agreement ( AHRDA) interventions in 1999. The unemployment rate of First Nations is averaging approximately 70%. After allocation to the Metis and Inuit, First Nations receive approximately 80% of these funds or approximately $270 M but control less than $171 M. Approximately 20,000 First Nation people participate in a Human Resource Development training program every year. The current estimated First Nation working age population (16 +) is 490,000. Approximately 5.5 % of the total First Nation working age population received funding and/or participated in these HRDC programs. In 1995 approximately 10% of the First Nation working age population or 35,000 people had an income from Employment Insurance. Just under one half of the First Nation working age population who had an income from Employment Insurance were female. Currently, the average cost of training First Nation participants is $13,500/year. Over one half of the First Nation working age population live off reserve. The current initiative is called the Aboriginal Human Resource Development Strategy which evolved from the Regional Bi-lateral Agreement and Pathways to Success strategies. First Nations are currently developing a new First Nation strategy for 2004-2014.
  • Bulge in boomer years, very different profile to FN
  • Economic development aboriginal

    1. 1. Economic Development Strategies as an Engine of Political Development Among First Nations Thursday Mar 10, 2005 3:45 – 4:45 pm Chris Hylton, MA CG Hylton & Associates Inc. 800 449-5866 1
    2. 2. AgendaHarvard Project StrategiesSuccess StoriesBand Models 2
    3. 3. Harvard ProjectNative societies are phenomenally resilient. Inthe last century, they have faced winds ofeconomic, political, and cultural change thathave blown over them as ferociously as overany people in history. 3
    4. 4. Harvard Project Founded by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P Kalt at Harvard University in 1987 Through research and service, the goal is to understand and foster the conditions which will sustain social & economic development in First Nations 4
    5. 5. Harvard ProjectThe projects activities include: Research Advisory services Education Tribal governance award 5
    6. 6. Harvard Project Although this research was done in the US, we feel that the circumstances, challenges and theories surrounding the project are similar to what we encounter here. The successes of the Harvard models can contribute to the success of Canadian First Nations facing the same challenges. 6
    7. 7. THE DEVELOPMENT GAMBLEThe odds are notpromisingThe required effort istremendousThe results are at best,uncertain 7
    8. 8. Obstacles Lack of financial capital Lack human capital (education, skills, technical expertise) and the means to develop it Lack effective planning Over-planning and lack of action. 8
    9. 9. Obstacles Lack in natural resources Have natural resources, but lack sufficient control over them Non-Indian outsiders control or confound tribal decision-making Tribal cultures get in the way. 9
    10. 10. Obstacles Nation savings rates are low Entrepreneurial skills and experience are scarce Non-FNs management techniques wont work on the reserve Non-FNs management techniques will work, but are absent 10
    11. 11. Obstacles Tribes cannot persuade investors to locate on reserves because of intense competition from non- native communities Federal and state policies are counterproductive and/or discriminatory 11
    12. 12. Obstacles Tribes have unworkable and/or externally imposed systems of government Tribal politicians and bureaucrats are inept or corrupt Factionalism destroys stability in tribal decisions The instability of tribal government keeps outsiders from investing 12
    13. 13. Obstacles The long-term effects of racism have undermined tribal self-confidence Alcoholism and other social problems are destroying tribes human capital Reserves are disadvantaged by their distance from markets and the high costs of transportation 13
    15. 15. EXTERNAL OPPORTUNITYCritical factors:   Political sovereignty Market opportunity: unique economic opportunities in local, regional, or national markets Access to financial capital Distance from markets 15
    16. 16. INTERNAL ASSETS Natural resources Human capital Institutions of governance Culture 16
    17. 17. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Overall economic system Choice of development activity 17
    18. 18. THE ROLE OF SOVEREIGNTY Decision-making control over the running of tribal affairs and tribal resources Primary control can create an assertive and capable tribe Transferring control over decisions to tribes does not guarantee success, but it tightens the link. 18
    19. 19. THE ROLE OF SOVEREIGNTY Brings accountability Offers distinct legal and economic market opportunities What nations can do is be more or less aggressive in asserting the sovereignty they possess 19
    20. 20. THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS Sovereignty must be put to effective use Capable institutions of self-governance Should be thought of as formal and informal mechanisms in which groups of people work towards a common goal 20
    21. 21. FORMAL INSTITUTIONS They include: Constitutions Charters Laws Formal rules that regulate what people do 21
    22. 22. INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS Include culturally supported standards of right and wrong, proper and improper, normal and abnormal Through the values, rules of behavior, and ideas we all learn from growing up and living in a particular community 22
    23. 23. INFORMAL INSTITUTIONSEnforced by the approval and disapprovalof our parents, peers, elders, and otherauthority figures. 23
    24. 24. THREE BASIC TASKSFormal Governing Institutions  Mobilize and sustain tribal communitys support  Efficiently make and carry out strategic choices  Provide a political environment in which investors feel secure —large or small, tribal members or nonmembers 24
    26. 26. MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR INSTITUTIONS This power can be the key to creating economic developmental success Without it the result may be instability, stagnation, and a government that serves only the temporary interests of the faction currently in power. 26
    27. 27. MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR INSTITUTIONSAchieving a match between the formal institutionsof governance and the culture of the society. 27
    29. 29. IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES Formalized decision rules and procedures Laws, rules, and procedures that get things done Formalized rules and procedures that serve to empower 29
    30. 30. IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES Professional Financial, Personnel, and Record Systems Maintain close control over tribal finances Standards and grievance procedures 30
    32. 32. ESTABLISH A POLITICALENVIRONMENT SAFE FOR DEVELOPMENT With greater employment opportunities, people are more likely to stay Uncertainty in tax and/or regulatory policy raises investors risks Example: insecurity in the enforcement of contracts and agreements 32
    33. 33. TO SOLVE PROBLEM Who Controls What? The separation and limitation of powers The separation of electoral politics from day-to-day management of business 33
    35. 35. ECONOMIC SYSTEM Federal control Tribal enterprise Private (Micro) Enterprise with Tribal Member Ownership Private Enterprise with Nontribal Member Control   35
    36. 36. DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITYThese projects range from chopstickfactories to gambling casinos,from hazardous waste facilities to resorthotels. 36
    37. 37. DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY Separate good opportunities from bad Make wise and productive decisions Basic governmental (constitutional) form Judicial institutions Regulatory institutions  Economic policies 37
    38. 38. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY Requires many ingredients—capital, skills, resources, stable institutions, and attractive market opportunities Informed, thoughtful policymaking Sovereignty brings accountability and allows "success" 38
    39. 39. CONCLUSIONThe first is sovereignty The power to make decisions about your own future.The second is institutions Effectively exercise sovereignty Transition is difficult pass two tests:  adequacy &  appropriateness The third factor is development strategy Choosing the economic policies and specific development projects to pursue 39
    40. 40. Economic Development Stories 40
    41. 41. Success Story #1The Alexis First Nation # 133 is located onthe shores of Lac Ste. Anne, in Alberta. TheBand has other reserve lands in Whitecourt,Cardinal River near Jasper National Park,and Elk River Crossing in the foothills ofJasper 41
    42. 42. 42
    43. 43. Alexis Band Profile There are approximately 1400 Alexis Band Members, of which 800 members reside on reserve # 133. There are 600 members residing off reserve to pursue higher education or employment There is a high youth population between the ages of 16 to 30, which comprises about 45% of our population 43
    44. 44. Mission StatementNCL was established to initiate the participation of the Nation within the Construction industry. Our company is mandated to pursue the principle of self-reliance by promoting the core values of our peoples and Nation.We believe that partnerships are integral to accomplishing our goal of building a profitable company, and pursue when feasible partnerships that benefit all parties involved.Returning customers is our ultimate goal. 44
    45. 45. Nakoda Construction• Oil field construction business in operation for 2 years. The business is run somewhat like a temp agency with 5 or 6 permanent employees and approximately 30 to 40 temporary finding work in the oil field for bands members.• The employee base is predominantly from Tsuu T’ina or Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 45
    46. 46. Day RatesForeman (with 4x4 & cell) $500Supervisor On Site $40 / hourLabour $35 / hourEnvironment Impact Liaison (with 4x4 pick up / cell) $300Professional Fees $1,000Meals, Incidentals, Travel $150Subsistence $125 46
    47. 47. Nakoda• Co does not discriminate so will certainly hire outside the band• Last year they made around $1.5 M and recently received a grant for equipment from INAC• 47
    48. 48. 48
    49. 49. Aboriginal Tourism• Model for development 49
    50. 50. 50
    51. 51. St Eugene Mission• Near Cranbrook• Chief Sophie Pierre• Key is a partnership between a Hotel Chain, Delta, and the Ktunaxa Nation who had the location, valued heritage landmark, history and cultural features 51
    52. 52. 52
    53. 53. 53
    54. 54. • The Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council has received approval for $3 million in federal funding for the redevelopment of the historic St. Eugene Mission, which will be a major component of a new $40.8 million international four-season resort in the Rockies.• Delta Hotels will build and operate a separate 125- room hotel, casino and conference centre slated to open in May 2002. 54
    55. 55. Deeper MeaningAs we worked to finalize this project, we were continually guided by the vision of one of our elders, Mary Paul, who said in 1994 that it was within the St. Eugene Mission that the culture of the Kootenay Indian was taken away, and it should be within that building that its returned. 55
    56. 56. Cultural Tourism• Is fast becoming one of the hottest international trends.• Last year $474 million (not including casinos) was spent on Aboriginal tourism• With casinos this number rises to 4.9 billion!! 56
    57. 57. Cultural Tourism• Either directly or indirectly across Canada Aboriginal tourism employs over 32,000 people• This is only the beginning!• Aboriginals possess 2 of tourisms greatest assets, does anyone know what they are? 57
    58. 58. Cultural Tourism1. Unique cultural heritage2. Access to and an understanding of the natural attractions of Canada 58
    59. 59. Cultural Tourism Two of the major concerns that have surfaced in this particular industry:• Authenticity of Products and/or Facilities• Cultural Integrity 59
    60. 60. Authenticity of Products and/or FacilitiesAuthenticity means different things todifferent people DiscussionWhat does “authentic experience” mean to you?What do you think it means to tourists? 60
    61. 61. Cultural Tourism• Tourists “authentic expectations” may include: – Ancient traditions – Customs – Seeing Indians on horseback – Dog-sledding through the north – Following trap lines 61
    62. 62. Cultural Tourism• Some feel that developing tourism can have a negative impact on the host community and the culture• This can create friction between the two (aboriginal and tourists) communities 62
    63. 63. Helpful GuidelinesInvolve the surrounding communities fromthe beginning– there may be many or few, but local support isimportant to successTake advantage of the uniquecircumstances that are specific to your areaRespect and uphold the wishes of theElders in the community of the business 63
    64. 64. Helpful Guidelines• Take advantage of external and internal influences that have encouraged change throughout history.• What are some external changes that you have noticed?• Are they negative or positive?• What are some internal changes that have taken place?• Are they negative or positive? 64
    65. 65. Change• External changes • Colonization • Treaties • Residential schools • Fur trade Whether negative or positive they have played a role in cultural invasion and degradation 65
    66. 66. Change• Internal changes – Renewed strength – Taking back control – Enterprise – Return to cultural teachings 66
    67. 67. Promoting your Community • Build PartnershipsPromoting your • Research your nationscommunity can historybe difficult but • Determine what youwith focus and want to share • Choose your messageclear goals can be carefullyfulfilling and very • Build on ONE majorsuccessful attraction • Share it with the world • Welcome the world 67
    68. 68. Promoting your CommunityBuilding Partnerships• Cooperate with other FN’s tourism operators• Cooperate with non-aboriginal business owners• Discuss common goals 68
    69. 69. Promoting your Community Determine whatResearch your you want to shareNation’s History •What do you want people to know •Protect what is sacred•Accuracy in •Ease the fears of wary•Maintain credibility members•Resolve myths •It’s important thatregarding your culture what you want to share be agreed upon by all 69
    70. 70. Promoting your CommunityChoose your messages carefully• In the past Aboriginals have been portrayed as warriors, drunks, savages and mystics. Is this what you want?• Present authentic and accurate portrayals of your history and culture.• Use choice words and images that accurately represents what you want to share 70
    71. 71. Promoting your CommunityBuild on one major • Look closely at yourattraction environment and•Cultural tourists are looking choose a signaturefor the “big experience” attraction. – Site of a historical – Traditional music or battle dance – See a 5000 year old artifact – Art studio – Biggest redwood tree – Traditional food – Largest tipi – Ancient site 71
    72. 72. Promoting your CommunityTell the world!!• Develop promotional material• Media campaign• Websites• Local signage• News articles 72
    73. 73. Promoting your CommunityEnthusiastically welcome the world!!• Everyone needs to be encouraged to offer polite assistance to your guests• Respect• Friendship• Sharing• Community pride 73
    74. 74. THREE MODELSSelf-government modelPublic government modelCommunity of Interest model 74
    75. 75. Band Models Native leaders must work with the people, not on behalf of their people Natives must survive as Natives. Natives must define and work out what this means and what implications may be.Taken from(Boldt 1993, p.163) 75
    76. 76. Band ModelsRepresentation, Aboriginal identitypreservation, and the means:construction of  historyAboriginal cultures  ancestry  culture  values  traditions  ties to the land 76
    77. 77. SELF GOVERNMENTIssues that come into play: Jurisdiction  Economic situation Outworking of  Territorial size and relationships between existing land base Aboriginal  Population size and governments and density federal & provincial  Cultural governments characteristics 77
    78. 78. PUBLIC GOVERNMENT Aboriginal majority retains constitutionally protected Extend over a geographically defined territory, and would serve all residents within the territory: Aboriginals and non- Aboriginals alike; and Aboriginals from different nations and backgrounds. 78
    79. 79. PUBLIC GOVERNMENT Sufficiently empowered to support the goals of Aboriginal peoples in economic, social, cultural, and political areas Exclusive rights in the use of renewable resources Protection of Aboriginal heritage, language, and traditions. 79
    80. 80. PUBLIC GOVERNMENTAboriginal public governments may operateat the community, regional, or territoriallevel, depending on whether they areorganized centrally or federally 80
    81. 81. COMMUNITY OF INTEREST Not territorial or land based Model of government is based on Aboriginal identity (regardless of affiliation with a nation), and is completely voluntary Works best in urban areas 81
    82. 82. COMMUNITY OF INTERESTMain focus on the delivery of programs and services: social services child welfare housing economic development education Culture language 82
    83. 83. Agenda  Myths  Opportunity  You got a casino, now what?  Different types of Development  Needs & Success  Customized and non traditional training opportunities  Measuring success 83
    84. 84. Some Myths about Aboriginal Workers• They are rural• Numbers are small• They are uneducated• They are economically insignificant 84
    85. 85. Rural Myth ShatteredMost are within one hourof urban centre! 85
    86. 86. Myth:First Nationspopulation issmall innumbers 86
    87. 87. Myth: FewFirst Nationspeople areeducated 87
    88. 88. Myth: First Nations people have little purchasing power• Tripled 91 to 96• From $4.5B to $11.35 B• Land claims – 25% of Canada total area 88
    89. 89. Changing First Nations Communities• Traditional First • Over time this has Nations changed communities • Role of Band now• Indian Agent seen as creator of jobs, equal• Treaty monies business partner• Resource revenues with non- perhaps aboriginal business• Little hands-on • Need for management competitive HR policies • Training of staff 89
    90. 90. The Challenge • First Nation working age population of 600,000 • unemployment rate of 70% • Huge opportunities to create jobs to solve this problem 90
    91. 91. First Nations are perfectly positioned to replace retiring boomers 91
    92. 92. Casino Magic 92
    93. 93. Casino Case Study• You have been granted a Casino license• Who is going to manage it• Who is going to work it?• Take a couple minutes and write down what HR things you would have to do to get the Casino operating 93
    94. 94. Different Types of DevelopmentThere are different types of development such as ( not in priority order):• Life Skills• Employability• Labour Market• Capacity Building• Traditional 94
    95. 95. • Life Skills – get people ready to learn. Courses such as self esteem, anger and time management• Employability – finding and keeping a job. Courses such as employer expectations, employee rights, preparing resumes and interview preparation.• Labour Market – get people jobs. Courses such as Nursing Attendant, Introduction to trades, and academic upgrading• Capacity Building – courses that enhance and complement existing employee skills. For example, the Human Resource Technician Program• Traditional – on site secondary and post secondary institutions, seminars and conferences. 95
    96. 96. Which type of development to we start with? It depends on two things: • Where you want to be • Where you are right now • Thus we have to define two things: 1. Needs 2. Success 96
    97. 97. Needs & Success• I believe you have to start at the end and work backward• So we start out by defining what we want to accomplish and what is the result we want to achieve• This criteria should be applied to every type of development listed earlier• Care should be taken not to fall into the “well rounded trap” 97
    98. 98. Needs & Success The “Well Rounded Trap”• Many times we focus upon improving a person’s weaknesses and ignore their strengths or talents• We all have talents and we should focus more on using them• Improving weaknesses should be more of a maintenance factor and careful analysis should be taken to ensure we are not wasting time on something that isn’t really necessary 98
    99. 99. Needs & Success (continued)• Once you define the outcome, you look at where you are now.• A Human Resource Inventory can be useful• The inventory should include development taken, work experience and personal significant events to get a complete picture of where the person is now 99
    100. 100. Needs & Success (continued)• Once the inventory is complete an analysis of the inventory should be undertaken.• A Human Resource Inventory analysis looks at the inventory and compares where the individual should be based on the inventory and where they actually are• There are three scenario’s that can appear at the end of the analysis. 100
    101. 101. The Three Scenarios1. Person’s skills match inventory – Proceed to matching development with needs2. Person’s skills exceed inventory – look for critical development areas3. Person’s skills are below inventory – determine why, then proceed to matching development to needs 101
    102. 102. Match need to development• Here you determine what you need to succeed• The key of course is to get the specific development(s) to meet the need• Usually the unique development required is not available 102
    103. 103. Customized & NonTraditional Training Customized training is training massaged to meet your specific needs Non Traditional training refers to different locations and types of training delivery 103
    104. 104. Customized Training• In Alberta at least two post secondary institutions have a customized training department; one department is called aboriginal and customized training.• Their role is to provide the development to specifically meet your needs whether this is through an established course, modifying a course to meet your needs or to write a new course• Contact your local post secondary institution and see if they have a department that specializes in custom training• Make sure that they are meeting your needs and not trying make your needs fit into their system 104
    105. 105. Non Traditional Training• Usually training is set to a schedule and at the educational institution.• Most of courses can be delivered right in your community, unless specialized facilities are req’d• The delivery times can be set at each session and based on the availability of the class and the instructor 105
    106. 106. Customized Training1. Human Resource Technician Certificate – the Saddle Lake Reserve HRD department needed certification from a recognized post secondary institution. Six courses from an established program were selected by Saddle Lake and delivered on site by the same instructor.While we attempted to meet every week, the last thing we did at the end of each day was to schedule the next day, based on availability.Thus flexibility and consistently was present for the duration of the program. Upon completion the participants received a certificate from the post secondary institution.The same program was delivered to four communities in Hobbema as well. 106
    107. 107. Customized Training2. Supervisory Development Certificate Program – This program has four compulsory courses and six electives (out of 10 electives). It is being delivered on weekends at a post secondary institution and on site. One company started an on site delivery of one course( 2 full days) every two weeks. It was found that this was too much. So the times and dates were modified to meet the class needs. 107
    108. 108. Measuring Success • What are the results? • Are the results exactly as anticipated, exceeding projections or less than projections? • Do the costs justify the results? 108
    109. 109. Measuring Success• Results should be measured after each segment of development, not only at the end• In this way, adjustments can be made to ensure success• Follow up is very important: one month, three months and six months at a minimum 109
    110. 110. Training Conclusion• Capacity Building and Employee Skill Building is like an iceberg - lots of pre and post work is essential for the tip (development) to succeed• You have to know what you want before you can get there.• Measuring success at intervals during the process is more effective than at the end of the process 110
    111. 111. Do you ha ve a ny:Comments?Questions?Feedback? 111
    112. 112. Band ModelsRepresentation, Aboriginal identitypreservation, and the means:construction of historyAboriginal cultures ancestry culture values traditions ties to the land 112
    113. 113. THREE MODELSSelf-government modelPublic government modelCommunity of Interest model 113
    114. 114. SELF GOVERNMENTIssues that come into play: Jurisdiction  Economic situation Outworking of  Territorial size and relationships between existing land base Aboriginal  Population size and governments and density federal & provincial  Cultural characteristics governments 114
    115. 115. PUBLIC GOVERNMENT Aboriginal majority retains constitutionally protected Extend over a geographically defined territory, and would serve all residents within the territory: Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals alike; and Aboriginals from different nations and backgrounds. 115
    116. 116. PUBLIC GOVERNMENT Sufficiently empowered to support the goals of Aboriginal peoples in economic, social, cultural, and political areas Exclusive rights in the use of renewable resources Protection of Aboriginal heritage, language, and traditions. 116
    117. 117. PUBLIC GOVERNMENTAboriginal public governments may operateat the community, regional, or territoriallevel, depending on whether they areorganized centrally or federally 117
    118. 118. COMMUNITY OF INTEREST Not territorial or land based Model of government is based on Aboriginal identity (regardless of affiliation with a nation), and is completely voluntary Works best in urban areas 118
    119. 119. COMMUNITY OF INTERESTMain focus on  social servicesthe delivery of  child welfareprograms and  housingservices:  economic development  education  Culture  language 119
    120. 120. Information Sources Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt Promoting our History – Barbara Hagar Aboriginal Tourism, Culture and Communities – Trina Mather - Simard Boldt 1993 120
    121. 121. Our offer to you• Please call if you have any HR, or workplace issue that you are overwhelmed with• We can help you• We also are pleased to do Free Workshops for your organization (some limits apply) Let us know what your needs are and we will make it happen! 121
    122. 122. CG Hylton - Services• HR Consulting • Benefits, Pensions,• Job Descriptions EAP• Salary Grids • Strategic Planning• Wellness at Work • Drug and Alcohol programs• Staff Morale • Dept re-orgs• Training and Workshops • Leadership compensation Tel 403 264 5288 122
    123. 123. Hylton Associates would like to thank you forthe opportunity to meet with you today 123