HISTORICAL CONTEXT• The Classical period in music begins with the death of J. S. Bach in 1750 and ends in 1827, approximately, with the death of Beethoven.• In music, this era is understood as the time of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. It coincides with the so-called Neo-Classicism in the other arts.• A great cultural movement, the Enlightenment, promotes the ideal of equality and prosperity for everyone through education.
SOCIETY• Absolute monarchy is giving way to Enlightened Despotism ("Everything for the people but without the people").• There is a process of popularization of art and education. Naturally, this amateur audience demands and buys an easy to understand and play music.• REASON is the tool that will change the world, and will guide humanity.• The break with the Old Regime comes with the French Revolution (1789).
ARTClassicism (Neo-Classicism in the otherarts) is balance, moderation andserenity.• Architecture returns to the straight line and gives up unnecessary adornments.• In sculpture, they look for models of the classical antiquity.• In painting, sculptural models predominate, and drawing is more important than color.
DISCOVER HOW IT SOUNDSa) The melodies are not as ornamented as in the Baroque. They are based on simplicity, elegance and clarity and structured in symmetrical phrases, organized into two parts (question and answer). They are usually easy to remember.b) The gradual dynamic appears, with many crescendos and diminuendos which are combined with sudden changes.c) The rhythm is regular, but not mechanic, looking for making easier the musical phrasing.d) The predominant textures are homorhythmic and melody with accompaniment.
INSTRUMENTS• Instrumental music becomes more and more important.• As the figured bass disappears, the harpsichord is abandoned. A new key instrument that will become very important, comes up: the piano.• Another new instrument comes into fashion: the clarinet.• The french horn now takes on more importance.
THE CLASSICAL ORCHESTRA• There is an enlargement in the orchestra, especially in the strings family, which is composed of the same instruments, but increases their number.• Compared to a current orchestra, the classical orchestra would have half the components, but for that time, was awesome.
Vocal Music SERIOUS VOCAL PROFANE CLASSICAL MUSIC OPERA BUFFA RELIGIOUS MASSREQUIEMORATORIO
COMPARISON between BAROQUE and CLASSICAL OPERABaroque Opera Classical Opera• Solemnity. • Sense of humor.• Musical virtuosity. • Musical and scenical• Boring plots. simplicity.• Stereotyped characters. • Entertaining plots.• Intended for the • Close and believable aristocracy and nobility characters. • Intended for the bourgeois audience.
Instrumental Music SONATAFor 1 to 3 instruments For an orchestra For soloist and orchestra For 4 instruments SONATA SYMPHONY CONCERTO QUARTETThe sonata is a form that appears in the classical period and has 3 parts:Exposition - Development - Recapitulation and 2 themes, A and B. These2 themes in the Exposition "are presented", in the Development "arevaried", and in the Recapitulation "say goodbye".
COMPOSERS Haydn Mozart Beethoven -41 symphonies -9 symphonies-104 symphonies -18 piano sonatas -32 piano sonatas-60 piano sonatas - Some String quartets - Some String quartets-68 string quartets -21 piano concertos -5 piano concertos- Some masses and - Some masses and religious - Some masses and religiousoratories music music-25 operas (10 lost ) -20 operas -1 opera : “Fidelio”
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