THE BAROQUE MUSICOriginal in Spanish by PAOLA OLIVA CASTRO Translation by CRISTINA MARTÍNEZ PECES
HISTORICAL CONTEXT• The Baroque music begins in 1600 (birth of the opera) and ends with the death of J.S. Bach (1750).• The word “Baroque” was a derogatory term that meant “irregular pearl”.
SOCIETY• The bourgeoisie continued to gain importance in the cities.• The absolute monarchy is the most widespread form of government in Europe. The king is the chief of state and doesn’t have to be accountable to anyone in his decisions.• The music served the biggest European monarchies, the aristocrats and the Church, that used it as a demonstration of their power.• The role of a musician is reduced to a servant of his patron.
ARTThe Baroque is characterized by: manyadornment, movement, contrast and“horror vacui” (fear of empty space). • In painting the Baroque artists achieve perfection: Velázquez manages to paint moving air and Europe surrenders to Rembrandt. • In architecture they abandon the straight line, prevailing the curved lines. • In sculpture, they search the movement and continue with the religious theme.
DISCOVER HOW IT SOUNDSa) This music uses the basso continuo (or figured bass) that is a support of chords to the melody where an instrument (generally the harpsichord) produces these chords in a constant manner. This results in a new texture: the melody with accompaniment. Therefore, which of these fragments are Baroque? 1st fragment................. 2nd fragment............... 3rd fragment................b) The rhythm is mechanic without hardly any alterations to the pulse. According to this,whic of these pieces are Baroque? 1st fragment................. 2nd fragment............... 3rd fragment................c) Utilization of the concertato style, that consists of contrasting distinct sound masses. You are going to hear two examples of this characteristic. 1. In this example, say what instruments form the smallest group. * Violín, flute and harpsichord * Trumpet, oboe and harpsichord 2. In this example, say how the two sound masses are composed. * Large group: mixed choir / masculine choir * Small group: Countertenor + woodwinds / soprano + violin
DISCOVER HOW IT SOUNDSd) Its a very decorated music. Consequently, listen to these fragments and mark those that are baroque. 1st fragment................. 2nd fragment............... 3rd fragment................e) It uses terraced dynamics, that is, the changes of the intensity are produced suddenly and not progressively. Mark the correct answer for every fragment: 1) Baroque / Not Baroque 2) Baroque / Not Baroque 3) Baroque / Not Baroquef) It consolidates the concept of tonality, that is to say, a system where there is a predominance of some sounds compared to others inside the same scale. Say which of the following works are tonal. 1st fragment.......... 2nd fragment........... 3rd fragment.......... 4th fragment...........
THE INSTRUMENTS IN THE BAROQUE• From 1600, instrumental music is as important as vocal music.• Many of the Renaissance instruments stopped being used, others were improved. The new ones are the family of violin, the harpsichord, the oboe, the bassoon and the timpani.
THE BAROQUE INSTRUMENTS Harpsichord Bassoon Violin Oboe Organ Timpani
THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA• The concept of orchestra appears now, and It isnt a set of instruments together by chance, but a group designed, where the strings will soon be the dominant family of the whole.• Compared with a modern orchestra, the baroque orchestra is small and of variable composition, but already includes the sections of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion. There is still no conductor.• Say which of the following orchestras are Baroque and which aren’t, according to their sound. 1: 2: 3: 4:
Vocal music The OPERA is born in Italy PROFANE RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC In Germany The CANTATA ZARZUELA ORATORY is born in Spain PASSION
VOCAL MUSIC LISTENING EXERCISE “La Serva Padrona”, by G.B. PERGOLESIRECITATIVE: it is a mixture between reciting and singing, with accompaniment of figured bass (recitativo secco) or orchestra (recitativo acompagnato)ARIA: it is a solo or duet part, where the singers show off their talent.1. In the first fragment, which voices are singing? a) A soprano and a baritone b) A soprano and a bass2. What instruments are accompaning the voices? Select them : CELLO – TRUMPET – VIOLIN – HARPSICHORD – BASSOON - FLUTE3. In the second fragment, ¿who is singing, a soprano or a contralto?4. What instruments accompany the singer? a) Haprsichord + wind b) Strings orchestra c) Harpsichord + strings orchestra5. What have we first listened to: the recitative or the aria?
Instrumental MusicSUITE:It’s a group of dances with different character. The more frequent dances are:allemande, polonaise, sarabande, minuet, bourré, etc.FUGUE:It is a form in counterpoint style: a theme is exposed by one of the voices andimitated later by the other voices.CONCERTO:Concerto grosso: when the contrast is produced between a group of soloists(concertino) and the rest of the orchestra (tutti).Solo concerto: when only one soloist contrasts with the orchestra
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC LISTENING EXERCISE “Brandenburg Concert No. 2 (Allegro)” by J.S. BACH 1. What kind of concert is this composition? a) Solo concerto b) Concerto grosso 2. In general, wehat texture predominates? a) Conunterpoint b) Monophony c) Homophony 3. What instruments form the concertino? - Harpsichord, doublebass, viola and cello. - Violin, oboe, flute and trumpet. - Clarinet, violin, cello and harpsichord. 4. What instruments is the figured bass played by? a) Harpsichord and double bass b) Harpsichord and violin 5. Which instruments families form the tutti? ……………………… 6. How is the dynamics in this composition? a) Gradual b) Terraced
• The contents in this presentation have only a didactic nature.• The images have been obtained using the Google searcher or specialized webpages.• If you have any problem with the copyright of the elements included here, please contact me and they will be deleted.• Of course, this presentation can be used by any intererested person, provided that it will be with pedagogical purposes. Cristina Martínez Peces Music teacher in IES Rafael Alberti, Cádiz, Spain