Nervous system


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Nervous system

  1. 1. Nervous system<br />Anesthesia vs. analgesia<br />
  2. 2. Definitions<br />Analgesia is absence of sensibility to pain, particularly the relief of pain without loss of consciousness; absence of pain or noxious stimulation.<br />Anesthesia is total or partial loss of sensation to touch or pain, caused by nerve injury or disease, or induced intentionally, especially by the administration of anesthetic drugs, to provide medical treatment.<br />
  3. 3. Forms of Analgesia<br />Continuous epidural analgesiacontinuous injection of an anesthetic solution into the sacral and lumbar plexuses within the epidural space to relieve the pain of childbirth, in general surgery to block the pain pathways below the navel, or to relieve chronic unremitting pain.<br />Epidural analgesiainduced by introduction of the analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal.<br />Infiltration analgesiainfiltration anesthesia.<br />Patient controlled analgesia(PCA) an apparatus used to relieve acute pain. It consists of a pump attached to an intravenous or subcutaneous injection site and filled with multiple doses of medication that are available when the system is activated by the patient. The pump is programmed to “lock-out” the patient for specified intervals making overdosage unlikely.<br />Patient controlled epidural analgesiapatient controlled analgesia in which a narcotic or local anesthetic is administered into the epidural space via a catheter.<br />Relative analgesiain dental anesthesia, a maintained level of conscious sedation short of general anesthesia, usually induced by inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen.<br />Transdermal analgesiaa method of pain control in which a patch with a rate-controlling membrane is applied to the skin; the medication is deposited in the upper layers of the skin where it is absorbed into the systemic circulation.<br />
  4. 4. PCA<br />Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) has become an acceptable and highly effective means of relieving post-operative pain. PCA is a medication-dispensing unit equipped with a pump attached to an intravenous line, which is inserted into a blood vessel in the patient's hand or arm. By means of a simple push button mechanism, the patient is allowed to self-administer doses of pain relieving medication (narcotic) on an 'as need' basis. <br />
  5. 5. Analgesics<br />An analgesic (also known as a painkiller) is any member of the group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia)<br />Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems; they include paracetamol (para-acetylaminophenol, also known in the US as acetaminophen), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and opium. They are distinct from anesthetics, which reversibly eliminate sensation.<br />
  6. 6. Types of anesthesia<br />Types of anesthesia include local anesthesia, regional anesthesia, general anesthesia, and dissociative anesthesia!<br />
  7. 7. Types of anesthesia<br />Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress.<br />Very common for caesarian sections!<br />Regional anesthesia (or regional anesthesia) is anesthesia affecting only a large part of the body, such as a limb or the lower half of the body!<br />Allows surgical operation, or provide post-operative pain relief. Various brachial plexus blocks exist for shoulder and arm procedures. Methods similar to routine regional anesthetic techniques are also often used for treating chronic pain.<br />In labor and childbirth, epidural or combined spinal epidurals provide effective pain relief. Regional anesthesia is now more common than general anesthesia for caesarian section procedures.<br />
  8. 8. Types of anesthesia<br />General anesthesia is a state of unconsciousness and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anesthetic agents. <br />Among the most widely used injectable drugs are:<br />Propofol<br />Etomidate<br />Barbiturates such as methohexital and thiopentone/thiopental<br />Benzodiazepine such as midazolam<br />Ketamine<br />Dissociative anesthesia is a unique anesthesia characterized by analgesia and amnesia with minimal effect on respiratory function. The patient does not appear to be anesthetized and can swallow and open eyes but does not process information. This form of anesthesia may be used to provide analgesia during brief, superficial operative procedures or diagnostic processes. Ketamine hydrochloride is a phencyclidine derivative used to induce dissociative anesthesia. Ketamine is used for trauma patients with very unstable, low blood pressure or for elderly patients. Emergence may be accompanied by delirium, excitement, disorientation, and confusion. <br />
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  10. 10. The real effective anesthesia!<br />