Addressing the needs of the aging workforce

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Why accommodating and responding to the needs of an aging workforce is more of an issue now than ever before
Understanding the needs and motivations of an aging workforce
What are the benefits of keeping an aging employee workforce
Designing an age-friendly workplace
Rethinking the work-life balance: strategies and programs for accommodating an aging workforce

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  • Source:http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2007/07/17/census-canada.html
  • Source: W Weir U Sask
  • Source: W Weir U Sask
  • Source: Virginia Galt, Globe and Mail May 23, 2007
  • Source:http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/07/17/census-canada.html (Anguera, 2005)
  • Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  • Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  • Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  • Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  • Source Seattle Times Ap 9 2008
  • Source: http://www.50plus.com/employment/new-technology-could-help-older-workers/161615/ accessed Aug 11, 2012
  • Things like, mobile medication alerts and injectable heart monitors could eventually allow our job sites to offer a standard of safety at the same level as a care facility.And within five years, workers should be able to wear biometric sensors no bigger than a band aid, that will allow doctors to work remotely to monitor a patient’s health.Fabio Feldman, a Canadian injury-prevention researcher, told Post Media that “this is the kind of thing that will allow people to work into their 70s and 80.”Another invention called Smart Canes, will allow real-time feedback on proper gait and alert a worker’s colleagues by text if a fall occurs.“It’s a floor that’s compliant enough to prevent injury in case of a fall, but hard enough that you can do normal activities on it,” noted Feldman.Initial tests show that it could reduce hip fractures up to 80 per cent.Older workers will also have the option of wearing a belt with built-in air bags that will deploy when the sensor detects a fall. Those with balance problems could wear them as part of their regular office wear.It’s all part of a vision of a future where employees and employers both take on more responsibility for the well being of the worker.Source: http://www.50plus.com/employment/new-technology-could-help-older-workers/161615/ accessed Aug 11, 2012
  • Source: http://www.50plus.com/employment/new-technology-could-help-older-workers/161615/ accessed Aug 11, 2012
  • Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  • Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  • Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  • Source: Adapted from “Occupational Safety and Health”, David Goetsch, Institute for Organizational Excellence. Accessed from the web Aug 15, 2012.
  • Source: Health, Work and Well-being: Where are we now and What is the Future Landscape? , Presentation by Dame Carol Black UK National Director forHealth and Work, Niagara on the Lake, 3 October 2011 Mastromatteo Oration
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • Source: adapted from “Diversity in Times of Austerity”, Janice Power, Senior Manager, National Recruitment, Symcor, Oct 22, 2010
  • http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=39503&name=DLFE-6307.pdf
  • Source: http://www.longevity-international.com/assets/National%20Strategy%20for%20an%20Ageing%20Australia.pdf
  • Source: http://www.longevity-international.com/assets/National%20Strategy%20for%20an%20Ageing%20Australia.pdf
  • Addressing the needs of the aging workforce

    1. 1. Addressing the Needs of an Aging Workforce Infonex Workshop Calgary 10:30 – 11:30 am Aug 22rd Chris Hylton, MA 403 264 5288 chris@hylton.ca CG Hylton 1
    2. 2. Introduction2  Chris Hylton, MA  HR& Benefits Background  Workshops  EAP  Getting older CG Hylton
    3. 3. “If you want one year of prosperity, grow grain. If you want ten years ofprosperity, grow trees. If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow people.” — Ancient Chinese Proverb 3
    4. 4. Learning Outcomes4 What we hope to achieve today:  Define what an aging workplace will look like  Identify what ers and governments can do  Identify possible challenges to becoming an er of choice for an aging workforce  See more graphs than you ever wanted to see CG Hylton
    5. 5. Agenda5  Why accommodating and responding to the needs of an aging workforce is more of an issue now than ever before  Understanding the needs and motivations of an aging workforce  What are the benefits of keeping an aging employee workforce  Designing an age-friendly workplace  Rethinking the work-life balance: strategies and programs for accommodating an aging workforce CG Hylton
    6. 6. This is your show6  Are there any issues you would like me to specifically address in the talk today? CG Hylton
    7. 7. Canada’s Population 1978, 2038experience promoting healthyaging* Projected population. Source: Statistics Canada. 7
    8. 8. Retirement Patterns Over Time: US Labor Force Participation Rate of Workers 65+, 1948-2007 Retirement Is Becoming Less Common30 25 Percent of Population 65+ 20 In the Labor Force 15 10 5 1948 1958 1968 1978 1989 19998 CG HyltonSource: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
    9. 9. US National Supply and Demand Projections for RNs 2,900 2,700 2,500 Projected shortage of over FTE’s (Thousands) 2,300 1,000,000 nurses 2,100 in 2020 1,900 1,700 1,500 2000 2005 2010 2015 20209 CG Hylton
    10. 10. INDIVIDUAL & POPULATION10 AGING  Life expectancy: Number of years the average person can expect to live  Has increased steadily in Canada during the 20th century  Canadians can also expect to live longer after age 65 than generations before them  Canadians born today can expect to live 20 years longer than if they had been born in 1920  Increased life expectancy into old age is distinguished from previous historical period  Never before in history did vast majority of people in a particular country expect to live to old age CG Hylton
    11. 11. LIFE EXPECTANCY INCANADA, 1920–2005 CG Hylton
    12. 12. CANADIAN POPULATION AGESTRUCTURE, 1851, 1901, 1951, 2006 CG Hylton
    13. 13. 13 Myth: Aboriginal population Is small in numbers
    14. 14. 14 Can someone tell be the difference between Saskatchewan and Alberta regarding proportion of seniors please? Where do you find the lowest ratio in Canada? CG Hylton
    15. 15. 15  Saskatchewan has the highest proportion of seniors (15.4 per cent) among the provinces  its neighbour to the west, Alberta, has the lowest (10.7 per cent)  Only about one in 20 people living in the Territories is a senior citizen CG Hylton
    16. 16. If I may digress, what else is16 special about SK? CG Hylton
    17. 17. Hint :17  It relates to this graph CG Hylton
    18. 18. Saskatchewan Population Pyramid, 1996 (%)18 65 + 55-64 Non-Aboriginal 45-54 35-44 25-34 20-24 15-19 10-14 Aboriginal 5-9 0-4 -10.0 -8.0 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
    19. 19. Saskatchewan Population 1995 to 2045 Percentage of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal People in SaskatchewanBy 2045, AboriginalPeople will make 100%up approximately Percent of Population 80% Non-ONE THIRD of SK Aboriginal 86.7population 60% 80.0 Aboriginal 67.5compared to 40%approximately one 20%tenth in 1995 32.5 13.3 20.0 0% 1995 2015 Year 2045 19
    20. 20. So how is this helpful to SK? CG Hylton20
    21. 21. Filling Vacancies: Four Ways We Will Avoid a Crisis21  Immigration Politics?  Automation Cost?  Outsourcing Feasible?  Retaining older workers who  Have skills and experience to get the job done  Need (and may want) to work CG Hylton
    22. 22. Older Workers Need to Work: Insufficient Savings22 50 40Percentage of Workers 30 20 10 0 1992-93 1996-97 2000 2007 Defined Contribution Defined Benefit CG HyltonSource: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
    23. 23. Older Workers Need to Work: Average Out of Pocket Costs for Health Care23 $1,600 Avg Annual Out of Pocket $1,400 Costs in US, 2003 $1,200 $1,000 $800 $600 $400 $200 $0 <18 19-64 65 Age Group CG Hylton
    24. 24. Older Workers Want to Work Top Three Reasons for Working During Retirement24 US 1. Need the money (61%) 2. A desire to stay mentally active (54%) 3. The need for health benefits (52%) CG Hylton
    25. 25. Replacement RatioUS Ratio of People 65+ to People 18-64, % 50 40 30 1 old / 2.5 young 20 10 1 old / 5 young 0 1960 1980 2000 2040 2060 208025 CG Hylton
    26. 26. Older workers a drain? Not a chance,Oxford study finds()  ―Meet the new tax gusher: the golden-age employee. Working Canadians between the ages of 60 and 79 contribute more than $2.2-billion each year in tax payments on employment income –  and there is every indication that the populous baby boom generation coming up behind them intends to stay even more connected to work, HSBC Bank Canada said issuing the results of a global survey conducted by Oxford Universitys Institute of Ageing…‖
    27. 27. In the past… During downturns employers targeted elderly workers in order to cut expenses Elderly people often faced job discrimination as they were expected to retire at age 65 Is this true today or in the future? Any comments please?
    28. 28. Old, older, oldest Young-old ( 65-74 ) are very active Middle-old ( 75-84 ) Old-old ( 85 + ) In U.S. in 2005, 70,000 centenarians Canada: 4,600 centenarians in 2007
    29. 29. Employer Solutions29 CG Hylton
    30. 30. Passing on Expertise30 Aerospace  Boeing has started a program to transfer older workers knowledge to the next generation.  And when an employee announces hed like to retire, "we ask them why," said Duane Schireman, director of human resources for Boeings 787 "Dreamliner" program.  Sometimes the person would like to keep working, just not 40 hours a week. On a case-by-case basis, Schireman said, managers and the employee explore such options as job sharing, telecommuting and contract work.  Boeing, in collaboration with other aerospace employers, also is trying to remove barriers that may force people into retirement before theyre really ready. CG Hylton
    31. 31. Nursing31  Group Health is addressing the issue after learning that 42 percent of its 890 registered nurses are age 55 or older.  To extend their careers, the health-care organization is offering nurses who are five years from retirement opportunities to mentor and teach, as well as do part-time work after retirement.  Its also making sure older nurses, who are at greater risk of injury on the job, have the best equipment for handling patients. CG Hylton
    32. 32. A gradual retirement -32 Weyerhaeuser  new delayed-retirement project, called Gray Matters, is grounded in research about the attitudes of its employees age 55 and over.  The vast majority say they want to work longer rather than completely retire.  But they want it all — a flexible schedule, health-care benefits and no negative financial impact  And they want the work to be meaningful. CG Hylton
    33. 33. A gradual retirement33  Gray Matters offers select ees opportunity to retire gradually, but they must average 25 hours of work a week in order to keep health benefits. The part- time work also shouldnt go on for too many years or it could negatively impact their pension.  theyre expected to create a plan to transfer knowledge and mentor younger workers.  The company also is participating in a talent bank, to be run by an outside firm, that will offer retirees a chance to work on a temporary basis. "What we all want as employers is the best talent we can have," said Hass, retirement educator at Weyerhaeuser. "And what we ought to recognize is that the best talent can come at any age." CG Hylton
    34. 34. Most Ers are Unprepared34  most unprepared or dont have the luxury of dealing with the aging work force, often because theyre embroiled in shorter-term economic crises  "Furthest from their minds is putting more money into retaining older workers because they dont even know what the business horizon is," said Valerie Paganelli, a Seattle- based retirement consulting actuary and researcher on aging workforce  "Still, they may well need, to in order to bridge CG Hylton their way to the next level of success"
    35. 35. Would you agree?35 CG Hylton
    36. 36. Adapting the Workplace36 CG Hylton
    37. 37. Smart Canes37  Another invention called Smart Canes, will allow real-time feedback on proper gait and alert a worker’s colleagues by text if a fall occurs.  ―It’s a floor that’s compliant enough to prevent injury in case of a fall, but hard enough that you can do normal activities on it,‖ noted Feldman.  Initial tests show that it could reduce hip fractures up to 80 per cent. CG Hylton
    38. 38. Adapting the workplace38  Falls are the leading cause of hospitalization due to injury for Canadians 65+  one in three expected to experience this life altering moment this year alone  offices with flexi-floors, when those falls do occur, special new ―bouncy floors‖ could reduce the risk of serious injury CG Hylton
    39. 39. Air bags39  Older workers will also have the option of wearing a belt with built-in air bags that will deploy when the sensor detects a fall  Those with balance problems could wear them as part of their regular office wear CG Hylton
    40. 40. The Work Environment  The spaces where we work affect how we age  We have control over how workplaces are designed  Work environment issues are aging issues  Physical demands of work  Lighting and vision  Cognitive demands of work  We can design age friendly workplaces CG Hylton40
    41. 41. ERGONOMIC PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Seated work with larger parts involves interacting with objects that may be too large to manipulate manually, associated with assembly & welding jobs. Problems are typically related to posture, illumination, reach, and lifting Use technology to lift & position the work for easy access that does not require bending, twisting & reaching. Use supplemental lighting. Use adjustable chairs/work surfaces
    42. 42. CUMULATIVE TRAUMADISORDERS (CTDS) Frequent and, for some, constant computer use has led to an explosion of injuries that until now were seen mostly in the meatpacking industry.  Collectively, these injuries are known as CTDs. CTD is an umbrella term covering injuries caused by forceful or awkward movements, repeated frequently over time.  CTDs occur to the muscles, nerves, and tendons of the hands, arms, shoulders, and neck.
    43. 43. CUMULATIVE TRAUMADISORDERS (CTDS) Overworking a tendon can cause small tears in it, which inflame and cause intense pain.  Known as tendinitis. Other forms of CTDs are shown at right.
    44. 44. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDS) Preventive strategies that can be applied:  Teach employees the warning signs.  Teach employees how to stretch.  Teach employees to start slowly.  Teach employees to limber up, then begin slowly and increase their pace gradually.  Teach employees to position their hands properly without using wrist splints.  Exercise regularly.  Select tools wisely.
    45. 45. Need for increased wellness45 prog  Why? CG Hylton
    46. 46. Physical health Proportion of population with one or more chronic diseases*, by selected age groups, Canada, 2009 Source: Statistics Canada. 46* Diseases include angina, asthma, arthritis or rheumatism, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, effects of a stroke, Crohn’s disease, colitis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cataracts, glaucoma, thyroid condition, mood disorder and anxiety disorder.
    47. 47. Mental health Projected prevalence of dementia in senior Canadians* by sex, Canada, 2008 to 2038 Source: Smetanin, P. et al. Rising Tide: The Impact of Dementia in Canada 2008 to 2038. 47 * The population over the age of 65 was simulated within the current model using data obtained from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.
    48. 48. Health Promotion Health promotion: Diabetes and Age  Prevention  Detection 20  Management % with Diabetes Promoting health 15 throughout life can prevent chronic disease 10 Promoting health can 5 lead to better disease management 0 18-44 45-64 65-74 75+ Health promotion can save you money Age Group CG Hylton48
    49. 49. Work & Life BalanceOlder Workers Preferences for the "Next Stage" It’s time to rethink how work and retirement function Flexible work options can benefit you and your aging workforce Phased retirement Cycle In and Out Part-Time programs are an Start a Business Work Full Time example Never Work Again Something Else Cliff vs phased CG Hylton49 pensions
    50. 50. Adjustments employers make for employees to stay in work Percentage of employers citing each Allowing reduced or different hours 29 Meetings with employees to discus extra help 28 Measures used in the Reducing employee workload 25last 12 months to help Different duties 22 keep employees with Extra breaks 18 health problems in Phased return to work 17work or facilitate their return to work: Different chairs/desks 11 Access to OH services 9 Other specialised equipment 5 Building modifications 4 Job coach/ personal assistant 3 No measures provided ---- No measures provided 67 Source: Employer Survey, DWP
    51. 51. The bottom line: case studies & wellness programsParcelforce (4,500 employees) Digital Outlook (27 employees)Introduced comprehensive Implemented a variety of wellbeing initiatives:wellbeing and health • 95% improvement in sickness absence rates:programmes: 4 days per year in 2006 down to 0.22 days in 2008 • Sickness absence reduced by one • Reduced staff turnover from 34% third, saving £55m in 2007 to 9% in 2008 making • Compensation claims savings in recruitment and reduced by two thirds, saving training costs £1m British Gas (25,600 employees) • Productivity increased by Implemented back care workshops: 12.5% • Back-related absence reduced by 43% • Overall: £2.25m investment • 58% of staff improved their attendance yielded £6m in direct cost savings • Return on investment was £31 for every £1 spent
    52. 52. How does diversity fit into theaging Workforce? 53
    53. 53. Symcor Facts … Approximately 7,000 EMPLOYEES who serve over 100 CUSTOMERS • Located at over 30 sites across North America • Processes over THREE BILLION CHEQUES annually • Vancouver, BC Produces nearly 675 MILLION 1 site Calgary, AB Winnipeg, MB STATEMENTS annually 2 sites 1 site Montreal, QC • Halifax, NS 2 sites 2 sites Receives and processes over 197 Toronto, ON 6 sites MILLION Rutherford, NJ CUSTOMER PAYMENTS annually Chicago, IL 1 site 1 site Baltimore, MD • 1 site Manages over 8,600 LOCKBOX Nashville, TN Richmond, VA 1 site accountsLos Angeles, CA 1 site Durham, NC • 1 site Memphis, TN 1 site 1 site Charlotte, NC 2 sites Atlanta, GA Dallas, TX 2 sites Orlando, FL 1 site 2 sites Miami, FL 1 site 54
    54. 54. Diversity in Times of Austerity―…In a time of belt tightening, the optimal use of resources is not just an asset but a question of survival. In this respect, employment equity becomes a powerful tool for management (and marketing) giving a strategic advantage to businesses that uphold its principles.‖Canadian National Employment Equity Annual Report, 1996 55
    55. 55. Why invest in hiring a diverse workforce? According to Human Resource and Skills Development Canada, by the year 2016, approximately two-thirds of the Canadian population aged 15 to 64 will be made up of members from the designated groups. Members of designated groups make up a great pool of skills and talents that organizations must have access to succeed in competitive, knowledge-based market Hiring employees from diverse backgrounds broadens the base of qualified individuals for employment. 56
    56. 56. Why invest in hiring a diverseworkforce? A good track record from a diversity perspective can build upon itself, ensuring organizations continue to have the opportunity to hire the best and most qualified candidates. A commitment to equity and diversity in the workplace can help reduce turnover as employees have a greater allegiance with, and affinity to, a work environment where they feel respected and valued. By increasing the wide array of perspectives resulting from diversity an organization becomes more creative, flexible and productive 57
    57. 57. Why invest in hiring a diverseworkforce? With the aging of the Canadian population during the next 20 years as the baby boom generation retires, we will need to fully engage all Canadians of working age in the workforce because the gradual future retirement of the baby boomers will not be fully replaced by the smaller number of boom-echo kids participating in the workforce. A growing economy in the period ahead will require full realization of the untapped potential of Canadians of working age 58
    58. 58. How to Manage a DiverseWorkforce Raise Awareness of the value of diversity among your staff and promote it Treat everyone as individuals Look for opportunities to learn Set aside time for team interaction during regular meetings Regularly assess your environment Address concurs immediately Implement diversity management training Implement work/life balance programs 59
    59. 59. Accommodation Symcor will accommodate those who require it in a manner which respects their dignity, is equitable, and enhances their ability to compete for jobs, perform their work, and fully participate in employment at Symcor Symcor works to achieve a workplace free of barriers by providing accommodation for those requiring it, in accordance with human rights legislation, up to the point where it causes undue hardship for Symcor 60
    60. 60. Hiring and Recruitment Symcor regularly reviews its recruitment and hiring policies and practices to ensure that there are no systemic barriers resulting in discrimination. Symcor ensures the action steps set out in the employment equity plan are being taken. Symcor ensures that reasonable efforts are being made to reach anyunderrepresented groupsin our recruitment process. 61
    61. 61. Government Incentives62 CG Hylton
    62. 62. Reduced social security contributionsSpain – er contributions reduced for workers aged 60+ who have five years of seniority and for newly hired workers aged 45+Norway – er contributions reduced by 4 percentage points (i.e. from 12.8% to 8.8%) for all older workers aged 62+Italy – employers exempt from contributions for one year after hiring older workersAllocating time to train► Right to train (France) – for ees with over 12 mos’ service, credit of 20 hours per year worked► Employer Training Pilots (UK) – wage boost (up to 150%) to ers offering paid time off for low-skilled ees so they may train
    63. 63. Pension Changes Internationalexamples ► Finland: the part-time pension entitles workers aged 56 and over to 50% of the income loss due to a reduction in working time, paid through the pension system. to improve employment opportunities. ► Sweden: workers are permitted to draw a portion of their pension early while still working
    64. 64. Finland wins award Ministry of Social Affairs - Forum65 for Well-Being at Work  the health and safety of work,  the employees’ physical, psychological and social well- being  the meaningfulness of work  control of exposure and strain  development of occupational health care and rehabilitation  the reconciliation of work and leisure  the role of occupational health and safety at work as a productive  the impact of work as a factor promoting health  dissemination of best practices Hylton CG
    65. 65. National Strategy for an Ageing Australia – to promote awareness of ageing, advise on66 short-and long-term policy. Ongoing engagement of mature age workers will be important to achieve sustained economic growth as the population ages. While targeted programs to encourage young skilled migrants to come to Australia may have some impact on the size of the workforce, increased large scale immigration is not the answer to Australia’s ageing society CG Hylton
    66. 66. National Strategy for an Ageing67 Australia  Improved opportunities for ongoing training and professional development of mature age workers as well as more flexible working conditions to facilitate gradual transition from work to retirement will need to be accommodated as the workforce ages.  Mature age workers displaced from the workforce will continue to need to be supported through the employment and income support systems. CG Hylton
    67. 67. Life Satisfaction by Age and Sex, Personal Alberta, 2004 Wellness by Age and Sex, Alberta, 2004Proportion indicating Satisfied or Very Satisfied 1.0 Scale 1 (Life in general, self job, leisure, finances, appearance) 0.8 By all means marry: If you get a good spouse, youll 0.6 become happy; if you get a bad one, youll 0.4 become a philosopher. – Socrates 0.2 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 9 + -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4 -4 -5 -5 -6 -6 -7 -7 -8 -8 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 Age Group Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2004
    68. 68. Summary69 CG Hylton
    69. 69. You have been a wonderful70 audience  If I may assist you in any way please let me know. CG Hylton
    70. 70. Our offer to you71  Please call if you have any HR, or workplace issue that you are overwhelmed with  We can help you  We also are pleased to do Free Workshops for your organization (some limits apply) Let us know what your needs are and we will make it happen!
    71. 71. CG Hylton - Services HR Consulting  Benefits, Pensions, Job Descriptions EAP  Strategic Planning Salary Grids  Drug and Alcohol Wellness at Work programs Staff Morale  Dept re-orgs Training and  Leadership Workshops compensation Tel 403 264 5288 chris@hylton.ca 72
    72. 72. Thank you for the opportunity to meet today!  HR Consulting  Training  Benefits, Pen sions  EAP tel 403 264 5288 chris@hylton.ca CG Hylton 73
    73. 73. References74  Chief Public Health Officer’s Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2010 Growing Older – Adding Life to Years http://www.publichealth.gc.ca/CPHOreport  http://www.agefriendlyworkplace.org/links.html  Leibold, M., & Voelpel, S. (2006). Managing the Aging Workforce. Germany: Wiley-VCH  Rothwell, W.J., Sterns, H.L., Spokus, D.& Reaser, J. (2008). Working Longer. New York: AMACOM  Hedge, J., Borman, W., & Lammlein, S. (2006). The Aging Workforce. Washington DC: The American Psychological Association  http://www.wcb.ab.ca/pdfs/workers/c060_with_instructions.pdf CG Hylton

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