Ec Dev Strategies as an  Engine of Development  For Aboriginal Groups <ul><li>Weds Ap 13, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Infonex C...
Agenda <ul><li>Harvard Project Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Success Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Band Models </li></ul>
This is your show <ul><li>What areas would like to see covered in this presentation please? </li></ul>
Harvard Project <ul><li>Native societies are phenomenally resilient.  In the last century, they have faced winds of econom...
Harvard Project <ul><li>Founded by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P Kalt at Harvard University in 1987 </li></ul><u...
Harvard Project <ul><li>The projects activities include:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adviso...
Harvard Project <ul><li>Although this research was done in the US, we feel that the circumstances, challenges and theories...
THE DEVELOPMENT GAMBLE <ul><li>The odds are not promising </li></ul><ul><li>The required effort is tremendous  </li></ul><...
Obstacles <ul><li>Lack of financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>Lack human capital (education, skills, technical expertise) ...
Obstacles <ul><li>Lack in natural resources  </li></ul><ul><li>Have natural resources, but lack sufficient control over th...
Obstacles <ul><li>Nation savings rates are low </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial skills and experience are scarce </li></u...
Obstacles <ul><li>Tribes cannot persuade investors to locate on reserves because of intense competition from non-native co...
Obstacles <ul><li>Tribes have unworkable and/or externally imposed systems of government </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal politici...
Obstacles <ul><li>The long-term effects of racism have undermined tribal self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism and ...
KEY DEVELOPMENT INGREDIENTS 
EXTERNAL OPPORTUNITY   <ul><li>Critical factors:    </li></ul><ul><li>Political sovereignty   </li></ul><ul><li>Market opp...
INTERNAL ASSETS   <ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources   </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Inst...
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY   <ul><li>Overall economic system </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of development activity   </li></ul>
THE ROLE OF SOVEREIGNTY   <ul><li>Decision-making control over the   running of tribal affairs and tribal resources   </li...
THE ROLE OF SOVEREIGNTY <ul><li>Brings accountability   </li></ul><ul><li>Offers distinct   legal and economic market oppo...
THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty  must  be put to effective use   </li></ul><ul><li>Capa...
FORMAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>  They include:   </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions    </li></ul><ul><li>Charters </li></ul><ul>...
INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Include culturally   supported standards of right and wrong, proper and improper, normal and...
INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Enforced by the approval and disapproval of   our parents, peers, elders, and other authorit...
THREE BASIC TASKS   <ul><li>Formal   Governing Institution s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilize and   sustain tribal community...
TASK 1 <ul><li>MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR   INSTITUTIONS </li></ul>
MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR   INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>This power can be the key to creating economic developmental succe...
MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR   INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Achieving a match between the formal institutions of   governance ...
TASK 2 <ul><li>IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES </li></ul>
IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES <ul><li>Formalized decision rules and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Laws, rules, and procedures...
IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES <ul><li>Professional Financial, Personnel, and Record Systems   </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain clo...
TASK 3 <ul><li>ESTABLISH A POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT   THAT IS SAFE FOR DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>
ESTABLISH A POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT   SAFE FOR DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>With greater employment opportunities, people are more li...
TO SOLVE PROBLEM <ul><li>Who Controls What?  The separation and limitation of powers </li></ul><ul><li>The separation of e...
CHOOSING EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES  
ECONOMIC SYSTEM <ul><li>Federal control  </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal enterprise  </li></ul><ul><li>Private (Micro) Enterprise...
DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY   <ul><li>  These projects range from chopstick factories to gambling casinos, from   hazardous waste...
DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY <ul><li>Separate good opportunities from bad </li></ul><ul><li>Make wise and productive decisions </l...
IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY  <ul><li>Requires many ingredients — capital, skills,   resources, stable institutions, and attrac...
CONCLUSION   <ul><li>The first is   sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The power to make decisions about your own future.  ...
Some Myths about  Aboriginal Workers <ul><li>They are rural </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers are small </li></ul><ul><li>They are...
Rural Myth Shattered Most are within one hour of urban centre!
Myth: First Nations population is small in  numbers
Myth: Few First Nations people are educated
Myth: First Nations people have little purchasing power <ul><li>Tripled 91 to 96 </li></ul><ul><li>From $4.5B </li></ul><u...
Changing First Nations Communities <ul><li>Traditional First Nations communities </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Agent </li></ul>...
The Challenge <ul><li>First Nation working age population of 600,000 </li></ul><ul><li>unemployment rate of 70% </li></ul>...
First Nations are perfectly positioned to  replace retiring boomers
Success Story #1 <ul><li>The Alexis First Nation # 133 is located on the shores of Lac Ste. Anne, in Alberta. The Band has...
              
Alexis Band Profile <ul><li>There are approximately 1400 Alexis Band Members, of which 800 members reside on reserve # 133...
Mission Statement <ul><li>NCL was established to initiate the participation of the Nation within the Construction industry...
Nakoda Construction <ul><li>Oil field construction business in operation for 2 years. The business is run somewhat like a ...
Foreman (with 4x4 & cell) $500 Supervisor On Site $40 / hour Labour $35 / hour Environment Impact Liaison (with 4x4 pick u...
Nakoda <ul><li>Co does not discriminate so will certainly hire outside the band </li></ul><ul><li>Last year they made arou...
Aboriginal Tourism <ul><li>Model for development </li></ul>
St Eugene Mission <ul><li>Near Cranbrook </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Sophie Pierre </li></ul><ul><li>Key is a partnership betw...
<ul><li>The Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council has received approval for $3 million in federal funding for the redevelopment...
Deeper Meaning <ul><li>As we worked to finalize this project, we were continually guided by the vision of one of our elder...
Casino Magic
Casino Case Study <ul><li>You have been granted a Casino license </li></ul><ul><li>Who is going to manage it </li></ul><ul...
Different Types of Development <ul><li>There are different types of development such as ( not in priority order): </li></u...
Summary <ul><li>Harvard Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Developmental Gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstacles </li><...
Summary  (cont.) <ul><li>The Role of Sovereignty  </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of Institutions   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forma...
Information Sources <ul><li>http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/hpaied/pubs/pub_120.htm   Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. ...
Any questions? <ul><li>I would like to thank you for the opportunity to meet with you today </li></ul><ul><li>800 449 5866...
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Economic Development Success Stories

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What are the prime reasons some aboriginal communities succeed and others fail Learn what the Harvard Project found, and how their findings may be applied to your community.

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  • The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996
  • Doubling and tripling of qualified first nations workers
  • Source: AHRDCC
  • First Nation Human Resource Development Agreements There are 47 First Nation Human Resource Agreements with HRDC to deliver both Employment Insurance and labor market initiatives, including youth, disability, childcare, capacity building and labor market programs. These agreements expire March 31, 2004. From a First Nation working age population of almost 500,000, approximately 30,000 Aboriginal participants participated in Aboriginal Human Resource Development Agreement ( AHRDA) interventions in 1999. The unemployment rate of First Nations is averaging approximately 70%. After allocation to the Metis and Inuit, First Nations receive approximately 80% of these funds or approximately $270 M but control less than $171 M. Approximately 20,000 First Nation people participate in a Human Resource Development training program every year. The current estimated First Nation working age population (16 +) is 490,000. Approximately 5.5 % of the total First Nation working age population received funding and/or participated in these HRDC programs. In 1995 approximately 10% of the First Nation working age population or 35,000 people had an income from Employment Insurance. Just under one half of the First Nation working age population who had an income from Employment Insurance were female. Currently, the average cost of training First Nation participants is $13,500/year. Over one half of the First Nation working age population live off reserve. The current initiative is called the Aboriginal Human Resource Development Strategy which evolved from the Regional Bi-lateral Agreement and Pathways to Success strategies. First Nations are currently developing a new First Nation strategy for 2004-2014.
  • Bulge in boomer years, very different profile to FN
  • Economic Development Success Stories

    1. 1. Ec Dev Strategies as an Engine of Development For Aboriginal Groups <ul><li>Weds Ap 13, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Infonex Calgary </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Hylton , MA </li></ul><ul><li>CG Hylton & Associates Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>800 449-5866 [email_address] </li></ul>
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Harvard Project Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Success Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Band Models </li></ul>
    3. 3. This is your show <ul><li>What areas would like to see covered in this presentation please? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Harvard Project <ul><li>Native societies are phenomenally resilient. In the last century, they have faced winds of economic, political, and cultural change   that have blown over them as ferociously as over any people in history. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Harvard Project <ul><li>Founded by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P Kalt at Harvard University in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Through research and service, the goal is to understand and foster the conditions which will sustain social & economic development in First Nations </li></ul>
    6. 6. Harvard Project <ul><li>The projects activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal governance award </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Harvard Project <ul><li>Although this research was done in the US, we feel that the circumstances, challenges and theories surrounding the project are similar to what we are going through here. </li></ul><ul><li>The successes of the Harvard models can contribute to the success of Canadian First Nations facing the same challenges. </li></ul>
    8. 8. THE DEVELOPMENT GAMBLE <ul><li>The odds are not promising </li></ul><ul><li>The required effort is tremendous </li></ul><ul><li>The results are at best, uncertain </li></ul>
    9. 9. Obstacles <ul><li>Lack of financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>Lack human capital (education, skills, technical expertise) and the means to develop it </li></ul><ul><li>Lack effective planning </li></ul><ul><li>Over-planning and lack of action. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Obstacles <ul><li>Lack in natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Have natural resources, but lack sufficient control over them </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Indian outsiders control or confound tribal decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal cultures get in the way. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Obstacles <ul><li>Nation savings rates are low </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial skills and experience are scarce </li></ul><ul><li>Non-FNs management techniques won't work on the reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Non-FNs management techniques will work, but are absent </li></ul>
    12. 12. Obstacles <ul><li>Tribes cannot persuade investors to locate on reserves because of intense competition from non-native communities </li></ul><ul><li>Federal and state policies are counterproductive and/or discriminatory </li></ul>
    13. 13. Obstacles <ul><li>Tribes have unworkable and/or externally imposed systems of government </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal politicians and bureaucrats are inept or corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Factionalism destroys stability in tribal decisions </li></ul><ul><li>The instability of tribal government keeps outsiders from investing </li></ul>
    14. 14. Obstacles <ul><li>The long-term effects of racism have undermined tribal self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism and other social problems are destroying tribes' human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Reserves are disadvantaged by their distance from markets and the high costs of transportation </li></ul>
    15. 15. KEY DEVELOPMENT INGREDIENTS 
    16. 16. EXTERNAL OPPORTUNITY <ul><li>Critical factors:   </li></ul><ul><li>Political sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Market opportunity: unique economic opportunities in local, regional, or national markets </li></ul><ul><li>Access to financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from markets </li></ul>
    17. 17. INTERNAL ASSETS <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions of governance </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
    18. 18. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY <ul><li>Overall economic system </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of development activity </li></ul>
    19. 19. THE ROLE OF SOVEREIGNTY <ul><li>Decision-making control over the   running of tribal affairs and tribal resources </li></ul><ul><li>Primary control can create an assertive and capable tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring control over decisions to tribes does not guarantee success,   but it tightens the link. </li></ul>
    20. 20. THE ROLE OF SOVEREIGNTY <ul><li>Brings accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Offers distinct   legal and economic market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>What nations can do is be more or less aggressive in   asserting the sovereignty they possess </li></ul>
    21. 21. THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty must be put to effective use </li></ul><ul><li>Capable institutions of self-governance </li></ul><ul><li>Should be thought of as   formal and informal mechanisms in which groups of people work towards a common goal </li></ul>
    22. 22. FORMAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>  They include: </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Charters </li></ul><ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Formal   rules that regulate what people do </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    23. 23. INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Include culturally   supported standards of right and wrong, proper and improper, normal and   abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Through the values, rules of behavior, and ideas we all learn from   growing up and living in a particular community </li></ul>
    24. 24. INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Enforced by the approval and disapproval of   our parents, peers, elders, and other authority figures. </li></ul>
    25. 25. THREE BASIC TASKS <ul><li>Formal   Governing Institution s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilize and   sustain tribal community's support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiently make and carry out strategic choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a political environment in which investors feel secure — large or small,   tribal members or nonmembers </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. TASK 1 <ul><li>MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR   INSTITUTIONS </li></ul>
    27. 27. MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR   INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>This power can be the key to creating economic developmental success </li></ul><ul><li>Without it the result may be instability, stagnation, and a government that serves only the   temporary interests of the faction currently in power. </li></ul>
    28. 28. MOBILIZE AND SUSTAIN SUPPORT FOR   INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Achieving a match between the formal institutions of   governance and the culture of the society. </li></ul>
    29. 29. TASK 2 <ul><li>IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES </li></ul>
    30. 30. IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES <ul><li>Formalized decision rules and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Laws, rules, and procedures that get things done </li></ul><ul><li>Formalized rules and procedures   that serve to empower </li></ul>
    31. 31. IMPLEMENT STRATEGIC CHOICES <ul><li>Professional Financial, Personnel, and Record Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain close control over tribal finances </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and grievance procedures </li></ul>
    32. 32. TASK 3 <ul><li>ESTABLISH A POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT   THAT IS SAFE FOR DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>
    33. 33. ESTABLISH A POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT   SAFE FOR DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>With greater employment opportunities, people are more likely to stay </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty in tax and/or regulatory policy raises investors' risks </li></ul><ul><li>Example : insecurity   in the enforcement of contracts and agreements </li></ul>
    34. 34. TO SOLVE PROBLEM <ul><li>Who Controls What? The separation and limitation of powers </li></ul><ul><li>The separation of electoral politics from day-to-day management of   business </li></ul>
    35. 35. CHOOSING EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES  
    36. 36. ECONOMIC SYSTEM <ul><li>Federal control </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Private (Micro) Enterprise with Tribal Member Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Private Enterprise with Nontribal Member Control   </li></ul>
    37. 37. DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY <ul><li>  These projects range from chopstick factories to gambling casinos, from   hazardous waste facilities to resort hotels. </li></ul>
    38. 38. DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY <ul><li>Separate good opportunities from bad </li></ul><ul><li>Make wise and productive decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Basic governmental (constitutional) form </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory institutions </li></ul><ul><li>  Economic policies </li></ul>
    39. 39. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY <ul><li>Requires many ingredients — capital, skills,   resources, stable institutions, and attractive market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Informed, thoughtful policymaking </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty brings accountability and allows &quot;success&quot; </li></ul>
    40. 40. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The first is   sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The power to make decisions about your own future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second is institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively exercise sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition is difficult pass two tests :   adequacy &   appropriateness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The third factor is development strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing the economic policies   and specific development projects to pursue </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Some Myths about Aboriginal Workers <ul><li>They are rural </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers are small </li></ul><ul><li>They are uneducated </li></ul><ul><li>They are economically insignificant </li></ul>
    42. 42. Rural Myth Shattered Most are within one hour of urban centre!
    43. 43. Myth: First Nations population is small in numbers
    44. 44. Myth: Few First Nations people are educated
    45. 45. Myth: First Nations people have little purchasing power <ul><li>Tripled 91 to 96 </li></ul><ul><li>From $4.5B </li></ul><ul><li>to $11.35 B </li></ul><ul><li>Land claims – 25% of Canada total area </li></ul>
    46. 46. Changing First Nations Communities <ul><li>Traditional First Nations communities </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Agent </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty monies </li></ul><ul><li>Resource revenues perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>Little hands-on management </li></ul><ul><li>Over time this has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Band now seen as creator of jobs, equal business partner with non-aboriginal business </li></ul><ul><li>Need for competitive HR policies </li></ul><ul><li>Training of staff </li></ul>
    47. 47. The Challenge <ul><li>First Nation working age population of 600,000 </li></ul><ul><li>unemployment rate of 70% </li></ul><ul><li>Huge opportunities to create jobs to solve this problem </li></ul>
    48. 48. First Nations are perfectly positioned to replace retiring boomers
    49. 49. Success Story #1 <ul><li>The Alexis First Nation # 133 is located on the shores of Lac Ste. Anne, in Alberta. The Band has other reserve lands in Whitecourt, Cardinal River near Jasper National Park, and Elk River Crossing in the foothills of Jasper </li></ul>
    50. 50.               
    51. 51. Alexis Band Profile <ul><li>There are approximately 1400 Alexis Band Members, of which 800 members reside on reserve # 133. There are 600 members residing off reserve to pursue higher education or employment </li></ul><ul><li>There is a high youth population between the ages of 16 to 30, which comprises about 45% of our population </li></ul>
    52. 52. Mission Statement <ul><li>NCL was established to initiate the participation of the Nation within the Construction industry. Our company is mandated to pursue the principle of self-reliance by promoting the core values of our peoples and Nation. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that partnerships are integral to accomplishing our goal of building a profitable company, and pursue when feasible partnerships that benefit all parties involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Returning customers is our ultimate goal. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Nakoda Construction <ul><li>Oil field construction business in operation for 2 years. The business is run somewhat like a temp agency with 5 or 6 permanent employees and approximately 30 to 40 temporary finding work in the oil field for bands members. </li></ul><ul><li>The employee base is predominantly from Tsuu T’ina or Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation </li></ul>
    54. 54. Foreman (with 4x4 & cell) $500 Supervisor On Site $40 / hour Labour $35 / hour Environment Impact Liaison (with 4x4 pick up / cell) $300 Professional Fees $1,000 Meals, Incidentals, Travel $150 Subsistence $125 Day Rates
    55. 55. Nakoda <ul><li>Co does not discriminate so will certainly hire outside the band </li></ul><ul><li>Last year they made around $1.5 M and recently received a grant for equipment from INAC </li></ul><ul><li>www.alexisnakotasioux.com </li></ul>
    56. 56.
    57. 57. Aboriginal Tourism <ul><li>Model for development </li></ul>
    58. 58.
    59. 59. St Eugene Mission <ul><li>Near Cranbrook </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Sophie Pierre </li></ul><ul><li>Key is a partnership between a Hotel Chain, Delta, and the Ktunaxa Nation who had the location, valued heritage landmark, history and cultural features </li></ul>
    60. 60.
    61. 61.
    62. 62. <ul><li>The Ktunaxa Kinbasket Tribal Council has received approval for $3 million in federal funding for the redevelopment of the historic St. Eugene Mission, which will be a major component of a new $40.8 million international four-season resort in the Rockies. </li></ul><ul><li>Delta Hotels will build and operate a separate 125-room hotel, casino and conference centre slated to open in May 2002. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Deeper Meaning <ul><li>As we worked to finalize this project, we were continually guided by the vision of one of our elders, Mary Paul, who said in 1994 that it was within the St. Eugene Mission that the culture of the Kootenay Indian was taken away, and it should be within that building that it's returned . </li></ul>
    64. 64. Casino Magic
    65. 65. Casino Case Study <ul><li>You have been granted a Casino license </li></ul><ul><li>Who is going to manage it </li></ul><ul><li>Who is going to work it? </li></ul><ul><li>Take a couple minutes and write down what HR things you would have to do to get the Casino operating </li></ul>
    66. 66. Different Types of Development <ul><li>There are different types of development such as ( not in priority order): </li></ul><ul><li>Life Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Employability </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Market </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Building </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional </li></ul>
    67. 67. Summary <ul><li>Harvard Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Developmental Gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ingredients  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental Strategy </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>The Role of Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Basic Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing Effective Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Activity </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Information Sources <ul><li>http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/hpaied/pubs/pub_120.htm Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt </li></ul><ul><li>Boldt 1993 </li></ul>
    70. 70. Any questions? <ul><li>I would like to thank you for the opportunity to meet with you today </li></ul><ul><li>800 449 5866 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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