D E C E M B E RF L I G H T                      2 0 0 5A I R W O R T H I N E S SS U P P O R TT E C H N O L O G Y          ...
Customer ServicesJust happened                                          Coming soon                                       ...
D   E      C      E       M     B     E     R           2     0   0   5                                                   ...
SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES                                        ...
SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES                                        ...
SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES                                        ...
AIRBUS CABIN AIR QUALITY - STILL THE BEST!                                                                                ...
AIRBUS CABIN AIR QUALITY - STILL THE BEST!                                                                                ...
EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION                                                                   ...
EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION                                                                   ...
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Fast37
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Fast37

891
-1

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
891
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fast37

  1. 1. D E C E M B E RF L I G H T 2 0 0 5A I R W O R T H I N E S SS U P P O R TT E C H N O L O G Y 37ENIZAGAMLACINHCETSUBRIA73TSAF
  2. 2. Customer ServicesJust happened Coming soon eventsHUMAN FACTORS SYMPOSIUM SPARES, SUPPLIERS & WARRANTYIN MADRID, SPAIN, 28-30 NOVEMBER REGIONAL SYMPOSIUMAirbus continued the dialogue with its operators at IN ATHENS, 13-16 FEBRUARY 2006this forum, discussing human factors aspects with Following the Airbus Spares, Suppliers andpractical and operational perspectives on: Warranty symposium in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico• Flight operations (environmental, safety, pure for operators in the Americas, and in Sanya, ops e.g. procedures, philosophy, systems) China, for Chinese operators, it is now the turn of• Maintenance (safety, CRM, organization, proce- Europe and Africa. A Spares, Suppliers & dures, manuals) Warranty regional symposium will be held in• Cabin operations (safety, CRM, organization, Athens, Greece, from the 13th to the 16th of procedures, mass travel, medical aspects) February 2006 bringing together Airbus cus-• Training (to flight operations, maintenance, tomers, operators and suppliers. Its objective is to cabin operations, to human factors) review together strategic directions, operational• ATC (environmental, safety, pure operations e.g. support issues and current spares and warranty procedures, philosophy, systems) services. Operators will be given the opportunity to express their requirements and share their expe-A300/A310 FAMILY TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM rience. Major suppliers will also have the opportu-IN LISBON, PORTUGAL, 14-18 NOVEMBER nity to present their support and services strategy.A landmark event occurred at this symposium, A330/A340 FAMILY TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUMwith the first formal presentation to operators of IN SUN CITY, SOUTH AFRICA, 28 MAY-2 JUNE 2006the Airbus initiatives to ensure Long Term Support Airbus is pleased to announce the date and loca-of the A300/A310 Family. The objective of this ini- tion of the next A330/A340 Technical Symposium.tiative is to ensure equivalent levels of operator The Symposium is the opportunity to reviewsatisfaction for A300/A310 operators as for any actual in-service experience with the A330/A340other Airbus programme through to the last air- Family of aircraft as well as to discuss subjects ofcraft being in-service (up to year 2050). Clearly more general technical interest.the enhanced support foreseen for the A380 will A provisional agenda will be sent in February 2006.set the satisfaction benchmark, and for theA300/A310 Family other considerations that affectthe level of service include the low rate of produc-tion (can affect spares availability) and the even-tual closure of the final assembly line, which mustbe anticipated. The operators at the symposiumexpressed their view that their expectations for thefuture had been met (61%) or exceeded (39%) inthis respect.The symposium discussion otherwise coveredvarious technical, maintenance and support issuesand 100 participants from 36 operators were pres-ent, including all of the largest A300/A310 opera-tors. 67% of the operator respondents consideredthe event very useful and 33% useful.
  3. 3. D E C E M B E R 2 0 0 5 37 E N I Z A G A MF L I G H T LA I R W O R T H I N E S S A CS U P P O R T IT E C H N O L O G Y N J U L Y 2 0 0 5 H C Safety initiatives in Customer Services 2 E An overview of Airbus safety initiatives T Michel Trémaud S Airbus cabin air quality 7 Still the best! U Claire Nurcombe B R The European Aviation Safety Agency 11 A new regulatory authority for European aviation I Claude Schmitt A Engine noise reduction programme 19 Cover:A380 MSN004 at Frankfurt airport during its check exercise, see article on page 23. Making aircraft engines better neighbours Stephen Montgomery Publisher: Bruno Piquet Editor: Kenneth Johnson Graphic Designer: Agnès Massol-Lacombe A380 23 Airport ready Authorization for reprint of FAST articles should be requested from the editor at the FAST e-mail address given below Thomas Burger Customer Services Communications Thilo Stilp Tel: +33 (0)5 61 93 43 88 Fax: +33 (0)5 61 93 47 73 E-mail: fast.magazine@airbus.com Airbus Training Airport 28 Printer Escourbiac A virtual airport for pilot training Kheireddine Belguedj FAST may be read on Internet http://www.content.airbusworld.com/SITES/Customer_services/index.html Bernard Benetti under Customer Services/Publications ISSN 1293-5476 Countering jet fuel price increases 32 Guidance on fuel saving Airbus Customer Services Simon Weselby Frédéric Desgeorge © AIRBUS S.A.S. 2005. All rights reserved No other intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this Magazine than the right to read it, for the sole purpose of information. This Magazine and its content shall not be modified and its images shall not be reproduced without prior written consent of Airbus. Giants of the skies, past and present 36 This Magazine and the material it contains shall not, in whole or in part, be sold, rented, distributed or licensed to any third party. The information contained in this Magazine may vary over time because of future factors that may affect the accuracy of information herein. Airbus assumes no Customer Services obligation to update any information contained in this Magazine. When additional information is required, Airbus S.A.S. can be contacted to provide further details. Airbus, its logo and product Around the clock... Around the world 37 names are registered trademarks. Airbus S.A.S. shall assume no liability for any damage in connection with the use of this Magazine and of the materials it contains, even if Airbus S.A.S. has been advised of the likelihood of such damages Photographs: This issue of FAST has been printed on paper exm company: Hervé Goussé and Philippe Masclet produced without using chlorine, to reduce FAST37 Airbus France: Julie Pomery waste and help conserve natural resources. Cover page: Julie Pomery Every little helps! 1
  4. 4. SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES Continued implement safety enhancements in terms of Design, Operations (i.e. airworthiness and procedures) and Training. operational safety Safety enhancement efforts address equally flight operations, Operators and Maintenance, cabin operations and mainte- Repair and Overhaul (MRO) orga- nance. The lessons-learned nizations are required to report to derived from this process are their national authorities in-service blended with the conclusions and occurrences defined by their coun- recommendations from industry trys mandatory occurrence report- working groups in order to devel- ing (MOR) scheme. It is essential op and publish safety-awareness that such in-service occurrences information in various media. are also reported to Airbus, docu- mented, analysed and understood in order to prevent the reoccur- Attaining and rence of known types of events and maintaining safe the occurrence of potential events. Indeed, this prevention process and profitable includes both a reactive part and a operations Safety initiatives proactive part. For effective identification of Support to operators in attaining and maintaining safe and prof- events precursors (also referred itable operations has been the in Customer Services to as weak signals), the proactive part also includes the analysis of observations made by operators charter of Airbus Customer Services since the entry-into- service of the first A300 aircraft An overview of Airbus in the frame of their flight opera- tions monitoring programme (i.e. back in 1975. However, the indus- try has greatly evolved and Airbus initial operators base of flag carri- safety initiatives incidents and human factors reports, flight data analysis and line observations). ers has been enriched with charter operators and, more recently, low- cost carriers and corporate flight The operational, technical and departments. human factors analysis of in- As an aircraft manufacturer, the prime duty of Since 2003, Airbus Customer Services has service experience feedback The leased-aircraft concept has Airbus in terms of safety is two-fold: deployed a yearly portfolio of safety initiatives enables Airbus to continuously been an enabler in this market • Ensure the continued airworthiness and that address all aspects of Airbuss internal core identify lessons-learned and evolution and has created a new operational safety of the Airbus fleet, activities and all domains of an airlines operation. • Support Airbus operators in attaining and maintaining a safe and profitable operation. This article provides an overview of this portfolio Airbus Flight Operations Briefing of safety initiatives to encourage operators and Notes, an example of Airbus The former represents the manufacturers regula- other actors to take full advantage of these safety safety-awareness publications tory obligation, as Airbus is the holder of a design enhancement opportunities. and production operational approval. The latter reflects Airbuss commitment, as a customer services organization, to operators of Airbus aircraft. Michel Trémaud Senior Director Airbus Customer Services Head of Safety ManagementFAST 37 FAST 37 2 3
  5. 5. SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES framework of relationships bet- . Company safety management To further ease the dissemination The above set of safety initiatives ween Airbus, its customers (i.e. the system (SMS), and understanding of complex are intended for the various users leasing companies) and the aircraft . Fleet upgrade and subjects by all stakeholders, some of Airbus products and their 1 operators. The traffic growth in standardization, of the above safety awareness instructors, but would not be com- fast-developing geo-economic . English proficiency training. publications have been translated plete if Airbus were not involved regions has been an additional into the Chinese and Russian upstream in the basic education driver in the evolution of Airbus languages. and training of future Airbus pilots, support to its aircraft operators. Safety flight attendants and maintenance awareness Training and mechanics. Therefore, cooperation Today, Airbus Customer Services programmes with state technical offers a wide range of support and Safety management is a mindset; education universities, flight academies and 2 services to further enhance operat- safety readiness is a matter of flying colleges have been devel- ing safety. This support is both awareness… being aware to be Maintaining the link with operators oped in China and North America, direct (i.e., working with operators) mentally prepared. Over the past after their type qualification, in one while similar programmes are cur- and indirect (i.e., working with years, Airbus Customer Services of the Airbus Training centres, is an rently being developed in Russia, national civil aviation authorities, has developed a wide array of important element of Airbus safety Ukraine, India, South Africa and training organizations, MRO cen- safety awareness publications on awareness strategy. In 2004, Airbus Australia. tres, international safety organiza- various media: created the concept of regional tions…) and spans the following • Getting to Grips with Airline Instructors Seminars to pro- The objective of these programmes basic elements of a safe operation: brochures that today cover 19 mote the continued exchange of is to provide students and cadets 3 • Regulations, flight operations themes, teaching and safety information with early exposure to modern • Regulatory oversight by including cabin safety, between Airbus instructors and air- technology systems and flight national authorities, • Flight Operations Briefing line instructors. The following is the decks, by providing education and • Operators regulatory Notes, published on a monthly regional coverage achieved by these training organizations with: compliance and best practices: basis in the Airbus Safety seminars in 2004 and 2005, and • Technical documentation and . General organization, Library, planned for 2006: safety awareness publications, . Flight operations organization (http://www.airbus.com/en/ • 2004: Taipei, Mumbai, Beijing, • Courseware, (including flight operations corporate/ethics/safety_lib/) • 2005: Miami, Moscow, Hanoi, • Training devices. 4 monitoring process), and in a yearly collector box • 2006: Bangalore, Tunis, Beijing, . Maintenance/engineering • E-Briefings, available on the plus locations to be selected in organization including Flight Operations Community the Middle East, Asia and South International maintenance best practices, of the new airbusworld.com America. safety cooperation spares provisioning and customer portal, Flight Operations Briefing Notes ground support (http://www.airbusworld.com/) Acknowledging the requests of Airbus Customer Services is also collector box, brochure ‘Getting to equipment/tools, • Videos and CDs. operators, the initial concept that further involved in the develop- Airbus Training centres in Grips’ in Chinese and Russian focused on flight operations has ment of workshops and seminars 1. Beijing languages, safety-awareness tutorials 2. Hamburg been extended to maintenance that are deployed in the context of 3. Miami and courseware on CDs. from the last seminar in Hanoi. regional safety cooperation pro- 4. Toulouse grammes funded or led by the Airbus Safety Library home page European Union, the International hosted on the Airbus corporate Civil Aviation Organization website (ICAO) and Airbus. E-Briefings, a new interactive safety-awareness publicationFAST 37 FAST 37 4 5
  6. 6. SAFETY INITIATIVES IN CUSTOMER SERVICES - AN OVERVIEW OF AIRBUS SAFETY INITIATIVES AIRBUS CABIN AIR QUALITY - STILL THE BEST! The scope of these workshops and • Cabin operations seminars are defined to respond to . Cabin safety (see brochure regional needs and priorities. ‘getting to grips with Cabin As described below, they address a Safety’ below). large cross-section of themes identified as causal or contributing factors in incidents and accidents: • Company safety management . Incident/accident prevention, . Safety Management System (SMS). • Flight operations . Preventing Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT), . Approach and Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR), . Flight operations safety awareness (CFIT, ALAR, runway incursions, altitude deviations/level busts, Airbus cabin fire/smoke/fumes in cockpit/cabin, weather avoidance, …), . Flight Operations Monitoring • Maintenance/Engineering air quality (FOM), . Structural integrity/ . Understanding and use of the maintenance of aging aircraft Minimum Equipment List structures, (MEL). . Maintenance of electrical, wiring and interconnections, . Maintenance human factors. Still the best! Installation 72% Maintenance human factors: understanding Servicing 9% and managing human errors Job set-up preparation 3% Frequent flyers experience it regularly, flight After carrying out air quality analyses (see Test 2% attendants and cockpit crew complain about it, but FAST 20 December 1996 Airbus Cabin Air Human movement 2% up until now nothing was done about it - that Quality - Only the Best!) and discovering that air smell coming from the exhausts of aircraft in front quality was worst during ground phases due to Removal 1% of you in the taxi queue waiting to take off. The the influence of external pollution, Airbus decid- Others 11% major odour causing compounds in exhaust gases ed to concentrate on finding an answer to these CONTACT DETAILS and fuels are from the family of compounds complaints. Michel Trémaud known as VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and Senior Director they can really spoil that holiday feeling. Airbus Customer Services Head of Safety Management Tel: +33 (0)5 61 93 30 04 Fax: + (33) (0) 5 67 19 12 24 Conclusion michel.tremaud@airbus.com An accident investigator once said, his/her own contribution to aviation safety, Safety is leaving no stone unturned but aviation safety has been built from, to identify threats that may lie hidden on and is continuously enhanced by, the path to safety. Safety enhancement successive building blocks. All of them - Claire NURCOMBE initiatives must involve a mosaic of efforts small or large - contribute to making our ECS Engineer and cooperation programmes. safe aviation transportation system even Customised Systems None of us will ever be able to measure safer. Airbus DeutschlandFAST 37 FAST 37 6 7
  7. 7. AIRBUS CABIN AIR QUALITY - STILL THE BEST! AIRBUS CABIN AIR QUALITY - STILL THE BEST! Current standards with small amounts of other compounds, such as sulphur. Experimental set-up Catalyst Hydrocarbons are a class of com- Ozone Converters (OZC) have pounds made up of hydrogen and been standard equipment for air- carbon combined in molecular Fuel vapour Odourless craft for over 10 years and optional chains. These compounds are pre- molecules molecules equipment for 20 since it was sent in very small amounts, but found necessary to introduce due to the sensitivity of the human ozone removal capability after the nose the cabin occupants can first trans-Pacific flights in the smell them, even down to levels of mid-70s. The OZC is installed as a couple of parts per trillion of the Tapping points standard equipment on A330/A340 compound. Family aircraft and the A380, and is increasingly being chosen as an The catalyst coating is applied to a option for the A320 Family. It was core within the converters body Tapping points were installed In order to test the odour intensity therefore decided to investigate the and oxidizes these odorous com- upstream and downstream of the and hedonic tone (the tone des- possibility of developing a new pounds, resulting in the formation catalyst where air samples could be cribes how pleasant the odour is), catalyst to remove both ozone and of odourless water (H2O) and car- taken (see figure above). as well as the overall perceived air VOCs. Airbus suppliers rose to the bon dioxide (CO2) as reaction quality, test panels made up of challenge and developed a new cat- products (see figures below). Since In a quantitive analysis the iso- members of the public were given alyst to remove these odours, VOCs are present in very low con- alkanes (a specialist term for com- questionnaires to rate how the air which could be combined with the centrations the amount of water pounds consisting of chains of car- smelt upstream and downstream of existing ozone removing catalyst to and carbon dioxide created by the bon molecules) were measured and the catalyst. The panellists had to minimize installation costs and conversion process is small. it could be clearly seen that the rate how strong the odour was at weight impact. longer carbon chains present different concentrations and tem- upstream of the catalyst were being peratures, and also whether it smelt Test methods broken down (see figure below). pleasant or not. After the overall air The conversion This proved that the catalyst was quality was judged by the panel- To investigate the performance of having an effect on the compounds lists they were asked to judge principle the catalyst the VOC containing within the vapour, however this whether they could smell fuel vapours from an aircraft fuel sam- type of analysis does not show odours in the air sample. Catalyst and core structure The VOCs entering the bleed air ple was passed over the catalyst. whether the catalyst was effective- supply via the engines may come VOCs may come from many ly reducing odour. In addition to this human sniff from ground service vehicle sources, however fuel vapour was testing, samples were taken for the exhausts or engine exhausts selected to provide a realistic mix While the chemistry may seem GC-O analysis. For this the air of other aircraft and mostly con- of contaminants that may be pre- simple, the human nose is not and sample is analysed by a GC-MS Nose testing and electronic analysis. sist of hydrocarbons (HC) mixed sent in contaminated airport air. it was necessary to pursue some (gas chromatography - mass spec- With thanks to the Fraunhofer Institute for additional testing to make sure trometry) analyser with a modified Building Physics that the converter was not leading off-take. A GC-MS analysis pre- to more odorous by-products sents the full chemical spectrum Catalytic reaction being produced. To do this human of a sample, allowing the chemist noses were used, as well as elec- to see which individual compounds tronic analysers, in panel tests, are present. The GC-O analyser Percentage difference for iso-alkanes up/down-stream of the catalyst and GC-O (gas chromatography - additionally allows the flavour olfactometry) tests. chemist doing the analysis to Hot bleed air O2 Oxygen O2 H2O * Cx is the number +% Uncoated matrix of carbon atoms Water H2O CO2 present in the carbon chain. H2O Carbon dioxide CO2 Coated matrix -% Odorous hydrocarbons (VOCS) HC Increasing Cx *FAST 37 FAST 37 8 9
  8. 8. AIRBUS CABIN AIR QUALITY - STILL THE BEST! EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION identify the type of odour of the ozone converter equipment, mean- individual odorous compounds. ing minimal weight and mainte- The flavour chemist uses his or her nance impact for operators. trained nose to identify each odor- ous compound and give a descrip- The combined converter has the tion, such as green, citrus, or same maintenance requirements as Combined VOC/Ozone Converter roasty to it. These descriptions can for the ozone converter and the two (VOZC) for A320 then be compared to the known converters are fully interchange- odorous characteristics of chemi- able (although of course the odour cals and the compounds that are removing function is lost if causing the odour can be identified. exchanged for a standard ozone A perceived air quality improve- converter). ment of 80% and a significant reduction in the odour intensity was The modification is optional for confirmed during the testing. A320, A330/A340 families and the A380, although introduction as standard equipment for the A380 is Entry into service planned. The combined Ozone /VOC Converter (VOZC) will also The new odour removing function be standard equipment for future is integrated into the existing The European Airbus programmes. OZC and VOZC data for aircraft programmes Aviation Safety Agency A new regulatory authority for European aviation CONTACT DETAILS The formation of the European Aviation Safety It all started in 1969, when aerospace industry * The AECMA association Claire NURCOMBE has now merged with ECS Engineer Agency (EASA) was the result of a longstand- leaders, conscious of the importance of inter- ing request from European industry, going national co-operation for future aeronautical European trade Customised Systems associations of space and Airbus Deutschland back to 1969. EASA has now been in operation programmes, prompted AECMA, their defence industries to form since October 2003, so this is an appropriate European trade association*, to submit a the Aerospace and Phone: +49 (0)40 743 83293 time to take both a global and a closer look at request to the main European aviation certifi- Defence Industries Fax: +49 (0)40 743 73787 Association of Europe this new institution, see how it is established cation authorities, asking them to cooperate Conclusion claire.nurcombe@airbus.com and understand its role and actions in relation to Airbus products. and adopt common airworthiness certification requirements. (ASD). Still the best! This technology will become standard equipment for future aircraft programmes. Airbus is the first aircraft manufacturer to With the VOZC installed, and improved integrate this technology into their aircraft. cabin air quality on ground for crew and The installation of the combined VOZC is passengers, airlines will soon be smelling Claude Schmitt available as an option for the A320 and the benefits of Airbus dedication to Senior Director Strategies & Policies A330/A340 families and the A380. innovation. Engineering-Product IntegrityFAST 37 FAST 37 10 11
  9. 9. EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION The authorities responded very European aviation safety require- Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) What will EASA do positively and created in 1970 ments (no national differences or and defines the agencys general what would subsequently be called variants), and for a single process organization and tasks. the Joint Aviation Authorities to obtain, from one authority only, (JAA), developing harmonized certificates and approvals having THE OBJECTIVES technical requirements (the Joint full validity throughout Europe. Aviation Requirements - ‘JARs’) The main objective of the Basic with the support and contribution A number of solutions were Regulation is to ensure a high, uni- General scheme of industry expertise. explored and many milestones form, level of safety of civil aviation passed before the governments of in Europe. Additional objectives, in the European Union (EU), in line with general EU objectives and March 2000, finally instructed the principles, have also been added, European Commission to negotiate concerning environment protection, the establishment of a new EU free circulation of products, ser- agency that could provide the vices and persons, improved cost- effective, recognized, single efficiency, assistance to member authority requested by the various states and promotion of European stakeholders concerned with avia- positions concerning aviation safety tion safety regulation. rules and standards. This process was finally completed LEGAL COMPETENCE AND with the adoption, on 15 July 2002, REGULATORY POWER of the regulation ‘on common rules in the field of civil aviation and The legislative level (EU Council establishing a European Aviation and Parliament), through the Basic Safety Agency’ (referred to as the Regulation, defines the scope of • Verification of correct and uni- ‘Basic Regulation’ in the follow- powers being transferred to the form implementation of Basic ing) by the EU Council and Community, adopts the essential Regulation and common rules Parliament.* requirements specifying the objec- by member states What will EASA not do * Regulation (EC) N°1592/2002 of the European However, despite the successive tives to be met, allocates the exec- Parliament and of the Council, on common rules in the scope extensions (maintenance, utive tasks among the executive The decision and plan to transfer field of civil aviation and establishing a European Aviation operations, licences) and proce- The Basic actors, and establishes the means the responsibility on rules govern- Safety Agency (15 July 2002). dural improvements brought into Regulation and of judicial control. At the executive ing aircraft operations and qualifi- the JAA system, it could not be level, standards necessary for the cation of relevant personnel is legally empowered to fulfil the the European implementation of the Basic Regu- already stipulated in the Basic requests for a single set of binding institutional context lation may be adopted by either Regulation, while provision is the European Commission (imple- made for the subsequent transfer of Responsibility splitting between EASA and NAAs Within the framework of existing menting rules) or by EASA (certi- rules concerning safety of air traf- EU treaties and institutions, fication specifications, acceptable fic control and airports (a new EU the Basic Regula- means of compliance). See Parliament and Council decision is tion is setting up the ‘General scheme’. necessary in this case). organization of Community compe- THE TRANSFER OF tence for aviation LEGAL COMPETENCE EASA functions safety. It constitutes a ‘European Avia- Since 28 September 2003, legal EASA is in charge of drafting all tion Safety Act’, competence and power have been future regulations relative to avia- which sets funda- transferred from member states to tion safety (for adoption by EASA mental objectives, the EU for: itself or for submission to European establishes and • Rules governing the Commission orParliament/Council) organizes the exer- airworthiness of aircraft and and is responsible for compliance cise (and, if neces- related products (type design, verification tasks associated with sary, the transfer) of continued airworthiness, some of these regulations. legal competence maintenance organizations and and regulatory pow- personnel) The agency is also responsible for ers on aviation safe- • Compliance determination for the coordination of research on avi- ty matters in the aircraft product designs and ation safety and assists theFAST 37 FAST 37 EU. Finally, it estab- issuance of relevant type European Commission on a num- lishes the European certificates ber of aspects, including the 12 13
  10. 10. EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION EASA - A NEW REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN AVIATION inspections to be conducted in the composed of all professions con- any airworthiness directive affect- EASA organization, the main factors member states to check the uni- cerned - the advisory board, has ing a product and any design orga- form implementation of the regula- been established and is being con- nization approval or change thereof tions in Europe. Some of the tasks sulted regularly by the manage- are now approved under the direct related to the implementation of ment board prior to decisions responsibility of the agency. regulations remain with National affecting interested parties. The Aviation Administrations (NAAs), advisory board may also formulate During the transition phase, until which requires a sharing of respon- positions, requests or proposals on the agency has built up sufficient sibilities between the agency and its own initiative. in-house resources and expertise to these administrations. A summary carry out these tasks entirely on its of what the agency will or will not While recourse to the EU Court of own, EASA will rely on the NAAs do and the sharing of responsibili- Justice always remains possible in which will provide assistance to ties is provided on pages 12 and 13. case of disagreement with an ensure the continuity of certifica- EASA decision, a board of appeal tion tasks during the establishment is established as a built-in appeal phase of EASA. EASA and the The structure process, which provides for a faster NAAs are accordingly negotiating and organization resolution of disputes by indepen- contractual outsourcing arrange- dent experts. ments for this purpose. of EASA EASA is controlled by a manage- The EASA executive director was EASA has joined the JAA organiza- ment board, which comprises repre- recruited in September 2003 by the tion as a member and will represent EASA organization chart sentatives from each of the 25 EU management board, which also EU member states in the JAA sys- member states, from the European endorsed the nominations of the tem, which is still developing oper- Commission and from observers four directors heading the agencys ations and crew licensing rules (non EU member states having main functions (certification, rule- (pending taking over of these negotiated agreements with the EU). making, quality & standardization aspects by EASA). JAA member See EASA membership figure. and administrative) on his proposal. states will accept EASA certifica- EASA is currently pursuing a tions and adopt the same require- In accordance with the Basic recruitment and staffing campaign ments, to avoid any duplication or EASA membership Regulation, a consultative body for its four directorates, and it is divergence. A contract between the expected that, after having reached two organizations also allows a level of around 100 staff at the end EASA to rely on the expertise and of 2004, the agency will expand its experience of the JAA central office resources to around 200 staff by the for a number of regulatory tasks. end of 2005. The agencys final level of staffing should be reached at the end of 2006 (assumed to be The funding approximately 300 persons). of EASA The EASA headquarters moved to The Basic Regulation stipulates Köln in Germany in November that EASA’s budget will be funded 2004 and the agencys organization by resources provided by a contri- and structure are summarized in bution from the EU and by charges the figure on the right. levied from applicants to cover the costs related to its certification and oversight tasks. Transition and relations between The EASA fees and charges sys- charging systems in each of the tem is the subject of a specific reg- member states (from free of charge former JAA/NAAs ulation, which has been adopted by to full cost recovery from appli- system and EASA the European Commission. In cants). An agreement has therefore doing so, the Commission has been been reached with the advisory EASA has taken over member faced with the difficulty of evaluat- board that the EASA fee structure States responsibility for issuing ing the future workload involved and levels will be reconsidered certificates for aeronautical for a number of tasks, and with the annually during the first 4 years. products and organizations. This impossibility of making credible This will be done against the means that since 28 September comparisons with the previous results of a detailed analyticalFAST 37 FAST 37 2003, any product design, any situation characterized by com- accounting system, to examine modification or repair to a product, pletely different cost recovery and the balance between tasks and 14 15

×