http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
OVERVIEW  sole source of S. typhi: human GIT organism is ingested in fecally-  contaminated food or water major virulen...
Clinical Course incubation: averages: 10–14 days                ranges: 3–21 days most prominent symptom:a. prolonged fe...
Etiology Salmonella serotype typhimurium orS. Typhimurium a cytophilic, gram-negative, aerobic,  noncapsulated, non-spor...
Pathogenesis               http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
SYMPTOMS Anorexia Lethargy Body malaise Myalgia, headache Nosebleed Vague abdominal pain and Constipation Mild dia...
PE: Rash ("rose spots"; 30%) Hepatosplenomegaly (3–6%) Epistaxis Relative bradycardia at the peak of high  fever (<50%...
Diagnosis   Any febrile traveler from a developing    region   Rose colored spots on abdomen which    persist for 2-4 da...
DDX: Malaria Hepatitis Bacterial enteritis Dengue fever Leptospirosis Amebic liver abscesses Acute HIV infection   ...
TREATMENT   http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
TreatmentaOr another third-generationcephalosporin [e.g., cefotaxime, 2 g q8h(IV); or cefixime, 400 mg bid (PO)].bOr oflox...
Prevention and Control  travelers to developing countries should be   advised to monitor their food and water   intake ca...
   Salamat…
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Typhoid Fever: Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

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Typhoid Fever: Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

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Typhoid Fever: Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

  1. 1. http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  2. 2. OVERVIEW sole source of S. typhi: human GIT organism is ingested in fecally- contaminated food or water major virulence factor of S. typhi is the Vi antigen Endotoxin is another virulence factor http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  3. 3. Clinical Course incubation: averages: 10–14 days ranges: 3–21 days most prominent symptom:a. prolonged fever (38.8°–40.5°C)b. may continue for up to 4 weeks if untreated http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  4. 4. Etiology Salmonella serotype typhimurium orS. Typhimurium a cytophilic, gram-negative, aerobic, noncapsulated, non-spore-forming, motile rod Presumptive identification-serological tests:1. somatic (0)2. flagellar (H) antigens. http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  5. 5. Pathogenesis http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  6. 6. SYMPTOMS Anorexia Lethargy Body malaise Myalgia, headache Nosebleed Vague abdominal pain and Constipation Mild diarrhea - 20% of patients http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  7. 7. PE: Rash ("rose spots"; 30%) Hepatosplenomegaly (3–6%) Epistaxis Relative bradycardia at the peak of high fever (<50%). Coated tongue (51–56%) Abdominal tenderness (4–5%). http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  8. 8. Diagnosis Any febrile traveler from a developing region Rose colored spots on abdomen which persist for 2-4 days & recur in crops-clue Anemia Leukopenia & neutropenia are detectable & absence of eosinophils Leukocytosis is more common in children, during the 1st 10 days of illness, in intestinal perforation or secondary infection Definitive diagnosis: isolation of S. typhi or S. paratyphi from blood, bone marrow, rose spots, stool, or intestinal secretions http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  9. 9. DDX: Malaria Hepatitis Bacterial enteritis Dengue fever Leptospirosis Amebic liver abscesses Acute HIV infection http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  10. 10. TREATMENT http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  11. 11. TreatmentaOr another third-generationcephalosporin [e.g., cefotaxime, 2 g q8h(IV); or cefixime, 400 mg bid (PO)].bOr ofloxacin, 400 mg bid (PO) for 2–5days.cOr 1 g on day 1 followed by 500 mg/d POfor 6 days. http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  12. 12. Prevention and Control travelers to developing countries should be advised to monitor their food and water intake carefully Typhoid vaccines commercially available:(1) Ty21a, an oral live attenuated S. typhivaccine (given on days 1, 3, 5, and 7, with a booster every 5 years);(2) Vi CPS, a parenteral vaccine consisting of purified Vi polysaccharide from the bacterial capsule (given in 1 dose, with a booster every 2 years). http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
  13. 13.  Salamat…

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